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2 "Mijin Kim"
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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
The Relationship between Thyroid Function and Different Obesity Phenotypes in Korean Euthyroid Adults
Jeong Mi Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Hyungi Lee, Eun Heui Kim, Mijin Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Yong Ki Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):867-878.   Published online April 3, 2019
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  • 71 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

Thyroid disease and metabolic syndrome are both associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between thyroid hormones and obesity sub-phenotypes using nationwide data from Korea, a country known to be iodine replete.


This study was based on data obtained from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, administered from 2013 to 2015. A total of 13,873 participants aged ≥19 years were included, and classified into four groups: metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) by body fat on the basis of body mass index and metabolic health.


At baseline, serum free thyroxine (fT4) values were significantly higher in the MHNO phenotype (MHNO, 1.27±0.01 ng/dL; MHO, 1.25±0.01 ng/dL; MUNO, 1.24±0.01 ng/dL; MUO, 1.24±0.01 ng/dL, P<0.001) in total study population. However, this significant association no longer remained after adjustment for age, urine iodine concentration, and smoking (P=0.085). After adjustment for confounders, statistically significant association was observed between lower thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and MHNO phenotype (P=0.044). In men participants (not women), higher fT4 values were significantly associated with MHNO phenotype (P<0.001). However, no significant association was observed between thyroid function (TSH or fT4) and obesity phenotypes in groups classified by age (cutoff age of 55 years).


Although there was a difference by age and sex, we found that the decrease of TSH and the increase of fT4 values were associated with MHNO.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Yingkun Qiu, Qinyu Liu, Yinghua Luo, Jiadi Chen, Qingzhu Zheng, Yuping Xie, Yingping Cao
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between thyroid function and obesity phenotypes in healthy euthyroid individuals: an investigation based on Tehran Thyroid Study
    Behnaz Abiri, Amirhossein Ramezani Ahmadi, Maryam Mahdavi, Atieh Amouzegar, Majid Valizadeh
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of the metabolically unhealthy phenotype in menopausal resistance training practitioners
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    Nutrición Hospitalaria.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Endocrine.2023; 84(2): 320.     CrossRef
  • Higher Sensitivity to Thyroid Hormones May Be Linked to Maintaining the Healthy Metabolic Condition in People with Obesity: New Insight from NHANES
    Ying-shan Liu, Xiao-cong Liu, Jian Kuang, Hai-xia Guan
    Obesity Facts.2023; 16(5): 497.     CrossRef
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  • Sex-specific Association of Subclinical Hypothyroidism With Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-based Cohort Study
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    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022; 107(6): e2365.     CrossRef
  • Determination of age and sex specific TSH and FT4 reference limits in overweight and obese individuals in an iodine-replete region: Tehran Thyroid Study (TTS)
    Hengameh Abdi, Bita Faam, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Ladan Mehran, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi, Atieh Amouzegar
    Endocrine Research.2021; 46(1): 37.     CrossRef
  • Association of Metabolic Obesity Phenotypes and Total Testosterone in Chinese Male Population
    Luna Liu, Shuang Liu, Qianmei Song, Dandan Luo, Yu Su, Xiangyu Qi, Qian Wang, Jing Ning, Youyuan Lv, Qingbo Guan
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2021; Volume 14: 399.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Resistance in Association with Thyroid Function, Psychoemotional State, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    Nijole Kazukauskiene, Aurelija Podlipskyte, Giedrius Varoneckas, Narseta Mickuviene
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3388.     CrossRef
  • Association between different obesity phenotypes and hypothyroidism: a study based on a longitudinal health management cohort
    Yupeng Wang, Haiyan Lin, Qihang Li, Liying Guan, Meng Zhao, Fang Zhong, Jing Liu, Zhongshang Yuan, Honglin Guo, Yongfeng Song, Ling Gao, Jiajun Zhao
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  • Causal Association Between Serum Thyrotropin and Obesity: A Bidirectional, Mendelian Randomization Study
    Xichang Wang, Xiaotong Gao, Yutong Han, Fan Zhang, Zheyu Lin, Hong Wang, Weiping Teng, Zhongyan Shan
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2021; 106(10): e4251.     CrossRef
  • Effect of body mass index on peak growth hormone level after growth hormone stimulation test in children with short stature
    Na Yeong Lee, Sung Eun Kim, Seulki Kim, Moon Bae Ahn, Shin Hee Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2021; 26(3): 192.     CrossRef
  • Interaction effect of obesity and thyroid autoimmunity on the prevalence of hyperthyrotropinaemia
    Xiaoyong Guo, Zhao He, Shanshan Shao, Yilin Fu, Dongmei Zheng, Lu Liu, Ling Gao, Liying Guan, Meng Zhao, Jiajun Zhao
    Endocrine.2020; 68(3): 573.     CrossRef
  • The role of thyroid hormone in metabolism and metabolic syndrome
    Patrícia de Fátima dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Borges dos Santos, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura
    Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 11: 204201882091786.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Serum Thyroid Hormones in Different Metabolic Phenotypes of Obesity
    Xiaomin Nie, Xiaojing Ma, Yiting Xu, Yun Shen, Yufei Wang, Yuqian Bao
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade on VEGF Expression in Diabetic Nephropathy.
Myoungsook Shim, Mijin Kim, Munkyu Kim, Hyunjin Chang, Younggoo Shin, Junam Kim, Jaeman Song, Hosuk Kang, Eunyoung Lee, Kihak Song, Choonhee Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(2):106-114.   Published online April 1, 2003
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  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications of diabetes, and is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy, which can be blocked by ACE inhibitors, but its precise role in diabetic nephropathy is uncertain. METHODS: 32 eight week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were prepared, of which 16 were chosen for injection with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) into the peritoneal cavity, with the goal of inducing diabetes. One week later, the peripheral blood sugar, taken from the tail vein was checked. A glucose level exceeding 200 mg/dL was taken as evidence of diabetes. The rats were divided into 4 groups of 8. Group I served as a control. Group II was treated with angiotensin II receptor blockade (L-158,809, 5 mg/kg/day, in drinking water). Group III consisted of diabetic rats and group IV diabetic rats treated with the same angiotensin II receptor blockade (L-158,809). At the beginning of the experiment and on 8th and 12th weeks, 24-hour urine protein and body weight checks were performed. At the end of the study, I extracted kidney and the glomerular volumes and optical densities of the VEGF expression in the glomeruli compared. RESULTS: The basal characteristics were initially the same. However, on weeks 8 and 12 the amount of 24-hour urine protein had increased in groups III and IV (p<0.05). By week 12, it was noticeably greater in group III than in group IV (p<0.05). The glomerular volume was also greater in groups III and IV (p<0.05). Optical density of the VEGF in the glomeruli had increased more in group III than in groups I, II and IV (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: VEGF plays a precise role in diabetic nephropathy, and angiotensin II receptor blockade can reduce diabetic nephropathy by suppressing the expression of VEGF.

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