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Repeated Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Induced PC-12 Cell Death through the Involvement of FOXO Transcription Factor
Na Han, You Jeong Kim, Su Min Park, Seung Man Kim, Ji Suk Lee, Hye Sook Jung, Eun Ju Lee, Tae Kyoon Kim, Tae Nyun Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Mi-kyung Kim, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jeong Hyun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(5):396-405.   Published online September 1, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.5.396
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  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Cognitive impairment and brain damage in diabetes is suggested to be associated with hypoglycemia. The mechanisms of hypoglycemia-induced neural death and apoptosis are not clear and reperfusion injury may be involved. Recent studies show that glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced more neuronal cell death than glucose deprivation itself. The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are implicated in the regulation of cell apoptosis and survival, but their role in neuronal cells remains unclear. We examined the role of FOXO transcription factors and the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in PC-12 cells exposed to repeated glucose deprivation/reperfusion.

Methods

PC-12 cells were exposed to control (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium [DMEM] containing 25 mM glucose) or glucose deprivation/reperfusion (DMEM with 0 mM glucose for 6 hours and then DMEM with 25 mM glucose for 18 hours) for 5 days. MTT assay and Western blot analysis were performed for cell viability, apoptosis, and the expression of survival signaling pathways. FOXO3/4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining was done to ascertain the involvement of FOXO transcription factors in glucose deprivation/reperfusion conditions.

Results

Compared to PC-12 cells not exposed to hypoglycemia, cells exposed to glucose deprivation/reperfusion showed a reduction of cell viability, decreased expression of phosphorylated Akt and Bcl-2, and an increase of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Of note, FOXO3 protein was localized in the nuclei of glucose deprivation/reperfusion cells but not in the control cells.

Conclusion

Repeated glucose deprivation/reperfusion caused the neuronal cell death. Activated FOXO3 via the PI3K/Akt pathway in repeated glucose deprivation/reperfusion was involved in genes related to apoptosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in cancer patients treated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors
    Gyuri Kim, Myungeun Yoo, Min Hee Hong, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Hye Ryun Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Byoung Chul Cho
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology.2019; 84(2): 405.     CrossRef
The Effect of Glucose Fluctuation on Apoptosis and Function of INS-1 Pancreatic Beta Cells
Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Sook Jung, Chang Shin Yoon, Jung Hae Ko, Hae Jung Jun, Tae Kyun Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):47-54.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.47
  • 3,779 View
  • 30 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Blood glucose level continuously fluctuates within a certain range in the human body. In diabetes patients, the extent of such fluctuation is large, despite the strict control of blood glucose. Blood glucose fluctuation has been shown to mediate more adverse effects on vascular endothelial cells and diabetes complications than chronic hyperglycemia, which has been explained as due to oxidative stress. As few previous studies have reported the effects of chronic and intermittent hyperglycemia on the apoptosis and function of pancreatic beta cells, this study reported herein was performed to investigate such effects on these cells.

Methods

For chronic hyperglycemia, INS-1 cells were cultured for 5 days with changes of RPMI 1640 medium containing 33 mM glucose every 12 hours. For intermittent hyperglycemia, the medium containing 11 mM glucose was exchanged with the medium containing 33 mM glucose every 12 hours. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay Hoechst staining and cleaved caspase 3. Insulin secretory capacity was assessed, and the expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2 was measured by Western blotting.

Results

In comparison to the control group, INS-1 cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia and intermittent hyperglycemia showed an increase in apoptosis. The apoptosis of INS-1 cells exposed to intermittent hyperglycemia increased significantly more than the apoptosis of INS-1 cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia. In comparison to the control group, the insulin secretory capacity in the two hyperglycemic states was decreased, and more with intermittent hyperglycemia than with chronic hyperglycemia. The expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2 increased more with chronic hyperglycemia than with intermittent hyperglycemia.

Conclusion

Intermittent hyperglycemia induced a higher degree of apoptosis and decreased the insulin secretory capacity more in pancreatic beta cells than chronic hyperglycemia. This activity may be mediated by the anti-oxidative enzyme Mn-SOD and the anti-apoptotic signal Bcl-2.

Citations

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  • Association between hemoglobin glycation index and diabetic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: A cross- sectional inpatient study
    Sixu Xin, Xin Zhao, Jiaxiang Ding, Xiaomei Zhang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plant polyphenols mechanisms of action on insulin resistance and against the loss of pancreatic beta cells
    Camelia Papuc, Gheorghe V. Goran, Corina N. Predescu, Liliana Tudoreanu, Georgeta Ștefan
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.2022; 62(2): 325.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between HbA1c and Triglyceride Level with Coronary Stenosis Degree in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Coronary Heart Disease
    Laily Adninta, Indranila Samsuria, Edward Kurnia Setiawan Limijadi
    Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.2022; 10(B): 944.     CrossRef
  • Age‐specific associations of glycated haemoglobin variability with cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A 10‐ year cohort study
    Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Esther Yee Tak Yu, Weng Yee Chin, Florence Ting Yan Ng, Shu Ming Cheryl Chia, Ian Chi Kei Wong, Esther Wai Yin Chan, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2020; 22(8): 1316.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Glucose Fluctuations on Diabetic Complications
    Zhen-Ye Zhang, Ling-Feng Miao, Ling-Ling Qian, Ning Wang, Miao-Miao Qi, Yu-Min Zhang, Shi-Peng Dang, Ying Wu, Ru-Xing Wang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Resolution on the results of the first working meeting of the scientific advisory board «Actual problems of glycemic variability as a new criterion of glycemic control and safety of diabetes therapy»
    Mikhail B. Antsiferov, Gagik R. Galstyan, Alexey V. Zilov, Alexander Y. Mayorov, Tatyana N. Markova, Nikolay A. Demidov, Olga M. Koteshkova, Dmitry N. Laptev, Alisa V. Vitebskaya
    Diabetes mellitus.2019; 22(3): 281.     CrossRef
  • Intermittent High Glucose Enhances the Proliferation of Rat Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells More Than Constant High Glucose via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway
    Sung Hoon Yu, Hyung Joon Yoo, Dong Hyun Kang, Shin Je Moon, Jae Myung Yu
    Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research.2017; 21(3): 131.     CrossRef
  • Association of variability in hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular diseases and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus — A retrospective population-based cohort study
    Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Colman Siu Cheung Fung, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Cindy Lo Kuen Lam
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2016; 30(7): 1240.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents INS-1 cell death from intermittent high glucose stress
    You Jeong Kim, Su Min Park, Hye Sook Jung, Eun Ju Lee, Tae Kyoon Kim, Tae-Nyun Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Byoung Doo Rhee, Mi-kyung Kim, Jeong Hyun Park
    Islets.2016; 8(3): 57.     CrossRef
  • Different antihyperglycaemic drug effects on glycaemic variability in Type 2 diabetic patients
    Alina Babenko, Elena Ivanovna Krasilnikova, Nikolay Pavlovich Likhonosov, Anna Pavlovna Likhonosova, Elena Nikolaevna Grineva
    Diabetes mellitus.2014; 17(4): 72.     CrossRef
  • Exercising for Metabolic Control: Is Timing Important
    Jonida Haxhi, Alessandro Scotto di Palumbo, Massimo Sacchetti
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism.2013; 62(1): 14.     CrossRef
  • Combined contributions of over-secreted glucagon-like peptide 1 and suppressed insulin secretion to hyperglycemia induced by gatifloxacin in rats
    Yunli Yu, Xinting Wang, Can Liu, Dan Yao, Mengyue Hu, Jia Li, Nan Hu, Li Liu, Xiaodong Liu
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.2013; 266(3): 375.     CrossRef
  • Blood glucose fluctuation affects skin collagen metabolism in the diabetic mouse by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase and Smad pathways
    X. Ye, X. Cheng, L. Liu, D. Zhao, Y. Dang
    Clinical and Experimental Dermatology.2013; 38(5): 530.     CrossRef
  • Glucose exposure pattern determines glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor expression and signaling through endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat insulinoma cells
    Ye-Hwang Cheong, Mi-Kyung Kim, Moon-Ho Son, Bong-Kiun Kaang
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.2011; 414(1): 220.     CrossRef
  • Overexpression of Insig-1 protects β cell against glucolipotoxicity via SREBP-1c
    Ke Chen, ping jin, Hong-hui He, Yan-hong Xie, Xiao-yun Xie, Zhao-hui Mo
    Journal of Biomedical Science.2011;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of glycemic variability and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Gong Su, Shuhua Mi, Hong Tao, Zhao Li, Hongxia Yang, Hong Zheng, Yun Zhou, Changsheng Ma
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2011;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lithospermic acid B protects beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis by alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2–HO-1 and Sirt1
    Byung-Wan Lee, Sung Wan Chun, Soo Hyun Kim, Yongho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.2011; 252(1): 47.     CrossRef
  • WITHDRAWN: Effect of blood glucose fluctuation on the function of rat pancreatic islets in vivo
    Wang Yanjun, Xiao Yue, Li Shixing
    Regulatory Peptides.2011;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Protective Effect of EGCG on INS-1 Cell in the Oxidative Stress and Mechanism.
Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Sook Jung, Chang Shin Yoon, Min Jeong Kwon, Kyung Soo Koh, Byung Doo Rhee, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(2):121-130.   Published online April 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.2.121
  • 2,040 View
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is important in both diabetic complications and the development and the progression of type 2 diabetes via the effects on the pancreatic beta-cells. EGCG (epigallocatechin galleate), a major constituent of green tea, has been known to have beneficial effects on various diseases through the mechanisms of antioxidant and cell signaling modulation. But, very small numbers of studies were published about the direct effects of EGCG on the pancreatic beta cell lines. We performed this study to see the protective effect of EGCG on pancreatic beta cell line under H2O2 and the mechanisms of this phenomenon. METHODS: We used INS-1 cells and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidative stressor. Their viabilities were verified by MTT assay and FACS. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was assessed by total glutathione quantification kit. Western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR for the catalase, SOD (superoxide dismutase), PI3K and Akt were performed. Functional status of INS-1 cells was tested by GSIS (glucose stimulated insulin secretion). RESULTS: The biological effects of EGCG were different according to its concentrations. 10 micrometer EGCG effectively protected hydrogen peroxide induced damage in INS-1 cells. The expression and the activity of SOD, catalase and the glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased by EGCG. EGCG significantly increased PI3K and Akt activity and its effect was inhibited partially by wortmannin. GSIS was well preserved by EGCG. CONCLUSION: EGCG in low concentration effectively protected INS-1 cells from the oxidative stress through the activation of both antioxidant systems and anti-apoptosis signaling. Further studies will be necessary for the more detailed mechanisms and the clinical implications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Suppressive Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate Pretreatment on the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in RAW264.7 Cells Activated by Lipopolysaccharide
    Eun Ji Seo, Jun Go, Ji Eun Kim, Eun Kyoung Koh, Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Sung, Chan Kyu Park, Hyun Ah Lee, Dong Seob Kim, Hong Joo Son, Cung Yeoul Lee, Hee Seob Lee, Dae Youn Hwang
    Journal of Life Science.2015; 25(9): 961.     CrossRef
  • The Protective Effects of Chrysanthemum cornarium L. var. spatiosum Extract on HIT-T15 Pancreatic β-Cells against Alloxan-induced Oxidative Stress
    In-Hye Kim, Kang-Jin Cho, Jeong-Sook Ko, Jae-Hyun Kim, Ae-Son Om
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition.2012; 25(1): 123.     CrossRef
  • Protective Effects of Sasa Borealis Leaves Extract on High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
    Ji-Young Hwang, Ji-Sook Han
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(12): 1753.     CrossRef
Cytoprotective Effect by Antioxidant Activity of Quercetin in INS-1 Cell Line.
Min Jeong Kwon, Hye Sook Jung, Mi Kyung Kim, Seong Hoon Kang, Gwang Wook Seo, Jae Kwang Song, Tae Yeon Yoon, Min Kyeong Jeon, Tae Hwan Ha, Chang Shin Yoon, Mi Kyung Kim, Woo Je Lee, Jeong Hyun Noh, Soo Kyung Kwon, Dong Joon Kim, Kyung Soo Koh, Byung Doo Rhee, Kyung Ho Lim, Soon Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):383-390.   Published online September 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.5.383
  • 2,484 View
  • 27 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is induced under diabetic conditions and causes various forms of tissue damages in the patients with diabetes. Recently, pancreatic beta cells are regarded as a putative target of oxidative stress-induced tissue damage, and this seems to explain in part the progressive deterioration of beta cell function in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of Quercetin (QE) to protect INS-1 cells from the H2O2-induced oxidative stress and the effects of QE on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. METHODS: To study the cell viability, cells were incubated with H2O2 and/or QE at the various concentrations. To confirm the protective effect by QE in response to H2O2, the levels of antioxidant enzymes were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot, and glutathione peroxidase activities were quantified by spectrophotometrical method. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Cell incubations were performed with 80 microM of H2O2 for 5 hours to induce 40 - 50% of cell death. QE gradually showed protective effect (IC50 = 50 microM) in dose-dependent manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA level in H2O2 + QE group was increased as compared to H2O2 group, but catalase did not changed. And the QE recruited glutathione peroxidase activity against H2O2-induced oxidative injuries in INS-1 cells. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these findings suggest that QE might have protective effect on beta cells by ameliorating oxidative stress and preserving insulin secretory function.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Anti-diabetic effects of Allium tuberosum rottler extracts and lactic acid bacteria fermented extracts in type 2 diabetic mice model
    Bae Jin Kim, Seung Kyeung Jo, Yoo Seok Jeong, Hee Kyoung Jung
    Korean Journal of Food Preservation.2015; 22(1): 134.     CrossRef
  • Protective Effects of Sasa Borealis Leaves Extract on High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
    Ji-Young Hwang, Ji-Sook Han
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(12): 1753.     CrossRef

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