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Relationships between Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes
Byung Kil Ha, Bong Gun Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Soon Il Lee, Soon Myung Jung, Ja Young Park, Chang Won Lee, Sang Soo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, In Ju Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):443-451.   Published online December 12, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.6.443
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  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is known to be a good surrogate marker of clinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a major predictor for developing neuropathy. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between baPWV and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted involving 692 patients with type 2 diabetes. The correlation between increased baPWV and DPN, neurological symptoms, and neurological assessment was analyzed. DPN was examined using the total symptom score (TSS), ankle reflexes, the vibration test, and the 10-g monofilament test. DPN was defined as TSS ≥2 and an abnormal neurological assessment. Data were expressed as means±standard deviation for normally distributed data and as median (interquartile range) for non-normally distributed data. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups, and a multiple logistic regression test was used to evaluate independent predictors of DPN. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to adjust for age.

Results

Patients with DPN had higher baPWV and systolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be older and female, when compared to the control group. According to univariate analysis of risk factors for DPN, the odds ratio of the baPWV ≥1,600 cm/sec was 1.611 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.072 to 2.422; P=0.021) and the odds ratio in female was 1.816 (95% CI, 1.195 to 2.760; P=0.005).

Conclusion

Increased baPWV was significantly correlated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of arterial stiffness and neuropathy in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Angela Beros, John Sluyter, Robert Keith Rhodes Scragg
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2023; 11(1): e003140.     CrossRef
  • A Noninvasive Blood Glucose Estimation System Using Dual-Channel PPGs and Pulse-Arrival Velocity
    Po-Lei Lee, Kuo-Wei Wang, Chen-Yuan Hsiao
    IEEE Sensors Journal.2023; 23(19): 23570.     CrossRef
  • Bilirubin is inversely related to diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed by sural nerve conduction study
    Kentaro Abe, Yasutaka Maeda, Chitose Matsuzaki, Hisashi Yokomizo, Tomoaki Inoue, Noriyuki Sonoda, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Toyoshi Inoguchi
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2021; 12(11): 2028.     CrossRef
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    Bingwei Ma, Yao Chen, Chunjun Sheng, Peng Yang, Xingchun Wang, Shen Qu
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2021; 75(11): 1645.     CrossRef
  • Electrical impedance plethysmography versus tonometry to measure the pulse wave velocity in peripheral arteries in young healthy volunteers: a pilot study
    A. I. P. Wiegerinck, A. Thomsen, J. Hisdal, H. Kalvøy, C. Tronstad
    Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance.2021; 12(1): 169.     CrossRef
  • Peripheral Arterial Stiffness Increases the Risk of Progression of Renal Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Tae Hoon Lim, Seung Min Chung, Dong Sung Lee, Se Ra Choi, Jun Sung Moon, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
    Frontiers in Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • High Brachial Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity as a Marker for Predicting Coronary Artery Stenosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Bo Hyun Kim, Jae Sik Jang, Yong Seop Kwon, June Hyung Kim, In Joo Kim, Chang Won Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2018; 33(1): 88.     CrossRef
  • Nerve conduction velocity is negatively associated with intima-media thickness and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Sayuri Tanaka, Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Rayaz A. Malik
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(12): e0209503.     CrossRef
  • The association between pulse wave velocity and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Pinelopi Grigoropoulou, Alexander Kokkinos, Gerasimos Siasos, Ioannis Ntanasis-Stathopoulos, Nikolaos Tentolouris
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2017; 31(11): 1624.     CrossRef
  • Neurogenic Pain Disorder in the Foot and Ankle: Peripheral Neuropathy
    Hak Jun Kim, Young Hwan Park, Soo Hyun Kim
    Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association.2017; 52(4): 305.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Jun Ouk Ha, Tae Hee Lee, Chang Won Lee, Ja Young Park, Seong Ho Choi, Hee Seung Park, Jae Seung Lee, Seung Heon Lee, Eun Hee Seo, Young Hwan Kim, Young Woo Kang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(4): 297.     CrossRef
  • The association between arterial stiffness and tongue manifestations of blood stasis in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Po-Chi Hsu, Yu-Chuen Huang, John Y. Chiang, Hen-Hong Chang, Pei-Yung Liao, Lun-Chien Lo
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Aortic Stiffness as a Surrogate Endpoint to Micro- and Macrovascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Claudia Cardoso, Gil Salles
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2016; 17(12): 2044.     CrossRef
  • Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity is Associated with Composite Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Asymptomatic Population
    Hyung Joon Joo, Sang-A Cho, Jae-Young Cho, Seunghun Lee, Jae Hyoung Park, Sung Ho Hwang, Soon Jun Hong, Cheol Woong Yu, Do-Sun Lim
    Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis.2016; 23(9): 1033.     CrossRef
  • Arterial stiffness in diabetes mellitus
    Stuart B. Prenner, Julio A. Chirinos
    Atherosclerosis.2015; 238(2): 370.     CrossRef
  • Association between Brachial-Ankle pulse wave velocity and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes
    Nan Wu, Xiaoling Cai, Kuanping Ye, Yintao Li, Min He, Weiwei Zhao, Renming Hu
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on the Korean National Diabetes Program
Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Mi Kwang Kwon, Ie Byung Park, Kyu Jeung Ahn, In Ju Kim, Sung-Hoon Kim, Hyoung Woo Lee, Kyung Soo Koh, Doo Man Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Kwan Woo Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Yong Soo Park, Jeong-taek Woo, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(5):504-512.   Published online October 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.5.504
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  • 40 Download
  • 52 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort study is performing an ongoing large-scale prospective multicenter investigation to discover the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in Korean patients. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes among those registered in the KNDP cohort within the past 4 years.

Methods

This study was performed between June 2006 and September 2009 at 13 university hospitals and included 4,265 KNDP cohort participants. Among the participants, the crude prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular diseases of those checked for diabetes-related complications was determined, and the adjusted standard prevalence and standardization of the general population prevalence ratio (SPR) was estimated based on the 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) population demographics.

Results

Among the KNDP registrants, 43.2% had hypertension, 34.8% had dyslipidemia, 10.8% had macrovascular disease, and 16.7% had microvascular disease. The SPR of the KNDP registrants was significantly higher than that of the KNHANES subjects after adjusting for demographics in the KNHANES 2005 population. However, with the exception of cardiovascular disease in females, the standardized prevalence for the most complicated items in the survey was significantly higher than that in the KNHANES subjects.

Conclusion

The prevalence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease were significantly higher in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes than in the normal population. However, no significant difference was noted in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in females.

Citations

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High Glucose and/or Free Fatty Acid Damage Vascular Endothelial Cells via Stimulating of NAD(P)H Oxidase-induced Superoxide Production from Neutrophils.
Sang Soo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):94-104.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.94
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress and inflammation are important factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes and contribute to the development of diabetic complications. To understand the mechanisms that cause vascular complications in diabetes, we examined the effects of high glucose and/or free fatty acids on the production of superoxide from neutrophils and their role in endothelial cell damage. METHODS: Human neutrophils were incubated in the media containing 5.5 mM D-glucose, 30 mM D-glucose, 3 nM oleic acid, or 30 microM oleic acid for 1 hour to evaluate superoxide production through NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Human aortic endothelial cells were co-cultured with neutrophils exposed to high glucose and oleic acid. We then measured neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, neutrophil activation and superoxide production, neutrophil-mediated endothelial cell cytotoxicity and subunits of neutrophil NAD(P)H oxidase. RESULTS: After 1 hour of incubation with various concentrations of glucose and oleic acid, neutrophil adherence to high glucose and oleic acid-treated endothelial cells was significantly increased compared with adhesion to low glucose and oleic acid-treated endothelial cells. Incubation of neutrophils with glucose and free fatty acids increased superoxide production in a dose-dependent manner. High glucose and oleic acid treatment significantly increased expression of the membrane components of NAD(P)H oxidase of neutrophil (gp91(phox)). Endothelial cells co-cultured with neutrophils exposed to high glucose and oleic acid showed increased cytolysis, which could be prevented by an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose and/orfree fatty acidsincrease injury of endothelial cells via stimulating NAD(P)H oxidase-induced superoxide production from neutrophils.
Cause-of-Death Trends for Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years.
Su Kyung Park, Mi Kyoung Park, Ji Hye Suk, Mi Kyung Kim, Yong Ki Kim, In Ju Kim, Yang Ho Kang, Kwang Jae Lee, Hyun Seung Lee, Chang Won Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Kyung Il Lee, Mi Kyoung Kim, Duk Kyu Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):65-72.   Published online February 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.1.65
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  • 42 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recently, diabetic mortality is lower than ever before, likely due to dramatic improvements in diabetes care. This study set to analyze changes in the cause of death in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past 10 years. METHODS: All subjects were T2DM patients over the age of 30 whose death certificates were issued at six hospitals in the Busan metropolitan area from 2000 to 2004. The patients were excluded if they had been clinically diagnosed with significant tuberculosis, liver, thyroid, renal, connective tissue diseases and cancers, prior to T2DM diagnosis. We classified the cause of death into several groups by KCD-4. The results were compared with published data on the period from 1990 to 1994. RESULTS: The study comprised 680 patients, of which 374 (55.0%) were male. The average age of death was 66.3 +/- 10.7 years. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular disease (30.6%), followed by infectious disease (25.3%), cancer (21.9%), congestive heart failure (7.1%), renal disease (4.7%), liver disease (2.7%), and T2DM itself (1.9%). In the study from the earlier period, the most common cause of death was also cardiovascular disease (37.6%), followed by infectious disease (24.2%), T2DM (6.0%), liver disease (5.4%), cancer (4.7%), and renal disease (3.3%). CONCLUSION: Over both study periods, the first and second cause of death in T2DM were cardiovascular disease and infectious disease, respectively. However, death by cerebral infarction among cardiovascular disease patients was significantly lower in the latter period, while death by malignancy was markedly increased.

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    JaeHee Kim, Ji-Yun Hwang, Ki Nam Kim, Young-Ju Choi, Namsoo Chang, Kap-Bum Huh
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    Sun-Joo Boo
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    Ie Byung Park, Sei Hyun Baik
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    Hae Jin Kim
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The Efficacy of Fixed Dose Rosiglitazone and Metformin Combination Therapy in Poorly Controlled Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Tae Seo Sohn, Jee in Lee, In Ju Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Hyun Shik Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(6):506-512.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.6.506
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Obese type 2 diabetic subjects are recently increasing in Korea, indicating the importance of insulin resistance rather than insulin secretory defects in the pathophysioloy of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fixed dose rosiglitazone/metformin combination therapy in poorly controlled subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: 12 type 2 diabetic subjects who had a HbA1c > 11% or fasting plasma glucose > 15 mmol/L were included. After a 2 week screening period, the subjected took the fixed does rosiglitazone/metformin for 24 weeks. The treatment with rosiglitazone/metformin began at week 0 with an initial dose of 4 mg/1000 mg and, unless tolerability issues arose, subjects would be increased to 6 mg/1500 mg at week 4 and at week 8 to the maximum dose of 8 mg/2000 mg. The primary object of this study was to characterize the magnitude of HbA1c reduction from baseline after 24 weeks of rosiglitazone and metformin treatment in poorly controlled type 2 diabetics. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 48.9 +/- 10.6 years old, body mass index was 25.0 +/- 3.5 kg/m2, HbA1c was 12.0 +/- 1.0%, and fasting plasma glucose was 16.3 +/- 3.1 mmol/L. HbA1c was reduced to 7.54 +/- 1.45% and fasting plasma glucose reduced to 7.96 +/- 2.38 mmol/L at week 24. The proportion of HbA1c responder who showed the reduction from baseline of > or = 0.7% or HbA1c < 7% was 11 among 12 subjects (91.7%). 41% of the subjects (5 among 12 subjects) achieved HbA1c level < 7.0% and 75% (9 among 12 subjects) achieved HbA1c level < 8.0%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, rosiglitazone and metformin combination therapy was effective in glycemic control in poorly controlled subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Randomized Controlled Trial
The Effect of Rosiglitazone and Metformin Therapy, as an Initial Therapy, in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Tae Seo Sohn, Jee In Lee, In Ju Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Hyun Shik Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):445-452.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.5.445
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is usually preceded by a long and clinically silent period of increasing insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that rosiglitazone and metformin fixed-dose combination therapy (RSG/MET) will safely and effectively control glycemia as a first line of oral therapy, better than rosiglitazone (RSG) or metformin (MET) monotherapy in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: This study was a 32-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study. Twenty-seven type 2 diabetes patients (males 14; females 13) were included and randomly divided into the rosiglitazone, metformin group, or rosiglitazone /metformin combination groups. The primary objective of this study was to determine the change in HbA1c from baseline (week 0) to week 32. The secondary end-points were to determine changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), from baseline to week 32. Other cardiovascular risk markers were also assessed. RESULTS: At week 32, there were significant reductions in HbA1c and FPG, in all three treatment groups. There was no statistical difference in HbA1c among the three groups, but the decrease in FPG in the RSG/MET group was statistically significant compared to the MET group (P < 0.05). RSG/MET significantly reduced HOMA-IR at week 32 compared to baseline, but there was no difference among the three groups. RSG/MET significantly decreased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value at week 32, compared to baseline. There were increases in adiponectin from baseline to week 32 in the RSG and RSG/MET groups, and the increase in the RSG/MET group was statistically significant compared to that of the MET group (P < 0.05). At week 32, there was a significant decrease in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in all three treatment groups, but no statistically significant difference among them. The RSG/MET group significantly decreased in terms of urinary albumin-creatinine ratio at week 32, compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, rosiglitazone and metformin combination therapy was effective in glycemic control as an initial therapy, and it improved cardiovascular risk markers in Korean type 2 diabetes patients.

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  • Rosiglitazone metformin adduct inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation via activation of AMPK/p21 pathway
    Yuyang Liu, Xiangnan Hu, Xuefeng Shan, Ke Chen, Hua Tang
    Cancer Cell International.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the Efficacy of Glimepiride, Metformin, and Rosiglitazone Monotherapy in Korean Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy Study
    Kun Ho Yoon, Jeong Ah Shin, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Seung Hwan Lee, Kyung Wan Min, Yu Bae Ahn, Soon Jib Yoo, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sung Woo Park, Kwan Woo Lee, Yeon Ah Sung, Tae Sun Park, Min Seon Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Moon Suk Nam, Hye Soon Kim, Ie Byung Park, Jong Suk Par
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(1): 26.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Association of Serum Cystatin C with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Related Components in Korean Adults.
Sun Young Kim, Sang Heon Song, Yun Kyung Jeon, Ji Ryang Kim, Jung Ho Bae, Sang Soo Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Yang Ho Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):409-417.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.5.409
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Serum cystatin C has been reported as a better marker than serum creatinine for estimation of kidney function and may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of serum cystatin C with metabolic syndrome (MS), a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors, and its related components and the usefulness of serum cystatin C for the cardiovascular risk assessment. METHODS: 1,468 healthy subjects (814 men and 655 women), who visited health promotion center of Pusan National University Hospital for routine medical checkup were included. MS was defined by modified, revised National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria. RESULTS: Mean serum cystatin C value was 0.87 +/- 0.17 mg/L. In partial correlation analysis adjusted by age, sex and Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), cystatin C was associated with most of metabolic parameters and especially had significant positive correlation with waist circumference (r = 0.215), triglyceride (TG) (r = 0.141), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (r = 0.116), and correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = -0.152) (all P < 0.001). There were increasing trends of prevalence of MS with the increase of quartiles of cystatin C and as the number of MS components increased, cystatin C values significantly increased. Serum cystatin C was also significantly increased in MS (0.90 +/- 0.19 mg/L vs. 0.86 +/- 0.16 mg/L). In stepwise multiple regression analysis including the components of MS, Waist circumference, diastolic BP, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol were independent determinants of serum cystatin C, but with creatinine, only waist circumference was independent determinant. CONCLUSIONS: Serum cystatin C was closely associated with MS and its related cardiovascular risk factors and might be useful as a tool of cardiovascular risk assessment.

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  • Cystatin C in Patients of Metabolic Syndrome and its Correlation with the Individual Components of Metabolic Syndrome
    Sunita Aghade, Jayshree S Bavikar, Pragati S Kadam, Reshakiran J Shendye
    Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry.2019; 23(2): 293.     CrossRef
  • Cystatin C as a Predictor for Diabetes according to Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Korean Patients
    Eon Ju Jeon, Ji Hyun Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(1): 32.     CrossRef
  • Association of Obesity with Serum Cystatin C in Korean Adults
    Yang Ho Kang
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2015; 24(4): 199.     CrossRef
Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by High Glucose is Reactive Oxygen Dependent.
Yong Seong An, Ji Hae Kwon, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):185-195.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.185
  • 1,996 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress contributes to vascular diseases in patients with diabetes. As the mechanism of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications is poorly understood, this study was aimed to assess the potential role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to determine whether the oxidative stress is a major factor in hyperglycemia-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mM D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mM D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mM D-glucose plus 24.5 mM mannitol (osmotic control). We measured the migration of VSMCs and superoxide production. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: Migration of VSMCs incubated under high glucose condition were markedly increased compared to normal glucose condition. Treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 micromol/L) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 500 U/mL) significantly suppressed high glucose-induced migration of VSMCs. Superoxide production was significantly increased in high glucose condition and was markedly decreased after treatment with DPI and SOD. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-delta isozyme. When VSMCs were treated with rottlerin or transfected with PKC-delta siRNA, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-delta markedly decreased VSMC migration by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSMC migration is dependent upon activation of PKC-delta, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSMCs, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.
Review
Non-drug Intervention in Lipid Management: Dietary Portfolio.
In Ju Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):377-382.   Published online September 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.5.377
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Non-Pharmaceutical interventions are essential in lipid management. The NCEP recommends the following three tiered approach to lipid management: 1. Institution of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC); 2. Use of non-drug adjuncts, including viscous fibers and plant sterol/stanol products; and 3. Drug therapy when required to reach treatment goals. Even though non-drug approaches often receive minimal attention in clinical practice, the efficacy of non-drug therapies is not so small. Non-drug adjuncts are known to reduce LDL cholesterol as follows: 12.5% for 45 g of soy protein/d; 6% to 7% for 9 to 10 g of psyllium/d, with smaller reductions for other viscous fibers; 10% for 1 to 2 g of plant sterols/d and 1% for 10 g almonds/d. Recently, combining these foods in a single dietary portfolio decreased LDL cholesterol and CRP similarly to the extent which achieved by a usual dose of a statin. This dietary portfolio can be regarded as an effective non-drug approach to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Original Articles
Oxidative Stress Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rat Through Increased IRS-1 Degradation.
Jung Lae Park, Young Sil Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):22-32.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.22
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance and oxidative stress have been reported to play essential pathophysiological roles in diabetic cardiovascular complication. The relationship between insulin resistance and oxidative stress in vasculature remains unclear. The study was conducted to assess whether oxidative stress induce vascular insulin resistance in OLETF rat, a model of type 2 diabetes METHODS: We used OLETF rats (20/30/40 weeks, n = 5/5/5), as models of type 2 DM, and LETO rats (20/30/40 weeks, n = 5/5/5) as controls. Aortas of each rats were extracted. Superoxide anion production was detected by NBT assay and lucigenin assay. 8-hydroxyguanosine (OHdG) and nitrotyrosine were detected as markers of oxidative stress in 20 and 40 weeks groups. The glucose uptake of aortas was measured by detecting 2-deoxyglucose uptake in both groups. The expression of IR, IRS-1, PI3-K and Akt/PKB were detected by immuno precipitation and immunoblotting in 20, 30 and 40 weeks groups RESULTS: Superoxide anion production and markers of oxidative stress (8-OHdG, nitrotyrosine) were significantly increased in aortas of OLETF rats compared with controls. Aortas of OLETF rats exhibited decreased IRS-1 content and increased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser307 compared with LETO rats. There were no significant differences in expressions of IR, PI3-K and Akt/PKB between two groups CONCLUSION: These results suggest that oxidative stress induces insulin resistance in vasculature of OLETF rat specifically through increasing serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its degradation by a proteasome-dependent pathway, providing an alternative mechanism that may explain the association with insulin resistance and diabetic vascular complications.

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  • Anti-diabetic effects of benfotiamine on an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Kang Min Chung, Wonyoung Kang, Dong Geon Kim, Hyun Ju Hong, Youngjae Lee, Chang-Hoon Han
    Korean Journal of Veterinary Research.2014; 54(1): 21.     CrossRef
High Glucose Modulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Through Activation of PKC-sigma-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase.
Bo Hyun Kim, Chang Won Lee, Jung Lae Park, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):416-427.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.416
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the causative factors contributing to macrovascular complications in diabetes. However, the mechanisms of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications are poorly understood. We hypothesized that PKC-sigma isozyme contributes to ROS generation and determined their roles in the critical intermediary signaling events in high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mmol/L D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose plus 24.5 mmol/L mannitol (osmotic control). We then measured cell number, BrdU incorporation, cell cycle and superoxide production in VSM cells. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: High glucose increased VSM cell number and BrdU incorporation and displayed significantly greater percentages of S and G2/M phases than compared to 5.5 mmol/L glucose and osmotic control. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining in high glucose-treated VSM cell was more prominent compared with normal glucose-treated VSM cell, which was significantly inhibited by DPI (10 micrometer), but not by inhibitors for other oxidases. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-sigma isozyme. When VSM cells were treated with rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-sigma or transfected with PKC-sigma siRNA, NBT staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSM cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-sigma markedly decreased VSM cell number by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSM cell proliferation is dependent upon activation of PKC-sigma, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSM cells, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.

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  • High Glucose and/or Free Fatty Acid Damage Vascular Endothelial Cells via Stimulating of NAD(P)H Oxidase-induced Superoxide Production from Neutrophils
    Sang Soo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(2): 94.     CrossRef
The Study of Physical Activity in the Korean with Type 2 Diabetes.
Kyung Wan Min, Keun Hee An, Tae Seo Sohn, Yong Moon Park, Yeong Sun Hong, Yeon Su Kim, Yi Byeong Park, Kang Seo Park, Gwan Woo Lee, In Ju Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Jae Myoung Yu, Hyun Shik Son, Sei Hyun Baik, Won Cheol Lee, Chung Gu Cho, Hyoung Woo Lee, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):517-525.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Despite the importance of exercise, little is known about the epidemiology of exercise among persons with diabetes in the Korea. We do not have any standard method to evaluate physical activity of diabetics. So exercise committee of Korean diabetic association decided to survey the physical activities of Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1073 type 2 diabetics (509 males, 564 females) over 18 age. 34 general hospitals collected data about physical activity from Dec. 2004 to Feb.2005. Data were randomly collected by interviewers using numeration table. Respondents were asked about the physical activities or exercise during recent 7 days and frequency, duration of each activity. To compare with normal population, we use 2001 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) results. RESULTS: People with type 2 diabetes were more likely to report exercising regularly than people without this disease (52.5% vs. 27.5%) (p<0.0001), but 47.5% of type 2 diabetics didn't take exercise. Walking time of type 2 diabetics wasmore than that of people without this disease (p<0.0001). Type 2 diabetics exerting <700kcal/week of energy expenditure with physical activity were 45.5% in the exercising type 2 diabetics (males:44.2%, females:55.8%). Energy expenditure was positively correlated with frequency of physical exercise and exercise period (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: 47.5% of Korean type 2 diabetics and 72.5% of normal population did not take exercise. 45.5% of exercising type 2 diabetics exerted energy expenditure under 700kcal/week with physical activity. Therefore, various programs for initiating physical activity and increasing energy expenditure are required.
Cell Cycle Progression of Vascular Smooth Muscle cell Through Modulation of p38 MAPK and GSK-3beta Activities Under High Glucose Condition.
Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):418-431.   Published online September 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Macroangiopathy, with atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Vascular smooth muscle cells play a crucial role in atherosclerosis, as they proliferate, migrate and express genes that encode inducible growth factors. However, the mechanisms induced by hyperglycemia that accelerate the proliferative change of vascular smooth muscle cells in diabetes remain unclear. This study was aimed at clarifying the respective roles of hyperglycemia in the acceleration of vascular complications in diabetes, examine the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and the possible underlying mechanisms, including cell cycle progression. METHODS: Primary cultured rat aortic RASMs were exposed to normal glucose(5 mmol/L D-glucose), high glucose(30 mmol/L D-glucose) or an osmotic control (5mmol/L D-glucose plus 24.5 mmol/L mannitol) for 72 hours. The effect of high glucose on cell proliferation was determined by assessing the cell count and BrdU incorporation. Proteins involved in the cell proliferation pathway (PDK1, Akt/PKB, p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, GSK-3beta) and those in cell cycle progression (cdk4, cyclin D, cdk2, cyclin E and ppRb phosphorylation) were determined by Western blot analysis. cdk4 kinase and PKC activity assays were also performed. RESULTS: A high level of glucose increased both the cell count(P<0.01) and BrdU incorporation(P<0.01). The PDK1, Akt/PKB and p42/44 MAPK activities were not significantly increased. A high level of glucose significantly increased the activities of p38 MAPK (P<0.01) and GSK-3beta(P<0.05) and the expressions of cdk4, cyclin D and ppRb phosphorylation. The cdk4 (P<0.01) and PKC (P<0.05) activities were also significantly increased. The inhibition of protein kinase C with GF109203X markedly reduced the phosphorylations of p38 MAPK and GSK-3betaand the expressions of cdk4 and cyclin D. In addition, pretreatment with GF109203X decreased the cell number in response to a high glucose level. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a high level of glucose increases vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, with the possible mechanism further increases the G1 to S phase cell cycle progression via the activation of PKC, p38 MAPK and GSK-3beta.
The Effect of High Glucose on the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Mi Kyoung Kim, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):407-415.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress contributes to vascular diseases for patients with diabetes by promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and vascular tone alteration. As the mechanism of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications is poorly understood, this study was aimed to assess the potential role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to determine whether thise oxidative stress is a major factor in hyperglycemia-induced migration and proliferation of VSMCs. METHODS: Rat aortic VSMCs were incubated for 48 hours in either a normal glucose (NG, 5.5 mM) or a high glucose (HG, 30 mM) condition. We then measured the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and the superoxide production. RESULTS: The migration and proliferation of VSMCs incubated under a HG condition were markedly increased compared to the NG condition. Treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 M) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 500 U/mL) significantly suppressed the HG-induced migration and proliferation of VSMCs. Superoxide production was significantly increased in the HG condition, and it was markedly decreased after a treatment with DPI and SOD. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that HG-induced VSMC migration and proliferation are related to the production of superoxide anion that is derived from NAD(P)H oxidase.
Mechanism of Impaired Endothelium-dependent Vasodilation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) Rats .
Kook Jin Chun, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Chi Dae Kim, Seok Dong Yoo, Yong Ki Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(1):47-57.   Published online February 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Impaired vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation and augmented contractile responses have been reported in several long-term animals hyperglycemia models and human diabetic patients. Since oxidative stress has been implicated as a contributor to impaired vascular function, the mechanism of an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats was investigated. METHODS: This present study was undertaken to characterize both the vascular production and the enzymatic source of the superoxide anion in the type 2 diabetic rats. RESULTS: In the thoracic aortas of OLETF rats, endothelium-dependent relaxation was markedly attenuated compared to that of the control rats (LETO, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka) in association with a significant increase in superoxide production (2421.39+/-07.01 nmol/min/mg). There was no difference in eNOS expression between the OLETF rats and LETO rats. The increased production of superoxide anion was significantly attenuated by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 mol/L), NAD (P)H oxidase inhibitor. In line with these results, studies using various enzyme inhibitors such as DPI, allopurinol, rotenone and L-NMMA suggest that the main source of superoxide anions in the aorta is NAD (P)H oxidase. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase activity and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability through an interaction between NO and superoxide anion contribute to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in OLETF rats.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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