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Original Articles
The Glycated Albumin to Glycated Hemoglobin Ratio Might Not Be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
Wonjin Kim, Kwang Joon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):456-463.   Published online December 15, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.6.456
  • 4,084 View
  • 33 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The ratio of glycated albumin to glycated hemoglobin (GA/A1c) is known to be elevated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had decreased insulin secretion. Additionally, the carotid intima media thickness (IMT) is greater in T2DM patients with higher GA/A1c ratios. We investigated whether increased GA/A1c ratio and IMT are also associated in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which is characterized by lack of insulin secretory capacity.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 81 T1DM patients (33 men, 48 women; mean age 44.1±13.0 years) who underwent carotid IMT, GA, and HbA1c measurements.

Results

The mean GA/A1c ratio was 2.90. Based on these results, we classified the subjects into two groups: group I (GA/A1c ratio <2.90, n=36) and group II (GA/A1c ratio ≥2.90, n=45). Compared with group I, the body mass indexes (BMIs), waist circumferences, and IMTs were lower in group II. GA/A1c ratio was negatively correlated with BMI, urine albumin to creatinine ratio (P<0.001 for both), and both the mean and maximal IMT (P=0.001, both). However, after adjusting the confounding factors, we observed that IMT was no longer associated with GA/A1c ratio.

Conclusion

In contrast to T2DM, IMT was not significantly related to GA/A1c ratio in the subjects with T1DM. This suggests that the correlations between GA/A1c ratio and the parameters known to be associated with atherosclerosis in T2DM could be manifested differently in T1DM. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in T1DM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Glycated Albumin and Glycated Albumin/HbA1c Predict the Progression of Coronavirus Disease 2019 from Mild to Severe Disease in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Jeongseon Yoo, Youngah Choi, Shin Ae Park, Ji Yeon Seo, Chul Woo Ahn, Jaehyun Han
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(9): 2327.     CrossRef
  • Variability in glycated albumin levels predicts the progression of diabetic nephropathy
    Su Bin Park, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Yoon Jeong Nam, Kang Hee Ahn, Jong Ho Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Bo Hyun Kim, Sang Heon Song, Ihm Soo Kwak, Eun Kyung Lee, Yong Ki Kim
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2017; 31(6): 1041.     CrossRef
  • Significant liver fibrosis assessed using liver transient elastography is independently associated with low bone mineral density in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Gyuri Kim, Kwang Joon Kim, Yumie Rhee, Sung-Kil Lim, Salvatore Petta
    PLOS ONE.2017; 12(7): e0182202.     CrossRef
  • Determinants of Preclinical Atherosclerosis Are Different in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic Women
    P. PIŤHOVÁ, K. ŠTECHOVÁ, J. PIŤHA, V. LÁNSKÁ, M. KVAPIL
    Physiological Research.2016; : 219.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics Predictive for a Successful Switch from Insulin Analogue Therapy to Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Gyuri Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2016; 57(6): 1395.     CrossRef
  • Visceral adiposity is associated with altered myocardial glucose uptake measured by 18FDG-PET in 346 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes
    Gyuri Kim, Kwanhyeong Jo, Kwang Joon Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Eugene Han, Hye-jin Yoon, Hye Jin Wang, Eun Seok Kang, Mijin Yun
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Glycated albumin and the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications in subjects with Type 1 Diabetes
    Hye-jin Yoon, Yong-ho Lee, So Ra Kim, Tyler Hyungtaek Rim, Eun Young Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Candidate Pairs of Hydrolytic Enzymes for Spectrophotometric-dual-enzyme-simultaneous-assay
    Hongbo Liu, Mei Yuan, Xiaolan Yang, Xiaolei Hu, Juan Liao, Jizheng Dang, Yanling Xie, Jun Pu, Yuanli Li, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fei Liao
    Analytical Sciences.2015; 31(5): 421.     CrossRef
  • Glycated Albumin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Increase Relative to HbA1cwith Time
    Hye-jin Yoon, Yong-ho Lee, Kwang Joon Kim, So Ra Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
    BioMed Research International.2015; 2015: 1.     CrossRef
  • Association of hemoglobin A1c and glycated albumin with carotid atherosclerosis in community-dwelling Japanese subjects: the Hisayama Study
    Naoko Mukai, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Jun Hata, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Fumie Ikeda, Masayo Fukuhara, Taeko Hotta, Masafumi Koga, Udai Nakamura, Dongchon Kang, Takanari Kitazono, Yutaka Kiyohara
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
Glycemic Effectiveness of Metformin-Based Dual-Combination Therapies with Sulphonylurea, Pioglitazone, or DPP4-Inhibitor in Drug-Naïve Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Young Ki Lee, Sun Ok Song, Kwang Joon Kim, Yongin Cho, Younjeong Choi, Yujung Yun, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun-Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):465-474.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.465
  • 5,043 View
  • 67 Download
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study compared the glycemic effectiveness of three metformin-based dual therapies according to baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to evaluate the appropriateness of the guideline enforced by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea for initial medication of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods

This prospective observational study was conducted across 24 weeks for drug-naïve Korean T2D patients with HbA1c greater than 7.5%. Subjects were first divided into three groups based on the agent combined with metformin (group 1, gliclazide-modified release or glimepiride; group 2, pioglitazone; group 3, sitagliptin). Subjects were also classified into three categories according to baseline HbA1c (category I, 7.5%≤HbA1c<9.0%; category II, 9.0%≤HbA1c<11.0%; category III, 11.0%≤HbA1c).

Results

Among 116 subjects, 99 subjects completed the study, with 88 subjects maintaining the initial medication. While each of the metformin-based dual therapies showed a significant decrease in HbA1c (group 1, 8.9% to 6.4%; group 2, 9.0% to 6.6%; group 3, 9.3% to 6.3%; P<0.001 for each), there was no significant difference in the magnitude of HbA1c change among the groups. While the three HbA1c categories showed significantly different baseline HbA1c levels (8.2% vs. 9.9% vs. 11.9%; P<0.001), endpoint HbA1c was not different (6.4% vs. 6.6% vs. 6.0%; P=0.051).

Conclusion

The three dual therapies using a combination of metformin and either sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin showed similar glycemic effectiveness among drug-naïve Korean T2D patients. In addition, these regimens were similarly effective across a wide range of baseline HbA1c levels.

Citations

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    Xueqin Xie, Changchun Wu, Yuduo Hao, Tianyu Wang, Yuhe Yang, Peiling Cai, Yang Zhang, Jian Huang, Kejun Deng, Dan Yan, Hao Lin
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Arshiya Shadab, Ilma Hussain, Praveen Kumar Kandakurti, Marwan Ismail, Ahmed Luay Osman Hashim, Salah Eldin Omar Hussein, Altoum Abd Elgadir
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  • Acarbose Add-on Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Metformin and Sitagliptin Failure: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
    Hae Kyung Yang, Seung-Hwan Lee, Juyoung Shin, Yoon-Hee Choi, Yu-Bae Ahn, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Jung Rhee, Kyung Wan Min, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(3): 287.     CrossRef
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    Manoj Chawla, Tae Ho Kim, Roberto C. Mirasol, Pathan Faruque, Kathryn Cooke, Peggy Hours-Zesiger, Abhijit Shete
    Current Medical Research and Opinion.2018; 34(9): 1605.     CrossRef
  • Consensus recommendations on sulfonylurea and sulfonylurea combinations in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus – International Task Force
    Sanjay Kalra, Silver Bahendeka, Rakesh Sahay, Sujoy Ghosh, Fariduddin Md, Abbas Orabi, Kaushik Ramaiya, Sameer Al Shammari, Dina Shrestha, Khalid Shaikh, Sachitha Abhayaratna, PradeepK Shrestha, Aravinthan Mahalingam, Mazen Askheta, AlyAhmed A. Rahim, Fat
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  • Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin/metformin fixed‐dose combination compared with glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes: A multicenter randomized double‐blind study
    Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Kwang Jae Lee, Jeong Hyun Park, Young Il Kim, Young Sil Lee, Sung Chang Chung, Sang Jin Lee
    Journal of Diabetes.2017; 9(4): 412.     CrossRef
  • Short‐term intensive insulin therapy could be the preferred option for new onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with HbA1c > 9%
    Jianping Weng
    Journal of Diabetes.2017; 9(10): 890.     CrossRef
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    Gyuri Kim, Sewon Oh, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy.2017; 18(12): 1179.     CrossRef
  • Effects of pioglitazone therapy on blood parameters, weight and BMI: a meta-analysis
    Elena Filipova, Katya Uzunova, Krassimir Kalinov, Toni Vekov
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Zachary Bloomgarden
    Journal of Diabetes.2017; 9(9): 814.     CrossRef
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    Nasser Aghamohammadzadeh, Mitra Niafar, Elham Dalir Abdolahinia, Farzad Najafipour, Saeed Mohamadzadeh Gharebaghi, Khadijeh Adabi, Elaheh Dalir Abdolahinia, Hamidreza Ahadi
    Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism.2015; 6(2): 56.     CrossRef
  • Glycated Albumin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Increase Relative to HbA1cwith Time
    Hye-jin Yoon, Yong-ho Lee, Kwang Joon Kim, So Ra Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
    BioMed Research International.2015; 2015: 1.     CrossRef
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    Eu Jeong Ku, Kyong Yeon Jung, Yoon Ji Kim, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Young Min Cho, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim, Bo Ahrén, Giorgio Sesti
    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(6): e0129477.     CrossRef
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    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sen Shi, Swayam Prakash Srivastava, Megumi Kanasaki, Jianhua He, Munehiro Kitada, Takako Nagai, Kyoko Nitta, Susumu Takagi, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
    Kidney International.2015; 88(3): 479.     CrossRef
  • Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: New among Antidiabetic Drugs
    L. H. Opie
    Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy.2014; 28(4): 331.     CrossRef
  • Metformin Based Dual-Combination Therapies in Drug Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Dong-Lim Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(6): 429.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Low Density Lipoprotein Particle Size in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Already under Statin Therapy
Myung Won Lee, Jeong Kyung Park, Jae Won Hong, Kwang Joon Kim, Dong Yeob Shin, Chul Woo Ahn, Young Duk Song, Hong Keun Cho, Seok Won Park, Eun Jig Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(3):207-211.   Published online June 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.3.207
  • 4,128 View
  • 46 Download
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Beyond statin therapy for reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve more optimal reduction in cardiovascular risk among diabetic patients with dyslipidemia. To evaluate the effects and the safety of combined treatment with omega-3 fatty acids and statin in dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes, we conducted a randomized, open-label study in Korea. Patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dL) while taking statin for at least 6 weeks were eligible. Fifty-one patients were randomized to receive either omega-3 fatty acid 4, 2 g, or no drug for 8 weeks while continuing statin therapy. After 8 weeks of treatment, the mean percentage change of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and triglyceride (TG) level was greater in patients who were prescribed 4 g of omega-3 fatty acid with statin than in patients receiving statin monotherapy (2.8%±3.1% vs. 2.3%±3.6%, P=0.024; -41.0%±24.1% vs. -24.2%±31.9%, P=0.049). Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with statin increased LDL particle size and decreased TG level in dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes. The therapy was well tolerated without significant adverse effects.

Citations

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    Endocrine Regulations.2022; 56(1): 66.     CrossRef
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Responses
Response: The Risk of Bladder Cancer in Korean Diabetic Subjects Treated with Pioglitazone (Diabetes Metab J 2012;36:371-8)
Kwang Joon Kim, Sun Ok Song, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(1):83-84.   Published online February 15, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.1.83
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  • 27 Download
PDFPubReader   
Response: The Risk of Bladder Cancer in Korean Diabetic Subjects Treated with Pioglitazone (Diabetes Metab J 2012;36:371-8)
Sun Ok Song, Kwang Joon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):462-463.   Published online December 12, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.6.462
  • 2,567 View
  • 25 Download
  • 1 Crossref
PDFPubReader   

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of the effect between pioglitazone and metformin in treating patients with PCOS:a meta-analysis
    Yifeng Xu, Yanxiang Wu, Qin Huang
    Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2017; 296(4): 661.     CrossRef
Original Article
The Risk of Bladder Cancer in Korean Diabetic Subjects Treated with Pioglitazone
Sun Ok Song, Kwang Joon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(5):371-378.   Published online October 18, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.5.371
  • 4,066 View
  • 30 Download
  • 30 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There is growing concern regarding the increased incidence of bladder cancer in diabetic patients using pioglitazone. This study aimed to investigate the association between bladder cancer and the use of pioglitazone in Korean diabetics.

Methods

This retrospective, matched case-control study included a case group (n=329) of diabetic patients with bladder cancer who presented at the Severance Hospital from November 2005 to June 2011. The control group consisted of patients without bladder cancer (1:2 ratio matching for sex and age, n=658) who were listed on the Severance Hospital diabetes registry.

Results

The percentage of subjects who had ever used pioglitazone was significantly lower in the case group than in the control group (6.4% vs. 15.0%, P<0.001). Multivariate conditional logistic analysis revealed that independent factors affecting bladder cancer were smoking (odds ratio [OR], 11.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.56 to 20.66; P<0.001), coexisting cancer (OR, 6.11; 95% CI, 2.25 to 16.63; P<0.001), and hemoglobin levels (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.88; P<0.001). The OR of the history of pioglitazone use was 2.09 and was not significantly different between the two groups (95% CI, 0.26 to 16.81; P=0.488).

Conclusion

A relationship between pioglitazone use and incidence of bladder cancer was not observed in Korean diabetic patients. This suggests that the risk for bladder cancer in Korean diabetic subjects treated with pioglitazone might be different from that of Caucasian populations. Large-scale, well-designed and multi-center studies are needed to further evaluate this relationship.

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Review
The Roles of Glycated Albumin as Intermediate Glycation Index and Pathogenic Protein
Kwang Joon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(2):98-107.   Published online April 17, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.2.98
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The conventional glycemic indices used in management of diabetic patients includes A1c, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and glycated albumin (GA). Among these indices, A1c is currently used as the gold standard. However, A1c cannot reflect the glycemic change over a relatively short period of time, and its accuracy is known to decrease when abnormalities in hemoglobin metabolism, such as anemia, coexist. When considering these weaknesses, there have been needs for finding a novel glycemic index for diagnosing and managing diabetes, as well as for predicting diabetic complications properly. Recently, several studies have suggested the potential of GA as an intermediate-term glycation index in covering the short-term effect of treatment. Furthermore, its role as a pathogenic protein affecting the worsening of diabetes and occurrence of diabetic complications is receiving attention as well. Therefore, in this article, we wanted to review the recent status of GA as a glycemic index and as a pathogenic protein.

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Original Article
Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes
Seo Hee Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Hee Kwan Won, Jae Hoon Moon, Kwang Joon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):404-410.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.404
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Recent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG) had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.

Methods

In a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100) after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein).

Results

Fasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001) in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide) in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.

Conclusion

Postprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

Citations

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal