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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine
Ji Hye Kim, Dae Chul Seo, Byung Jin Kim, Jeong Gyu Kang, Seung Jae Lee, Sung Ho Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):426-435.   Published online November 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0068
  • 7,008 View
  • 95 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

No study has assessed association between cigarette smoking and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) incidence using two different smoking classification systems: self-reported questionnaire and urine cotinine. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate NODM risk using the above two systems in Korean adults.

Methods

Among individuals enrolled in Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Cohort Study who visited between 2011 and 2012 at baseline and 2014 at follow-up, 78,212 participants without baseline diabetes mellitus were followed up for a median of 27 months. Assessment of NODM incidence was made at the end of follow-up period. Cotinine-verified current smoking was having urinary cotinine ≥50 ng/mL.

Results

Percentages of self-reported and cotinine-verified current smokers were 25.9% and 23.5%, respectively. Overall incidence of NODM was 1.5%. According to multivariate regression analyses, baseline self-reported current smoking (relative risk [RR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.65) and cotinine-verified current smoking (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.49) increased NODM risk compared to baseline self-reported never smoking and cotinine-verified current non-smoking. Higher daily amount and longer duration of smoking were also associated with increased NODM risk (P for trends <0.05). In particular, self-reported current smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day (RR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.15) and ≥10 years (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.67) had the highest RRs for NODM. These results remained significant in males, although there was no gender interaction.

Conclusion

This longitudinal study showed that baseline self-reported and cotinine-verified current smoking were associated with increased risks of NODM, especially in males.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Variability in the association of smoking status with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Korean population according to different definitions of smoking status: analysis based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-202
    Yechan Kyung, Young Sook Park, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Health Research.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Self-reported smoking, urine cotinine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: Findings from the PREVEND prospective cohort study
    Setor K. Kunutsor, John Tetteh, Richard S. Dey, Daan J. Touw, Robin P.F. Dullaart, Stephan J.L. Bakker
    Primary Care Diabetes.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characterization of cotinine degradation in a newly isolated Gram-negative strain Pseudomonas sp. JH-2
    Kexin Wang, Lu Xu, Jiale Ma, Ying Zhou, Yinhu Jiang, Jie Zha, Yanqiu Cai, Jian He, Jiandong Jiang, Jiguo Qiu, Yang Mu
    Archives of Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determination of Diabetes-associated Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy Risk Factors among Insulin and Non-insulin Dependent Diabetics
    Ibrahim Abdulsada, Zain Alabdeen Obaid, Farah Almerza, Mays Alwaeli, Anmar Al-Elayawi, Taha Al-Dayyeni, Harir Al-Tuhafy
    The Journal of Medical Research.2023; 9(6): 141.     CrossRef
  • Trends and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents, 2007 to 2018 (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:880-9)
    Jiun Chae, Moon Young Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 351.     CrossRef
  • Xenobiotics Delivered by Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms on the Pathogenesis of Chronic Kidney Disease
    Pablo Scharf, Felipe Rizzetto, Luana Filippi Xavier, Sandra Helena Poliselli Farsky
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(18): 10293.     CrossRef
  • Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study
    Chan Liu, Yanqin Wu, Wenjuan Duan, Wenming Xu
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes.2022; 130(12): 793.     CrossRef
  • Current status of health promotion in Korea
    Soo Young Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(12): 776.     CrossRef
  • Association between secondhand smoke exposure and diabetes mellitus in 131 724 Korean never smokers using self‐reported questionnaires and cotinine levels: Gender differences
    Byung Jin Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Jeong Gyu Kang, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
    Journal of Diabetes.2021; 13(1): 43.     CrossRef
  • Changes in creatinine‐to‐cystatin C ratio over 4 years, risk of diabetes, and cardiometabolic control: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Yang Yuan, Bo Xie, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
    Journal of Diabetes.2021; 13(12): 1025.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Socioeconomic Inequalities Related to Second-Hand Smoke Exposure as Verified by Urine Cotinine Levels Among Nonsmoking Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2018
    Seo Young Kang, Min Kyung Lim, Hong-Jun Cho
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2021; 23(9): 1518.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:426–35)
    Bo-Yeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 619.     CrossRef
  • Response: Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:426–35)
    Ji Hye Kim, Byung Jin Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 623.     CrossRef
  • Smoking as a Target for Prevention of Diabetes
    Ye Seul Yang, Tae Seo Sohn
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(3): 402.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Korean Adults.
Ji Hoon Kim, Eun Jung Rhee, Eun Suk Choi, Jong Chul Won, Cheol Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Byung Jin Kim, Ki Chul Sung, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim, Man Ho Lee, Jung Roe Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):105-112.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.105
  • 7,862 View
  • 16 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A recently discovered adipokine, retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4), is reportedly associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. This study was performed to analyze the relationship between serum RBP-4 levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Korean adults. METHODS: In 235 subjects (mean age 58 years) in whom coronary artery angiograms were performed due to complaints of chest pain, serum RBP-4 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Coronary artery angiograms were performed in all subjects and the severity of CAD was assessed by the number of stenotic vessels. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined by AHA/NHLBI criteria with body mass index substituted for waist circumference. RESULTS: Coronary angiogram showed that 101 subjects (43%) had normal coronary vessel, 82 subjects (34.9%) had 1-vessel disease, 31 subjects (13.2%) had 2-vessel disease and 21 subjects (8.9%) had 3-vessel disease. Subjects with coronary artery stenosis showed a higher mean age (60.5 +/- 10.0 years), fasting glucose (123.3 mg +/- 45.0 mg/dL) and lower mean value for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level (49.0 +/- 13.2 mg/dL), although serum RBP-4 levels were not significantly different between those with and without CAD. Mean age and fasting glucose level increased significantly as the number of stenotic vessels increased, although serum RBP4 level showed no significant differences among the different groups. Among the metabolic parameters, only serum triglyceride levels showed a significant correlation with serum RBP-4 levels. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in mean serum RBP-4 levels between subjects with or without coronary artery disease in Korean adults. Further studies are warranted to draw a clear conclusion on the effect of RBP-4 on atherosclerosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Retinol binding protein 4 levels relate to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease
    Gokay Nar, Sara Sanlialp, Rukiye Nar
    Journal of Medical Biochemistry.2021; 40(4): 384.     CrossRef
The Association of Pro12Ala Polymorphism in PPAR-gamma Gene with Coronary Artery Disease in Korean Subjects.
Chang Hee Kwon, Eun Jung Rhee, Se Yeon Kim, Eun Ran Kim, Chang Uk Chon, Chan Hee Jung, Ji Ho Yun, Byung Jin Kim, Ki Chul Sung, Bum Su Kim, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Jin Ho Kang, Sun Woo Kim, Man Ho Lee, Jung Roe Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(2):122-129.   Published online March 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.2.122
  • 2,348 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
PPAR-gamma, a member of nuclear family, which is involved in the differentiation of adipose tissue, is reported to be associated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. We conducted a research to see whether the prevalence of coronary artery disease is associated with Pro12Ala polymorphism in exon B of PPAR-gamma in Korean adults. METHODS: The study was conducted in 161 subjects (97 males, 64 females, mean age 57 year old) who underwent coronary angiogram due to chest pain. We assessed cardiovascular risk factors in all subjects, such as blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles. Subjects were divided into four groups as normal, 1-vessel, 2-vessel and 3-vessel disease according to the number of stenosed coronary arteries. Genotypings of Pro12Ala polymorphism were done with Real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Allelic frequency for proline was 0.957 and 0.043 for alanine, and they were in compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.85). 79 subjects (43.5%) had normal coronary artery, 52 subjects (31%), 1-vessel disease, 24 subjects (14.9%), 2-vessel disease and 15 subjects (9.3%), 3-vessel disease. When the cardiovascular risk factors were compared among these four groups, there were no meaningful differences except the age and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which were lost after adjustment for age and BMI. There were no significant differences in the prevalence or severity of coronary artery diseases according to the different genotypes of Pro12Ala polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significantassociation between Pro12Ala polymorphism in exon B of PPAR-gamma and prevalence or severity of coronary artery disease in Korean adults. It is considered that further studies on the correlation between Pro12Ala polymorphism and coronary artery disease should be carried out in larger Korean population in the future
Relationship between Circadian Mean Blood Pressure ( MBP ) Rhythm and Microvascular Complications in Normotensive NIDDM Patients.
Hyang Kim, Seong Chun Shim, Dae Jung Shim, Hi Moo Lee, Yoon Sang Choi, Jin Ho Kang, Byung Ik Kim, Sang Jong Lee, Yoo Lee Kim, Yoon Kyung Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):552-560.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 1,124 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Thanks to ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring device, it became possible to investigate circadian pressure rhythm under variable physiologic and pathologic conditions. Moreover, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure has allowed us to detect in diabetic patients unsuspected abnormalities of the blood pressure circadian rhythm and to relate them to autonomic or renal dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between circadian rhythm of mean blood pressure (MBP) and microvascular complications in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). METHODS: 24hr blood pressure monitoring was applied to 63 normotensive NIDDM patients(mean age 55.3+7.2 year, male: 35, female: 28) who have been hospitalized at our hospital from March 1993 to December 1994 to measure systolic, diastolic and hourly mean pressure of daytime, night time and 24hr. In addition, NIDDM patients were divided into 2 groups according to 24 hour circadian blood pressure rhythm by measuring hourly mean pressure. These 2 groups, group 1 who had a circadian MBP rhythm, with a peak value in the afternoon and group 2 who had an absent or reversed circadian rhythm with a peak value during the night time, were observed to evaluate the frequency of diabetic microvascular complication. RESULTS: The mean systolic and diastolic ambulatory BP values were significantly higher in the group 2 NIDDM during night-time compared with control group and group 1(systolic pressure: F=12.53 p<0.05 diastolic pressure: F:=15.159 p<0.05). Although there was no significant differences in day-time heart rate between three groups, 1 and 2 group showed significant higher level of night-time heart rate comparing with that of control group (F=3.444 p<0.05). Group 2 diabetes patients showed, both systolic and diastolic, higher night-time and day-time blood pressure ratio(systolic pressure: F=35.958 p<0.05> diastolic pressure F=40.126 p<0.05). Observing the night-time and day-time heart rate ratio, group 1 and 2 patients showed significantly higher level compared with that of cantrol group(F=12.144 p<0.05). Regarding the retmopathy, group 1 patient.; showed mild degree retinopathy or normal finding(X =3.65 p<0.05). However, many group 2 patients showed moderate 2 degree nonproliferative retinopathy(X =3.23 p<0.05). The prevalence of overt nepkuopathy (24-hour urine protein>500mg) and autonomic neuropathy (postural and abnormal E:I ratio during deep breathing test) was significantly higher in group 2 (overt nephropathy: X'=3.23 p
QTc Interval and QT Dispersion Prolongation in NIDDM Patients with Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.
Yong Kyun Cho, Seung Won Lee, Won Tae Seo, Yoon Sang Choi, Jin Ho Kang, Man Ho Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(1):93-102.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It has been reported that QTc interval and QT dispersion prolongation on 12 lead EKG reflects predictability and diagnosis of cardiovascular complications induced by autonomic nervous system abnormalities. We have investigated in NIDDM patients whether severity of cadiovascular autonomic neuropathy(CAN) evaluated by conventional standard cardiovascular autonomic function test is correlated with prolongation of QT, QTc interval and QT dispersion. In addition, whether these prolonagtion can reflect CAN and if any other clinical variables related to pralongatian exist. METHODS: Eighty patients(39 male, 41 female) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin after diagnosis of NIDDM in our hospital were included in the study. These patients were devided into three groups (Group I, 13 subjects: No CAN, Group II, 20 subjects: Borderline CAN, Group III, 47 subjects: Definite CAN) according to the score of standard catdiovascular autonomic function test(Deep breathing test, Lying to standing test, Heart ration on Valsalva manuever, Postural BP drop test). The measured QT, QTc interval and QT disp rsion of eaeh diabetic group and control group were analyzed. RESULTS: l. Statistically significant prolongation of QT,QTc, QT dispersion was observed in NIDDM tients as compared with those of control group(p=0.015, 0,021, 0.001). 2. Severity of autonomic neuropathy has shown positive correlation with only prolongation of QT dispersion(p<0.05) in three diabetic subgroups. 3. Statistically significant difference was not ob::rved in HbAlc and BMI between each patients groups of NIDDM(p>0.05) but both HbAlc and BMI showed weak positive correlation with prologation of QT dispersion(r=0.262, r=0.267 repectively). CONCLUSION: QTc interval and QT dispersion are considered easily accessible factors to predict and evaluate the degree of cardiovascular autonomic function abnormalities in NIDDM patients, yet further long term follow up and study in large group should be carried out to decide if these factor can predict and reflect severity of cardiovascular abnormalities such as ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. In additian, prolonged QT dispersion has shown weak positive correlation with both HbAlc and BMI and some other influential factors are suggested to play a role in autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients.

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