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59 "Kyung Mook Choi"
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Original Article
Drug/Regimen
Efficacy and Safety of Alogliptin-Pioglitazone Combination for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Poorly Controlled with Metformin: A Multicenter, Double-Blind Randomized Trial
Ji-Yeon Park, Joonyub Lee, Yoon-Hee Choi, Kyung Wan Min, Kyung Ah Han, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Soo Lim, Young-Hyun Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Mook Choi, Kun-Ho Yoon, the Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Combination Therapy in Korea (PEAK) study investigators
Received August 7, 2023  Accepted November 30, 2023  Published online April 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0259    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Guidelines for switching to triple combination therapy directly after monotherapy failure are limited. This study investigated the efficacy, long-term sustainability, and safety of either mono or dual add-on therapy using alogliptin and pioglitazone for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who did not achieve their target glycemic range with metformin monotherapy.
Methods
The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Combination Therapy in Korea (PEAK) was a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. A total of 214 participants were randomized to receive alogliptin+pioglitazone (Alo+Pio group, n=70), alogliptin (Alo group, n=75), or pioglitazone (Pio group, n=69). The primary outcome was the difference in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels between the three groups at baseline to 24 weeks. For durability, the achievement of HbA1c levels <7% and <6.5% was compared in each group. The number of adverse events was investigated for safety.
Results
After 24 weeks of treatment, the change of HbA1c in the Alo+Pio, Alo, and Pio groups were –1.38%±0.08%, –1.03%±0.08%, and –0.84%±0.08%, respectively. The Alo+Pio group had significantly lower HbA1c levels than the other groups (P=0.0063, P<0.0001) and had a higher proportion of patients with target HbA1c achievement. In addition, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, lipid profiles, and other metabolic indicators were also improved. There were no significant safety issues in patients treated with triple combination therapy.
Conclusion
Early combination triple therapy showed better efficacy and durability than the single add-on (dual) therapy. Therefore, combination therapy with metformin, alogliptin, and pioglitazone is a valuable early treatment option for T2DM poorly controlled with metformin monotherapy.
Review
Pathophysiology
Attention to Innate Circadian Rhythm and the Impact of Its Disruption on Diabetes
Da Young Lee, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):37-52.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0193
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Novel strategies are required to reduce the risk of developing diabetes and/or clinical outcomes and complications of diabetes. In this regard, the role of the circadian system may be a potential candidate for the prevention of diabetes. We reviewed evidence from animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies linking the circadian system to various aspects of the pathophysiology and clinical outcomes of diabetes. The circadian clock governs genetic, metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral signals in anticipation of cyclic 24-hour events through interactions between a “central clock” in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and “peripheral clocks” in the whole body. Currently, circadian rhythmicity in humans can be subjectively or objectively assessed by measuring melatonin and glucocorticoid levels, core body temperature, peripheral blood, oral mucosa, hair follicles, rest-activity cycles, sleep diaries, and circadian chronotypes. In this review, we summarized various circadian misalignments, such as altered light-dark, sleep-wake, rest-activity, fasting-feeding, shift work, evening chronotype, and social jetlag, as well as mutations in clock genes that could contribute to the development of diabetes and poor glycemic status in patients with diabetes. Targeting critical components of the circadian system could deliver potential candidates for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the future.
Original Article
Technology/Device
Clinical and Lifestyle Determinants of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Metrics in Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Da Young Lee, Namho Kim, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Jihee Kim, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sung-Min Park, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):826-836.   Published online August 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0273
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There was limited evidence to evaluate the association between lifestyle habits and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics. Thus, we aimed to depict the behavioral and metabolic determinants of CGM metrics in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This is a prospective observational study. We analyzed data from 122 insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Participants wore Dexcom G6 and Fitbit, and diet information was identified for 10 days. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed for the simultaneous achievement of CGM-based targets, defined by the percentage of time in terms of hyper, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability (GV). Intake of macronutrients and fiber, step counts, sleep, postprandial C-peptide-to-glucose ratio (PCGR), information about glucose lowering medications and metabolic factors were added to the analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of the distribution of energy and macronutrient during a day, and snack consumption on CGM metrics.
Results
Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, participants with high PCGR, low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daytime step count had a higher probability of achieving all targets based on CGM (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] which were 0.24 [0.09 to 0.65], 1.34 [1.03 to 1.25], 0.95 [0.9 to 0.99], and 1.15 [1.03 to 1.29], respectively). And participants who ate snacks showed a shorter period of hyperglycemia and less GV compared to those without.
Conclusion
We confirmed that residual insulin secretion, daytime step count, HbA1c, and women were the most relevant determinants of adequate glycemic control in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. In addition, individuals with snack consumption were exposed to lower times of hyperglycemia and GV.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Explanatory variables of objectively measured 24-h movement behaviors in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Lotte Bogaert, Iris Willems, Patrick Calders, Eveline Dirinck, Manon Kinaupenne, Marga Decraene, Bruno Lapauw, Boyd Strumane, Margot Van Daele, Vera Verbestel, Marieke De Craemer
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2024; 18(4): 102995.     CrossRef
Review
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association and Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society of Heart Failure
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):10-26.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0420
  • 4,295 View
  • 409 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. Furthermore, the prognosis of heart failure is worse in patients with diabetes mellitus than in those without it. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper management of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus are important. This review discusses the current criteria for diagnosis and screening tools for heart failure and the currently recommended pharmacological therapies for heart failure. We also highlight the effects of anti-diabetic medications on heart failure.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label Study to Compare the Effects of Gemigliptin Add-on or Escalation of Metformin Dose on Glycemic Control and Safety in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Metformin and SGLT-2 Inh
    Hae Jin Kim, Jung Hyun Noh, Min Kyong Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko, Eun-Jung Rhee, Kyu Yeon Hur, In-Kyung Jeong, Mark Yorek
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the effects of gemigliptin versus glimepiride on cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin: The gemi‐heart study
    Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon, Jun Hwa Hong, In‐Chang Hwang, Soo Lim
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  • Optimization of guideline-directed medical treatment for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction
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Original Articles
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Diabetes Fact Sheet in Korea 2021
Jae Hyun Bae, Kyung-Do Han, Seung-Hyun Ko, Ye Seul Yang, Jong Han Choi, Kyung Mook Choi, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kyu Chang Won, on Behalf of the Committee of Media-Public Relation of the Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):417-426.   Published online May 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0106
  • 13,612 View
  • 1,652 Download
  • 76 Web of Science
  • 99 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of diabetes mellitus, risk-factor control, and comorbidities among Korean adults.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the prevalence, treatment, risk factors, comorbidities, and self-management behaviors of diabetes mellitus from 2019 to 2020. We also analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to evaluate the use of antidiabetic medications in people with diabetes mellitus from 2002 through 2018.
Results
Among Korean adults aged 30 years or older, the estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.7% in 2020. From 2019 through 2020, 65.8% of adults with diabetes mellitus were aware of the disease and treated with antidiabetic medications. The percentage of adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% was 24.5% despite the increased use of new antidiabetic medications. We found that adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved all three goals of HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure (BP) <140/85 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL were 9.7%. The percentage of self-management behaviors was lower in men than women. Excess energy intake was observed in 16.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Korean adults remained high. Only 9.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus achieved all glycemic, BP, and lipid controls from 2019 to 2020. Continuous evaluation of national diabetes statistics and a national effort to increase awareness of diabetes mellitus and improve comprehensive diabetes care are needed.

