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Association between Serum Cystatin C and Vascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Nephropathy
Hye Jeong Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyoil Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Hyeong Kyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):513-518.   Published online October 15, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0006
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  • 12 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recent studies have correlated serum cystatin C (CysC) with vascular complications, but few studies have investigated this correlation in diabetes patients without nephropathy. This study aimed to evaluate if higher serum CysC levels increase the risk for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with normal renal function or mild renal impairment.

Methods

A total of 806 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were admitted to the diabetes center of Soonchunhyang University Hospital for blood glucose control were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with nephropathy were excluded. Subjects were categorized into quartiles of serum CysC levels (Q1, ≤0.65 mg/L; Q2, 0.66 to 0.79 mg/L; Q3, 0.80 to 0.94 mg/L; and Q4, ≥0.95 mg/L).

Results

The proportion of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) (P for trend <0.001), coronary heart disease (CHD) (P for trend <0.001), and stroke (P for trend <0.001) increased across the serum CysC quartiles. After adjustment for confounding factors, the highest serum CysC level remained a significant risk factor for DR (odds ratio [OR], 1.929; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.007 to 4.144; P=0.040). Compared with Q1, a significant positive association was observed between serum CysC and CHD in Q2 (OR, 7.321; 95% CI, 1.114 to 48.114; P=0.012), Q3 (OR, 6.027; 95% CI, 0.952 to 38.161; P=0.020), and Q4 (OR, 8.122; 95% CI, 1.258 to 52.453; P=0.007). No associations were observed between CysC and stroke after additional adjustment for confounding variables.

Conclusion

Serum CysC levels are independently associated with DR and CHD, suggesting that CysC may be useful for identifying type 2 diabetes mellitus patients without nephropathy who are at high risk for vascular complications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 1998-2005
Myung Ha Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Nam Wook Hur, Dong Phil Choi, Chang Gyu Park, Il Suh
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(1):43-55.   Published online February 17, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.1.43
  • 3,845 View
  • 38 Download
  • 60 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Dyslipidemia is a disorder of lipid metabolism, including elevated total cholesterol, elevated triglyceride, elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The objective of this study was to investigate recent changes in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and also the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia among Korean adults.

Methods

Dyslipidemia is defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III as total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL, LDL-C ≥160 mg/dL, HDL-C <40 mg/dL, and triglyceride ≥200 mg/dL. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was estimated for adults aged ≥20 years using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 1998 (n=6,923), 2001 (n=4,882), and 2005 (n=5,323). Rates of awareness, treatment and control of dyslipidemia were calculated for adults aged ≥30 years using the KNHANES in 2005 (n=4,654).

Results

The prevalence of dyslipidemia (aged ≥20 years) increased from 32.4% in 1998 to 42.6% in 2001 and 44.1% in 2005. Compared with the KNHANES in 1998, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35% to 59%) higher in 2001 and 61% (95% CI, 49% to 75%) higher in 2005. In 2005, only 9.5% of people with dyslipidemia were aware of the disease, 5.2% used lipid-lowering medication, and 33.2% of patients with treatment reached treatment goals.

Conclusion

The prevalence of dyslipidemia in Korea gradually increased between 1998 and 2005. These findings suggest that more intense efforts for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia may lead to further improvement in the management of dyslipidemia.

Citations

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  • Response: Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 1998-2005 (Diabetes Metab J 2012;36:43-55)
    Hyeon Chang Kim
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Case Reports
A Case of Multifocal Pyomyositis in Diabetes Mellitus.
Eun Seo Park, Joo Hyun Kim, Bo Yong Jung, Jae Ho Park, Ji Hun Ahn, Jun Young Lee, Soon Ho Hwang, Kyung Wook Lee, Jong Kyu Han, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(2):140-144.   Published online March 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.2.140
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Pyomyositis is an acute bacterial infection of skeletal muscle, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It is common in the tropics but rare in temperate climates. In temperature climate there are predisposing factors, such as diabetes, HIV infection, malignancy. The incidence of reported bacterial pyomyositis is increasing in recently, especially among immunocompromised persons such as HIV infection or diabetes mellitus. We experience multifocal pyomyositis in 49-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with drowsy mental state. Muscular USG and MRI finding shows multifocal abscess in thigh. Blood culture revealed Staphyloccus aureus. And patient received a intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, incision and drainage. He was successfully managed with drainage and antibiotics then discharge. Since diabetes or infection with HIV predisposes patients to bacterial infection, pyomyositis will occur more frequently. Increased awareness if the disease will improve management.
A Case of Acute Multifocal Bacterial Nephritis Associated with Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.
Eun Kyung Park, Jae Hak Lee, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):379-384.   Published online August 1, 2003
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Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis is a severe form of acute renal infection in which a heavy leukocytic infiltrate occurs throughout the kidney. It is also an early phase of renal corticomedullary abscess. Clinically, patients have evidence of a severe urinary tract infection secondary to a gram-negative organism and there are frequently signs of sepsis. About half of the reported patients have been diabetics. Urinary tract infections are more common in diabetic women than in non-diabetic women. A variety of factors may contribute. The most important predisposing factor may be bladder dysfunction as a result of diabetic neuropathy and cystopathy. Diabetic cystopathy begins as decreased bladder sensation and decreased reflex detrusor activity caused by neuropathy affecting sympathetic and parasympathetic afferent fibers. Impaired bladder sensation results in bladder distention and increased residual urine volume. Long-term effects may eventually be vesicoureteral reflux and recurrent upper urinary tract infection. However, until now no diabetic patient with acute multifocal bacterial nephritis has been reported in Korea. Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and on radiologic grounds, including abdominal computed tomography showing multiple, wedge shaped, poorly defined areas of decreased contrast enhancement in multiple renal lobes. Therefore, we report the first Korean case of acute multifocal bacterial nephritis associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and review the literatures.
A Case of Invasive Aspergillosis of the Nasal Septum in a Patient with Diabetes Mellitus.
Tae Hoon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Jang Mook Kim, Yoon Jung Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):373-378.   Published online August 1, 2003
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Invasive aspergillosis of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is characterized by invasion and destruction of the bony sinus walls, the orbit, and other soft tissues of the face. It occurs particularly in patients with severe immune deficits, and less frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus. The therapeutic outcome of invasive aspergillosis is unsatisfactory. Mortality rates range from 50 to 80%, depending primarily on the underlying disease. In general, the prognosis depends on making a prompt diagnosis of infection and providing early treatment. However the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is difficult because there is no specific symptom, nor any rapid diagnostic method for confirmation. We report a case of a 64-year old woman with diabetes mellitus and invasive aspergillosis of the nasal septum. She was diagnosed by biopsy of the nasal septum and treated with systemic antifungal agent and surgical debridement. (Ed- paragraphs combined here) In conjunction with this case we review the previous literatures and suggest that prompt antifungal therapy with glycemic control is an important element in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in a diabetic patient.
A Case of Endogenous Endophthalmitis in a Patient with Diabetic Retinopathy.
Chang Hee Han, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Jun Sun Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):367-372.   Published online August 1, 2003
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Infectious endogenous endophthalmitis can occur by entrance of a pathogenic microorganism into the eye from various primary infection sites other than the eye. Although relatively rare, it results in visual loss frequently in spite of early diagnosis and treatment. It occurs in the process of systemic infection and its underlying conditions are diabetes, advanced liver disease, and immune suppressive state or drug abuse. We report a case of a 51-year old man with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and endogenous endophthalmitis caused by S. aureus from a skin infection. The ocular symptoms improved after systemic and intravitreal antibiotic therapy but visual loss could not be prevented. In conjunction with this case, we review the available literatures and stress the seriousness of this disease when concurrent in diabetic patients.
Original Articles
Impairment of Insulin Secretion by Fat Overload in Rat Pancreatic Islets and Effects of Antioxidants.
Chul Hee Kim, Chan Hee Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):347-356.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
It has recently been suggested that fat overload on pancreatic beta cells is responsible for the abnormal pattern of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant treatment was reported to preserve beta cell function in animal models of diabetes. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of various free fatty acids and triglyceride on insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets. In addition, we examined the effects of antioxidants. METHODS: Pancreatic islets of normal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by intraductal injection of collagenase and Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The islets were treated with palmitat0e (C16:0), oleate (C18:1), linoleate (C18:2), and triglyceride emulsions (intralipid) for 72hours. Basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretions were measured. The effects of the antioxidants, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetyl cysteine, were examined on the fat-induced change of insulin secretion. RESULTS: All of the free fatty acids and the triglyceride increased the basal insulin secretion. In contrast, insulin secretion stimulated by 27 mM glucose was significantly decreased after the treatment with free fatty acids or triglycerides. The antioxidant could not prevent the fat-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: These results show that various free fatty acids and triglyceride commonly cause defects in insulin secretion. However, we could not confirm the the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin secretory defect associated with fat overload.
Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Insulin Secretion in Rat Pancreatic Islets.
Chul Hee Kim, Chan Hee Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(4):265-273.   Published online August 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
It has been hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the progression of beta cell dysfunction in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, recent evidence suggests that ROS might be an integral component of intracellular signaling. This study was undertaken to examine effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on insulin secretion by various secretagogues in isolated rat pancreatic islets. METHODS: Pancreatic islets from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by intraductal injection of collagenase and Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. Isolated islets were treated with H2O2 directly added to the culture media or continuously generated by glucose-glucose oxidase system for 24 hours. Insulin secretion stimulated by glucose, arginine, and KCl was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Basal insulin secretion was increased after treatment with H2O2. Treatment with low concentration of H2O2 stimulated insulin secretion in response to 27 mM glucose. In contrast, insulin secretion stimulated by 27 mM glucose was significantly decreased after treatment with high concentrations of H2O2. Arginine- stimulated insulin secretion was increased by both low- and high concentrations of H2O2. Insulin secretion stimulated by KCl was not affected by treatment with H2O2. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the effect of H2O2 is diverse according to its concentration and different insulin secretagogues. In particular, H2O2 has a dual action on glucose-induced insulin secretion. At low concentration, H2O2 can stimulate insulin secretion probably by acting on signaling pathway of stimulus- secretion coupling. In contrast, high concentrations of H2O2 impairs glucose- induced insulin secretion, probably by acting as an oxidative stress.
Effects of Antioxidants on Ethidium Bromide-induced Inhibition of Insulin Secretion in Rat Pancreatic Islets.
Chul Hee Kim, Chan Hee Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(3):179-187.   Published online June 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
It was recently shown that mitochondrial function in pancreatic beta-cells is essential in nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. The inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription by ethidium bromide (EtBr) has been reported to suppress glucose-induced insulin secretion in beta-cell lines. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of EtBr on insulin secretion in isolated normal rat pancreatic islets, and to see whether antioxidants could protect the beta-cell function against the EtBr-induced impairment. METHODS: Pancreatic islets of normal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by intraductal injection of collagenase followed by Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. Isolated islets were treated with 0.2 +/- 2.0 microgram/mL of EtBr for 2 to 6 days, and the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion measured. The effects of the antioxidant, vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid, on the EtBr-induced inhibition of insulin secretion were also examined. RESULTS: EtBr inhibited the basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in normal rat pancreatic islets in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid prevented the EtBr-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: Our results show that antioxidant can protect normal rat pancreatic islets from the EtBr-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. This suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the insulin secretory defect associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.
Polymorphism of the Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP-1) Gene and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 (FABP2) Gene in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Sun Gyu Kim, Chul Hee Kim, Seog Ki Yun, Yeo Il Yun, Yong Hyun Kim, Il Song Nam, Ju Young Lee, Ji O Mok, Hyeong Kyu Park, Young Sun Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(4):262-272.   Published online August 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is well known that genetic component plays an important role in developing obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of candidate genes have been suggested, but the major gene determining the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes has not yet been uncovered. Previous studies suggest that polymorphisms of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) gene were related with obesity and/or insulin resistance in several populations. METHODS: We examined 76 type 2 diabetic patients (aged 44+/-6 years) and 96 healthy controls (aged 25+/-3 years). Ala54Thr polymorphism of the FABP2 gene and A to G polymorphism (-3826) of the UCP-1 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. RESULTS: The Thr54 allele of the FABP2 gene was found with a frequency of 0.33 in nondiabetic controls and 0.36 in type 2 diabetic patients. The genotype frequency of the Ala54Thr polymorphism was similar in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects ( 2=0.87, P=0.64). The -3826 G allele of UCP-1 gene was found with a frequency of 0.51 in nondiabetic controls, and 0.46 in type 2 diabetic patients. The genotype frequency of the -3826 A to G polymorphism was also similar in nondiabetic and diabetic subjects ( 2=1.46, p=0.46). When the subjects of each groups were subdivided into nonobese and obese group by BMI of 25 kg/m2, there was no significant difference in genotype frequencies of the UCP-1 and FABP2 gene polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that either the Ala54Thr polymorphism of the FABP2 gene or the A to G polymorphism (-3826) of UCP-1 gene do not play a major role in developing type 2 diabetes mellitus or obesity in Korean.
Effects of High Fat Diet on Lipolysis in Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue in Rats.
Chul Hee Kim, Yun Ey Chung, Seong Jin Lee, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Hong Kyu Kim, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(6):641-651.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It has been hypothesized that increased fat oxidation reduces glucose utilization in skeletal muscle, and is responsible for the insulin resistance associated with obesity or high-fat feeding. In contrast, there have been reports that fat oxidation capacity was decreased in skeletal muscles from insulin resistant subjects. This study was undertaken to examine whether insulin resistance in high- fat fed rats is associated with increased lipolysis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. METHODS: Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat or low-fat diets for 4 weeks. Lipolysis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was determined by measurement of interstitial glycerol concentrations by a microdialysis method in basal and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions. RESULTS: In basal state, plasma glycerol levels and interstitial glycerol concen trations of skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue were lower in high-fat fed than in low-fat fed rats. The degree of suppression of glycerol release by the hyperinsulinemia was smaller in the high-fat diet than in the low-fat diet group. However, plasma and interstitial glycerol concentrations during the hyperinsul inemic euglycemic clamps were also lower in the high-fat diet group. CONCLUSION: Lipolysis was decreased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of insulin resistant, high-fat fed rats. These results support the idea that limited fat oxidation capacity resulting in lipid accumulation in tissues, rather than increased fat oxida tion per se, is responsible for the insulin resistance associated with high-fat feeding.
Association Between Uncoupling Protein-1 and 3-adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Energy Metabolism in normal Korean Adults.
Jae Han Kim, Seog Ki Yun, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Byun, Young Sun Kim, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(6):803-813.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), expressed mainly in brown adipose tissue, are involved in the regulation of thermogenesis and lipolysis. Recent studies have shown that polymorphisms of the 3-AR (Trp64Arg) and UCP-1 (-3826, A to G) genes are associated with low basal metabolic rate (BMR) and obesity. METHODS: We investigated the effects of the beta3- AR and UCP-1 gene polymorphisms on body fat and energy metabolism in 65 normal Korean men aged from 21 to 36 years. The Trp64Arg mutation of the beta3-AR gene and A to G polymorphism (-3826) of UCP-1 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. RESULT: In normal Koreans, Arg64 allele frequency of the beta3-AR was 0.15 and the allele frequency of the A to G substitution of the UCP-1 gene was 0.48. No significant difference was found in BMR, body fat and abdominal fat amount in relation to beta3-AR or UCP-1 genotypes. However, when the polymorphisms of the two genes were combined, the subjects with the polymorphisms of both UCP-1 and g-AR genes were found to have higher body mass index, higher total fat and abdominal fat amount, lower BMR, and lower fat oxidation rate when compared with the subjects without these polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the polymorphisms of either beta3-AR or UCP-1 gene alone did not significantly affect BMR, fat oxidation and body fat amounts, but both UCP-1 and beta3-AR genes polymorphisms have synergistic effects on decreased basal metabolic rate, fat oxidation rate, and increased body fat in normal Korean adults.
Association between FABP2 Gene Polymorphism and Energy Metabolism in Normal Korean.
Seog Ki Yun, Chul Hee Kim, Young Sun Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Guk Bae Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):457-466.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) locus has been proprosed to be a major candidate gene in determining insulin resistance. It has been hypothesized that alanine to threonine substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr) of the FABP2 gene may result in enhanced intestinal uptake of fatty acids, and thereby an impairment of insulin action. FABP2 polymorphism was recently shown to be associated with insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans, Pima Indians, and Japanese, but not associated in the English, Wales, and Finn. METHODS: We investigated the association ot the FABP2 gene polymorphism and insulin resistance, fat absorption, and body fuel metabolism in 96 normal Korean men aged between 21 and 36 years. RESULTS: In normal Koreans, the alanine-encoding allele frequency was 0.66 and threonine encoding allele frequency was 0.34. Subjects with threonine-encoding allele were found to have a higher mean fasting plasma insulin concentration, a higher insulin resistance index, and a higher basal fat oxidation rate compared with subjects who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. CONCLUSION: These results show that the Ala54Thr substitution in the FABP2 gene is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance in normal Korean men.
The Frequency of ICA and anti-GAD Antibody in Korean IDDM and NIDDM Patients.
Kyung Soo Ko, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Nan Hee Kim, Dong Seop Choi, Sung Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Hak Chul Chang, Byoung Doo Rhee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):312-319.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It has been suggested that the clinical and immunological characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Koreans are different from those of Caucasians. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in Korean adults with IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM. METHODS: Seventy-seven Korean adults with IDDM and 245 recently(within 2 years) diagnosed NIDDM were included in the study. Islet cell cytoplasmic antibody was measured by immunohistochemical method, and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibody was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: 1) The prevalence of ICA, anti-GAD antibody positivity was 27% and 40% in IDDM patients, and 5% and 4% in recent-onset NIDDM patients, respectively. 2) The prevalence of ICA positivity in IDDM patients decreased from 42% within one year to 21% over one year after clinical onset of disease. On the other hand, the positivity of anti-GAD antibody did not change according to the duration of diabetes. 3) The prevalence of ICA tends to be lower in IDDW patients with low serum C-peptide concentrations. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-GAD antibody was not different according to sernm C-peptide levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the prevalence of ICA and antii-GAD antibody was lower in Korean adult IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM patients than that in Caucasians.
The Relationship between Salt Perception and Salt Intake in Diabetic patients.
Kye Young Huh, Il Suh, Kyung Rae Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Kyung Won Oh
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(1):74-83.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The increase of the prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus(DM) and its complications have become a public health problem in Korea. Especially, diabetic macrovascular disease and nephrosis preliminarily require the hypertension treatment which consists of reducing salt intake. Although the salt intake of diabetic patients is so important, there have not been sufficient studies on salt perception and salt intake of diabetic patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between salt perception and salt intake in diabetic patients. METHODS: The materials used in this study were questionnaires, anthropometric measurement, laboratory data and medical charts. Eighty-seven diabetic patients were interviewed at the out-patient department of internal medicine in Yonsei Medical Center Youngdong Severance Hospital. RESULTS: Of these patients, salt intake which was estimated through 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 16.6gm in men, 12.9gm in women. To the question, 'How much salt do you intake compared to common people?' 38% both men and women answered less. And to the question, Do you think that you should reduce your salt intake?' 55% of men and 33% of women answered 'No. To the question, Do you exert yourself to reduce your salt intake?, 66% of men and 68% of women answered 'Yes. And to the question, Can you reduce your salt intake?, 84% of men and 71% of women answered, Yes. And the major reason of being unable to reduce the salt intake was loss of taste. The relation of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and duration of DM, the degree of DM control, and the practice of diabetic diet therapy were not significant. CONCLUSION: No significant correlation was found between salt perception and salt intake. Their willingness for the reduction of salt intake were not put into practice in rea1 situation. As a follow-up measure, the medical staff is required to continuously monitor and give feedback to correct the amount of salt intake of diabetic patients. Furthermore, it can be strongly suggested that salt intake reduction program with low salt recipes should be developed and implemented far diabetic patients. This, in conjuction with other therapies such as medical monitoring, will eventually achieve the reduction of salt intake in diabetic patients.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal