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2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae Jin Kim, Hyun Min Kim, Jung Hae Ko, Nam Hoon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Jeeyun Ahn, Tae Jung Oh, Soo-Kyung Kim, Jaehyun Kim, Eugene Han, Sang-Man Jin, Won Suk Choi, Min Kyong Moon, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(5):575-594.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0282
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In May 2023, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association published the revised clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes. We incorporated the latest clinical research findings through a comprehensive systematic literature review and applied them in a manner suitable for the Korean population. These guidelines are designed for all healthcare providers nationwide, including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators who manage patients with diabetes or individuals at risk of developing diabetes. Based on recent changes in international guidelines and the results of a Korean epidemiological study, the recommended age for diabetes screening has been lowered. In collaboration with the relevant Korean medical societies, recently revised guidelines for managing hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes have been incorporated into this guideline. An abridgment containing practical information on patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

Citations

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    Min Kyong Moon
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    Ye Seul Yang
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Original Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
The Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to Changes in Obesity Status in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study of Korea
Joon Ho Moon, Yeonhoon Jang, Tae Jung Oh, Se Young Jung
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(4):514-522.   Published online April 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0159
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), there is scant data on discriminating the contribution of previous obesity and recent weight gain on developing T2DM.
Methods
We analyzed the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort data from 2002 to 2015 where Korean residents underwent biennial health checkups. Participants were classified into four groups according to their obesity status (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) before and after turning 50 years old: maintaining normal (MN), becoming obese (BO), becoming normal (BN), and maintaining obese (MO). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the risk of T2DM factoring in the covariates age, sex, BMI, presence of impaired fasting glucose or hypertension, family history of diabetes, and smoking status.
Results
A total of 118,438 participants (mean age, 52.5±1.1 years; men, 45.2%) were prospectively evaluated for incident T2DM. A total of 7,339 (6.2%) participants were diagnosed with T2DM during a follow-up period of 4.8±2.6 years. Incidence rates of T2DM per 1,000 person-year were 9.20 in MN, 14.81 in BO, 14.42 in BN, 21.38 in MO. After factoring in covariates, participants in the groups BN (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.27) and MO (aHR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.24) were at increased risk of developing T2DM compared to MN, whereas BO (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.17) was not.
Conclusion
Having been obese before 50 years old increased the risk of developing T2DM in the future, but becoming obese after 50 did not. Therefore, it is important to maintain normal weight from early adulthood to prevent future metabolic perturbations.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Higher Muscle Mass Protects Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from Progression to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yujin Shin, Joon Ho Moon, Tae Jung Oh, Chang Ho Ahn, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):890-900.   Published online April 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0334
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  • 223 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated whether postpartum muscle mass affects the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Methods
A total of 305 women with GDM (mean age, 34.9 years) was prospectively evaluated for incident prediabetes and T2DM from 2 months after delivery and annually thereafter. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis at the initial postpartum visit, and ASM, either divided by body mass index (BMI) or squared height, and the absolute ASM were used as muscle mass indices. The risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM was assessed according to tertiles of these indices using a logistic regression model.
Results
After a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years, the highest ASM/BMI tertile group had a 61% lower risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM compared to the lowest tertile group, and this remained significant after we adjusted for covariates (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.92; P=0.032). Equivalent findings were observed in normal weight women (BMI <23 kg/m2), but this association was not significant for overweight women (BMI ≥23 kg/m2). Absolute ASM or ASM/height2 was not associated with the risk of postpartum T2DM.
Conclusion
A higher muscle mass, as defined by the ASM/BMI index, was associated with a lower risk of postpartum prediabetes and T2DM in Korean women with GDM.

Citations

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  • More appendicular lean mass relative to body mass index is associated with lower incident diabetes in middle-aged adults in the CARDIA study
    Melanie S. Haines, Aaron Leong, Bianca C. Porneala, Victor W. Zhong, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, Karen K. Miller, James B. Meigs, Mercedes R. Carnethon
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  • The Association of the Triglyceride and Muscle to Fat Ratio During Early Pregnancy with the Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Fang Wang, Yuan-Yuan Bao, Kang Yu
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3187.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of body composition in early pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus under different body weights before pregnancy
    Li Xintong, Xu Dongmei, Zhang Li, Cao Ruimin, Hao Yide, Cui Lingling, Chen Tingting, Guo Yingying, Li Jiaxin
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Approaches and Maternal-Offspring Complications
Joon Ho Moon, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):3-14.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0335
  • 14,074 View
  • 862 Download
  • 54 Web of Science
  • 57 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication during pregnancy and is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring and maternal complications. For GDM screening and diagnosis, a two-step approach (1-hour 50 g glucose challenge test followed by 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) has been widely used. After the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study implemented a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in all pregnant women, a one-step approach was recommended as an option for the diagnosis of GDM after 2010. The one-step approach has more than doubled the incidence of GDM, but its clinical benefit in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes remains controversial. Long-term complications of mothers with GDM include type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, and complications of their offspring include childhood obesity and glucose intolerance. The diagnostic criteria of GDM should properly classify women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term complications. The present review summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the one-step and two-step approaches for the diagnosis of GDM based on recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We also describe the long-term maternal and offspring complications of GDM.

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  • Higher Muscle Mass Protects Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from Progression to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Yujin Shin, Joon Ho Moon, Tae Jung Oh, Chang Ho Ahn, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(6): 890.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Maternal Hyperglycemia during Pregnancy Increases Adiposity of Offspring
Hye Rim Chung, Joon Ho Moon, Jung Sub Lim, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Joon-Seok Hong, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):730-738.   Published online February 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0154
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Background
The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined.
Methods
The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI).
Results
BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values.
Conclusion
Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.

Citations

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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Epidemiology
Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing Allows Better Prediction of Diabetes in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Tae Jung Oh, Yeong Gi Kim, Sunyoung Kang, Joon Ho Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Kyong Soo Park, Hak C. Jang, Joon-Seok Hong, Nam H. Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(3):342-349.   Published online December 7, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0086
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We aimed to identify the postpartum metabolic factors that were associated with the development of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, we examined the role of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the prediction of future diabetes.

Methods

We conducted a prospective study of 179 subjects who previously had GDM but did not have diabetes at 2 months postpartum. The initial postpartum examination including a 75-g OGTT and the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed 12 months after delivery, and annual follow-up visits were made thereafter.

Results

The insulinogenic index (IGI30) obtained from the OGTT was significantly correlated with the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) obtained from the FSIVGTT. The disposition indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT were also significantly correlated. Women who progressed to diabetes had a lower insulin secretory capacity including IGI30, AIRg, and disposition indices obtained from the FSIVGTT and OGTT compared with those who did not. However, the insulin sensitivity indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the 2-hour glucose and disposition index obtained from the FSIVGTT were significant postpartum metabolic risk factors for the development of diabetes.

Conclusion

We identified a crucial role of β-cell dysfunction in the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM. The 2-hour glucose result from the OGTT is an independent predictor of future diabetes. Therefore, the OGTT is crucial for better prediction of future diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM.

Citations

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    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 414.     CrossRef
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    Yi‐Ling Chiou, Chich‐Hsiu Hung, Ching‐Yun Yu, Te‐Fu Chan, Ming‐Gwo Liu
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