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Others
Fasting Glucose Variability and the Risk of Dementia in Individuals with Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Da Young Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Sanghyun Park, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyungdo Han, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):923-935.   Published online May 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0346
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated whether fasting glucose (FG) variability could predict the risk of dementia.
Methods
This cohort study analyzed data from Koreans with diabetes after at least three health examinations by the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation between 2005 and 2010, which included at least one examination between 2009 and 2010. A total of 769,554 individuals were included, excluding those aged <40 years and those with dementia. FG variability was measured using the variability independent of the mean (FG-VIM). The incidence of dementia was defined by the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes and prescription of anti-dementia medication and was subdivided into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD).
Results
During the 6.9-year follow-up, 54,837, 41,032, and 6,892 cases of all-cause dementia, AD, and VD, respectively, were identified. Cox proportional regression analyses showed that as the FG-VIM quartile increased, the risk of dementia serially increased after adjustment for metabolic factors, income status, and diabetes-related characteristics, including the mean FG. Participants in FG-VIM quartile 4 showed a 18%, 19%, and 17% higher risk for all-cause dementia, AD, and VD, respectively, than those in quartile 1; this particularly included non-obese patients with a longer duration of diabetes, high FG levels, dyslipidemia, and those taking glucose-lowering medications. Conversely, the baseline FG status and dementia showed a U-shaped association.
Conclusion
Increased FG variability over 5 years can predict the risk of dementia in individuals with diabetes in Korea. This finding was more pronounced in patients with less favorable metabolic profiles.

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    Sung Hoon Kang, Yunjin Choi, Su Jin Chung, Seok-Joo Moon, Chi Kyung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Kyungmi Oh, Joon Shik Yoon, Sang Won Seo, Geum Joon Cho, Seong-Beom Koh
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Short Communication
Technology/Device
Comparison of Laser and Conventional Lancing Devices for Blood Glucose Measurement Conformance and Patient Satisfaction in Diabetes Mellitus
Jung A Kim, Min Jeong Park, Eyun Song, Eun Roh, So Young Park, Da Young Lee, Jaeyoung Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):936-940.   Published online March 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0293
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose is important for controlling diabetes. Recently, a laser lancing device (LMT-1000) that can collect capillary blood without skin puncture was developed. We enrolled 150 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood sampling was performed on the same finger on each hand using the LMT-1000 or a conventional lancet. The primary outcome was correlation between glucose values using the LMT-1000 and that using a lancet. And we compared the pain and satisfaction of the procedures. The capillary blood sampling success rates with the LMT-1000 and lancet were 99.3% and 100%, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r=0.974, P<0.001) between mean blood glucose levels in the LMT-1000 (175.8±63.0 mg/dL) and conventional lancet samples (172.5±63.6 mg/dL). LMT-1000 reduced puncture pain by 75.0% and increased satisfaction by 80.0% compared to a lancet. We demonstrated considerable consistency in blood glucose measurements between samples from the LMT-1000 and a lancet, but improved satisfaction and clinically significant pain reduction were observed with the LMT-1000 compared to those with a lancet.

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  • Comparison between a laser-lancing device and automatic incision lancet for capillary blood sampling from the heel of newborn infants: a randomized feasibility trial
    Chul Kyu Yun, Eui Kyung Choi, Hyung Jin Kim, Jaeyoung Kim, Byung Cheol Park, Kyuhee Park, Byung Min Choi
    Journal of Perinatology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and All-Cause Mortality according to Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in the Elderly, a Nationwide Study
You-Bin Lee, Minji Koo, Eunjin Noh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, Eun Roh, So-hyeon Hong, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):722-732.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0225
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We assessed the myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause death risks during follow-up according to the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among older adults.
Methods
The Korean National Health Insurance Service datasets (2002 to 2020) were used for this population-based cohort study. The hazards of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality during follow-up were analyzed according to LDL-C level in individuals aged ≥65 years without baseline cardiovascular diseases (n=1,391,616).
Results
During a mean 7.55 years, 52,753 MIs developed; 84,224 strokes occurred over a mean 7.47 years. After a mean 8.50 years, 233,963 died. A decrease in LDL-C was associated with lower hazards of MI and stroke. The decreased hazard of stroke in lower LDL-C was more pronounced in statin users, and individuals with diabetes or obesity. The hazard of all-cause death during follow-up showed an inverted J-shaped pattern according to the LDL-C levels. However, the paradoxically increased hazard of mortality during follow-up in lower LDL-C was attenuated in statin users and individuals with diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In statin users, lower LDL-C was associated with a decreased hazard of mortality during follow-up.
Conclusion
Among the elderly, lower LDL-C was associated with decreased risks of MI and stroke. Lower LDL-C achieved by statins in the elderly was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause death during follow-up, suggesting that LDL-C paradox for the premature death risk in the elderly should not be applied to statin users. Intensive statin therapy should not be hesitated for older adults with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes.

Citations

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  • Combination of low- or moderate-intensity statin and ezetimibe vs. high-intensity statin monotherapy on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death: a propensity-matched nationwide cohort study
    Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeong Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, You-Cheol Hwang
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    Chin-Huan Chang, Shu-Tin Yeh, Seng-Wei Ooi, Chung-Yi Li, Hua-Fen Chen
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    Xiao-Dong Deng, Jian-Lin Ke, Tai-Yu Chen, Qin Gao, Zhuo-Lin Zhao, Wei Zhang, Huan Liu, Ming-Liang Xiang, Li-Zhen Wang, Ying Ma, Yun Liu
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    Kyuho Kim, Henry N. Ginsberg, Sung Hee Choi
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    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
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Special Editorial
Diabetes and Metabolism Journal in 2022: The Flywheel Effect for DMJ
Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):1-2.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0348
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Review
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors and Cardiometabolic Outcomes
Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):49-62.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0316
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Despite strenuous efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by improving cardiometabolic risk factors, such as glucose and cholesterol levels, and blood pressure, there is still residual risk even in patients reaching treatment targets. Recently, researchers have begun to focus on the variability of metabolic variables to remove residual risks. Several clinical trials and cohort studies have reported a relationship between the variability of metabolic parameters and CVDs. Herein, we review the literature regarding the effect of metabolic factor variability and CVD risk, and describe possible mechanisms and potential treatment perspectives for reducing cardiometabolic risk factor variability.

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Short Communication
Basic Research
GPR40 Agonism Modulates Inflammatory Reactions in Vascular Endothelial Cells
Joo Won Kim, Eun Roh, Kyung Mook Choi, Hye Jin Yoo, Hwan-Jin Hwang, Sei Hyun Baik
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):506-511.   Published online January 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0092
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Endothelial dysfunction is strongly linked with inflammatory responses, which can impact cardiovascular disease. Recently, G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) has been investigated as a modulator of metabolic stress; however, the function of GPR40 in vascular endothelial cells has not been reported. We analyzed whether treatment of GPR40-specific agonists modulated the inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with LY2922470, a GPR40 agonist, significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation and movement into the nucleus from the cytosol. However, treatment with another GPR40 agonist, TAK875, did not inhibit LPS-induced NF-κB activation. LPS treatment induced expression of adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and attachment of THP-1 cells to HUVECs, which were all decreased by LY2922470 but not TAK875. Our results showed that ligand-dependent agonism of GPR40 is a promising therapeutic target for overcoming inflammatory reactions in the endothelium.

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Response
Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:368-78)
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):617-618.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0152
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Citations

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  • The effect of close and intensive therapeutic monitoring of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes with different glycemic background
    Ayşe Naciye Erbakan, Müzeyyen Arslan Bahadir, Fatoş Nimet Kaya, Büşra Güleç, Miraç Vural Keskinler, Özge Faydaliel, Banu Mesçi, Aytekin Oğuz
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Original Articles
Complications
Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):368-378.   Published online October 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0046
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate the association of time to reach the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with long-term durable glycemic control and risk of diabetic complications in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
In a longitudinal observational cohort, 194 patients with T2DM newly diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013 were followed up over 6 years. Patients were classified according to the time needed to reach the target HbA1c (<7.0%): <3, 3 to 6 (early achievement group), and ≥6 months (late achievement group). Risks of microvascular complications including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy as well as macrovascular events including ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis.
Results
During a median follow-up of 6.53 years, 66 microvascular and 14 macrovascular events occurred. Maintenance of durable glycemic control over 6 years was more likely in the early achievement groups than in the late achievement group (34.5%, 30.0%, and 16.1% in <3, 3 to 6, and ≥6 months, respectively, P=0.039). Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with lower risk of composite diabetic complications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.86 in <3 months group) (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.23 to 1.10 in 3 to 6 months group, in reference to ≥6 months group). Similar trends were maintained for risks of microvascular and macrovascular complications, although statistical significance was not reached for macrovascular complications.
Conclusion
Early target HbA1c achievement was associated with long-term durable glycemic control and reduced risk of diabetic complications in newly diagnosed T2DM.

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    Ja Young Jeon
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  • Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:368-78)
    Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Age- and Sex-Related Differential Associations between Body Composition and Diabetes Mellitus
Eun Roh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, You-Bin Lee, So-hyeon Hong, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):183-194.   Published online June 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0171
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  • 3 Web of Science
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

The age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.

Methods

The fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.

Results

In multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.

Conclusion

Both FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.

Citations

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Review
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Byung-Wan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Bong-Soo Cha, Dae Ho Lee, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) Fatty Liver Research Group
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):382-401.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal