Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal

Search
OPEN ACCESS

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
19 "Hong Sun Baek"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles
Original Article
Others
Comparison of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin
Jong Ho Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Hong Sun Baek, In Kyu Lee, Dong Jin Chung, Ho Sang Sohn, Hak Yeon Bae, Mi Kyung Kim, Jeong Hyun Park, Young Sik Choi, Young Il Kim, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Chang Won Lee, Sung Rae Jo, Mi Kyung Park, Kwang Jae Lee, In Joo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):230-239.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.230
  • 5,111 View
  • 48 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We compared the efficacies of vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) relative to pioglitazone (15 mg once daily) as an add-on treatment to metformin for reducing glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

The present study was a multicenter, randomized, active-controlled investigation comparing the effects of vildagliptin and pioglitazone in Korean patients receiving a stable dose of metformin but exhibiting inadequate glycemic control. Each patient underwent a 16-week treatment period with either vildagliptin or pioglitazone as an add-on treatment to metformin.

Results

The mean changes in HbA1c levels from baseline were –0.94% in the vildagliptin group and –0.6% in the pioglitazone group and the difference between the treatments was below the non-inferiority margin of 0.3%. The mean changes in postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels were –60.2 mg/dL in the vildagliptin group and –38.2 mg/dL in the pioglitazone group and these values significantly differed (P=0.040). There were significant decreases in the levels of total, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and non-HDL cholesterol in the vildagliptin group but increases in the pioglitazone group. The mean change in body weight was –0.07 kg in the vildagliptin group and 0.69 kg in the pioglitazone group, which were also significantly different (P=0.002).

Conclusion

As an add-on to metformin, the efficacy of vildagliptin for the improvement of glycemic control is not inferior to that of pioglitazone in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, add-on treatment with vildagliptin had beneficial effects on PPG levels, lipid profiles, and body weight compared to pioglitazone.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors contributing to the adverse drug reactions associated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors: A scoping review
    Swetha R. Reghunath, Muhammed Rashid, Viji Pulikkel Chandran, Girish Thunga, K.N. Shivashankar, Leelavathi D. Acharya
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2023; 17(7): 102790.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of evogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease: A multicentre, double‐blind, randomized, comparative trial
    Eugene Han, Ji Hye Huh, Eun Y. Lee, Ji C. Bae, Sung W. Chun, Sung H. Yu, Soo H. Kwak, Kyong S. Park, Byung‐Wan Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(4): 752.     CrossRef
  • A double‐blind, Randomized controlled trial on glucose‐lowering EFfects and safety of adding 0.25 or 0.5 mg lobeglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with INadequate control on metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor therapy: REFIND study
    Soree Ryang, Sang Soo Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Su Kyoung Kwon, Young Il Kim, Il Seong Nam‐Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Mi‐kyung Kim, Chang Won Lee, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1800.     CrossRef
  • The rs12617336 and rs17574 Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Polymorphisms Are Associated With Hypoalphalipoproteinemia and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Serum Levels: A Case-Control Study of the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) Cohort
    Gilberto Vargas-Alarcón, María del Carmen González-Salazar, Christian Vázquez-Vázquez, Adrián Hernández-Díaz Couder, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Juan Reyes-Barrera, Sergio A. Criales-Vera, Marco Sánchez-Guerra, Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Rosalinda Posadas-Sánchez
    Frontiers in Genetics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Reduction in HbA1c with SGLT2 inhibitors vs. DPP-4 inhibitors as add-ons to metformin monotherapy according to baseline HbA1c: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    A.J. Scheen
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2020; 46(3): 186.     CrossRef
  • Combination Therapy of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Cardiovascular Risks of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: Analyses of Real-world Data in Korea
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bongseong Kim, Hae Sol Shin, Jinhee Lee, Hansol Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Dae Jung Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2018; 48(5): 395.     CrossRef
  • Safety and efficacy of low dose pioglitazone compared with standard dose pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes with chronic kidney disease: A randomized controlled trial
    Bancha Satirapoj, Khanin Watanakijthavonkul, Ouppatham Supasyndh, Stephen L Atkin
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(10): e0206722.     CrossRef
  • Combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung-Hyun Ko, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan-Hee Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 974.     CrossRef
  • Combination Therapy of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Seung-Hyun Ko, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan-Hee Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 357.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of adding evogliptin versus sitagliptin for metformin‐treated patients with type 2 diabetes: A 24‐week randomized, controlled trial with open label extension
    Sang‐Mo Hong, Cheol‐Young Park, Dong‐Min Hwang, Kyung Ah Han, Chang Beom Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Kun‐Ho Yoon, Ji‐Oh Mok, Kyong Soo Park, Sung‐Woo Park
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2017; 19(5): 654.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 947.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 337.     CrossRef
Review
Pathophysiology
Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy
Heung Yong Jin, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(6):461-467.   Published online December 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.6.461
  • 3,499 View
  • 40 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impaired Cardiovagal Activity as a Link Between Hyperglycemia and Arterial Stiffness in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Among an Eastern Indian Population: A Cross-sectional Study
    Nibedita Priyadarsini, Devineni Likhitha, Madumathy Ramachandran, Kishore Kumar Behera
    Canadian Journal of Diabetes.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diabetic visceral neuropathy of gastroparesis: Gastric mucosal innervation and clinical significance
    Ping‐Huei Tseng, Chi‐Chao Chao, Ya‐Yin Cheng, Chieh‐Chang Chen, Ping‐Hao Yang, Wei‐Kang Yang, Shao‐Wei Wu, Yen‐Wen Wu, Mei‐Fang Cheng, Wei‐Shiung Yang, Ming‐Shiang Wu, Sung‐Tsang Hsieh
    European Journal of Neurology.2022; 29(7): 2097.     CrossRef
  • Pathogenesis of Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy in Diabetes
    Sasha Smith, Pasha Normahani, Tristan Lane, David Hohenschurz-Schmidt, Nick Oliver, Alun Huw Davies
    Life.2022; 12(7): 1074.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Ischemic Heart Disease: Prevention and Therapy by Exercise and Conditioning
    Antonio Crisafulli, Pasquale Pagliaro, Silvana Roberto, Lucia Cugusi, Giuseppe Mercuro, Antigone Lazou, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand, Derek J. Hausenloy, Manuela Aragno, Claudia Penna
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020; 21(8): 2896.     CrossRef
  • Distribution characteristics of sweat gland nerve fibres in normal humans identified by acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining
    Li Ling, Yongdan Liu, Yifei Sun, Yun Cai, Ye Jiang, Longjian Chen, Long He, Jinwei Xue
    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.2020; 189: 105620.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes abolish cardioprotective effects of remote ischemic conditioning: evidences and possible mechanisms
    Sakshi Tyagi, Nirmal Singh, Jasleen kaur Virdi, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
    Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry.2019; 75(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Regulation of glucose metabolism by bioactive phytochemicals for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Sydney Tang Chi Wai, Yanbo Zhang, Maria P. Portillo, Paolo Paoli, Yijing Wu, Wai San Cheang, Bin Liu, Christian Carpéné, Jianbo Xiao, Hui Cao
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.2019; 59(6): 830.     CrossRef
  • Pulse pressure amplification and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Ioanna Eleftheriadou, George C. Drosos, Anastasios Tentolouris, Giorgios Konstantonis, Petros P. Sfikakis, Athanasios D. Protogerou, Nikolaos Tentolouris
    Journal of Human Hypertension.2018; 32(8-9): 531.     CrossRef
  • Exposure to hypoglycemia and risk of stroke
    Logan Smith, Diya Chakraborty, Pallab Bhattacharya, Deepaneeta Sarmah, Sebastian Koch, Kunjan R. Dave
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.2018; 1431(1): 25.     CrossRef
  • Association between the risk of falls and osteoporotic fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Maki Yokomoto-Umakoshi, Ippei Kanazawa, Shiori Kondo, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
    Endocrine Journal.2017; 64(7): 727.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes‐induced mechanophysiological changes in the esophagus
    Jingbo Zhao, Hans Gregersen
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.2016; 1380(1): 139.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Clinical Care/Education
Insulin Initiation in Insulin-Naïve Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients Inadequately Controlled on Oral Antidiabetic Drugs in Real-World Practice: The Modality of Insulin Treatment Evaluation Study
Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Kun Ho Yoon, Ho Young Son, Sung Woo Park, Yeon Ah Sung, Hong Sun Baek
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(6):481-488.   Published online November 25, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.6.481
  • 3,938 View
  • 69 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The Modality of Insulin Treatment Evaluation (MOTIV) study was performed to provide real-world data concerning insulin initiation in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with inadequate glycemic control with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs).

Methods

This multicenter, non-interventional, prospective, observational study enrolled T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥7.0%) who had been on OHAs for ≥3 months and were already decided to introduce basal insulin by their physician prior to the start of the study. All treatment decisions were at the physician's discretion to reflect real-world practice.

Results

A total of 9,196 patients were enrolled, and 8,636 patients were included in the analysis (mean duration of diabetes, 8.9 years; mean HbA1c, 9.2%). Basal insulin plus one OHA was the most frequently (51.0%) used regimen. After 6 months of basal insulin treatment, HbA1c decreased to 7.4% and 44.5% of patients reached HbA1c <7%. Body weight increased from 65.2 kg to 65.5 kg, which was not significant. Meanwhile, there was significant increase in the mean daily insulin dose from 16.9 IU at baseline to 24.5 IU at month 6 (P<0.001). Overall, 17.6% of patients experienced at least one hypoglycemic event.

Conclusion

In a real-world setting, the initiation of basal insulin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in Korean patients with T2DM who are failing to meet targets with OHA therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Real-World Outcomes of Individualized Targeted Therapy with Insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL in Insulin-Naïve Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes: TOBE Study
    Eun-Gyoung Hong, Kyung-Wan Min, Jung Soo Lim, Kyu-Jeung Ahn, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae-Myung Yu, Hye Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Won Kim, Dong Han Kim, Hak Chul Jang
    Advances in Therapy.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Evidence and Practice-Based Guidelines on the Utility of Basal Insulin Combined Oral Therapy (Metformin and Glimepiride) in the Current Era
    Abhishek Shrivastava, Jothydev Kesavadev, Viswanathan Mohan, Banshi Saboo, Dina Shrestha, Anuj Maheshwari, Brij Mohan Makkar, Kirtikumar D. Modi, Ashok Kumar Das
    Current Diabetes Reviews.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Where to Initiate Basal Insulin Therapy: Inpatient or Outpatient Department? Real-World Observation in China
    Minyuan Chen, Puhong Zhang, Yang Zhao, Nadila Duolikun, Linong Ji
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2022; Volume 15: 3375.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Effect of Quadruple Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Insulin Limitations
    Won Sang Yoo, Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Hyun Kyung Chung
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(2): 117.     CrossRef
  • Use of Insulin Glargine 100 U/mL for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in East Asians: A Review
    Takahisa Hirose, Ching-Chu Chen, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Jacek Kiljański
    Diabetes Therapy.2019; 10(3): 805.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide Trends in Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors
    Minyoung Lee, Jiyu Sun, Minkyung Han, Yongin Cho, Ji-Yeon Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Eun Seok Kang
    Diabetes Care.2019; 42(11): 2057.     CrossRef
  • Insulin therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017
    Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 967.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017
    Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 367.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of Vildagliptin in Clinical Practice: Pooled Analysis of Three Korean Observational Studies (the VICTORY Study)
    Sunghwan Suh, Sun Ok Song, Jae Hyeon Kim, Hyungjin Cho, Woo Je Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2017; 2017: 1.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Antidiabetic Regimens in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Uncontrolled by Combination Therapy of Sulfonylurea and Metformin: Results of the MOHAS Disease Registry in Korea
    Sung Hee Choi, Tae Jung Oh, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(3): 170.     CrossRef
  • Instauration d’une insulinothérapie chez le patient diabétique de type 2 en médecine générale : Comparaison de l’étude belge InsuStar avec quelques études françaises et internationales
    A.-J. Scheen
    Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques.2016; 10(4): 334.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Anemia and the Initiation of Dialysis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy
Sun Hee Kim, Kyung Ae Lee, Heung Yong Jin, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(3):240-246.   Published online April 22, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.3.240
  • 3,656 View
  • 32 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Anemia is associated with various poor clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anemia and the initiation degree and time of dialysis in type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients.

Methods

This observational retrospective study included 130 type 2 diabetic nephropathy patients in Korea. The existence of anemia, the degree and time of dialysis initiation were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and variables were also compared.

Results

The levels of hemoglobin and serum creatinine were significantly correlated with the dialysis initiation (P<0.05) during the 10-year follow-up period. Patients with anemia showed rapid decline of renal function, causing significantly more dialysis initiation (54.1% vs. 5.4%, P<0.05) compare to the patients without anemia. Average time to initiate dialysis in patients with anemia was 45.1 months (range, 8.0 to 115.8 months), which was significantly faster than that (68.3 months [range, 23.3 to 108.8 months]) in patients without anemia (P<0.01). The risk to dialysis initiation was significantly increased in patients with anemia compared to the patients without anemia (adjusted hazard ratio, 8.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 27.0; P<0.05).

Conclusion

Anemia is associated with rapid decline of renal dysfunction and faster initiation of dialysis in diabetic nephropathy patients. Therefore, clinicians should pay an earlier attention to anemia during the management of diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Microalbuminuria as the Tip of Iceberg in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Diabetic Complications
    Sohaib Asghar, Shoaib Asghar, Tayyab Mahmood, Syed Muhammad Hassan Bukhari, Muhammad Habib Mumtaz, Ali Rasheed
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Association between Serum Hemoglobin and Renal Prognosis of IgA Nephropathy
    Tae Ryom Oh, Su Hyun Song, Hong Sang Choi, Chang Seong Kim, Seung Hyeok Han, Kyung Pyo Kang, Young Joo Kwon, Soo Wan Kim, Seong Kwon Ma, Eun Hui Bae
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(2): 363.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of anemia in diabetic adult outpatients in Northeast Ethiopia
    Temesgen Fiseha, Aderaw Adamu, Melkam Tesfaye, Angesom Gebreweld, Jennifer A. Hirst
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(9): e0222111.     CrossRef
  • Targeted Clinical Metabolite Profiling Platform for the Stratification of Diabetic Patients
    Ahonen, Jäntti, Suvitaival, Theilade, Risz, Kostiainen, Rossing, Orešič, Hyötyläinen
    Metabolites.2019; 9(9): 184.     CrossRef
  • Effect of high density lipoprotein cholesterol on the relationship of serum iron and hemoglobin with kidney function in diabetes
    Ashley N. Williams, Baqiyyah N. Conway
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2017; 31(6): 958.     CrossRef
Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Patients Transferred to Korean Referral Hospitals
Min Young Oh, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, In Kyu Lee, Hong Sun Baek, Hyoung Woo Lee, Min Young Chung
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(5):388-394.   Published online October 17, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.5.388
  • 3,547 View
  • 26 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We evaluated the disease profile and clinical management, including the status of both glycemic control and complications, in patients with diabetes who were transferred to referral hospitals in Korea.

Methods

Patients referred to 20 referral hospitals in Gyeongsangnam/Gyeongsangbuk-do and Jeollanam/Jeollabuk-do with at least a 1-year history of diabetes between January and June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed using medical records, laboratory tests, and questionnaires.

Results

A total of 654 patients were enrolled in the study. In total, 437 patients (67%) were transferred from clinics and 197 (30%) patients were transferred from hospitals. A total of 279 patients (43%) visited higher medical institutions without a written medical request. The main reason for the referral was glycemic control in 433 patients (66%). Seventy-three patients (11%) had received more than one session of diabetic education. Only 177 patients (27%) had been routinely self-monitoring blood glucose, and 146 patients (22%) were monitoring hemoglobin A1c. In addition, proper evaluations for diabetic complications were performed for 74 patients (11%). The most common complication was neuropathy (32%) followed by nephropathy (31%). In total, 538 patients (82%) had been taking oral hypoglycemic agents. A relatively large number of patients (44%) had been taking antihypertensive medications.

Conclusion

We investigated the clinical characteristics of diabetic patients and identified specific problems in diabetic management prior to the transfer. We also found several problems in the medical system, which were divided into three medical institutions having different roles in Korea. Our findings suggested that the relationships among medical institutions have to be improved, particularly for diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations between artificial sweetener intake from cereals, coffee, and tea and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A genetic correlation, mediation, and mendelian randomization analysis
    Youqian Zhang, Zitian Tang, Yong Shi, Lin Li, Pratibha V. Nerurkar
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(2): e0287496.     CrossRef
  • Transfers between health facilities of people living with diabetes attending primary health care services in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A retrospective cohort study
    Jasantha Odayar, Jody Rusch, Joel A. Dave, Diederick J. Van Der Westhuizen, Elton Mukonda, Maia Lesosky, Landon Myer
    Tropical Medicine & International Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The protective role of oily fish intake against type 2 diabetes: insights from a genetic correlation and Mendelian randomization study
    Youqian Zhang, Entong Ren, Chunlong Zhang, Yang Wang, Xiaohe Chen, Lin Li
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A double‐blind, Randomized controlled trial on glucose‐lowering EFfects and safety of adding 0.25 or 0.5 mg lobeglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients with INadequate control on metformin and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor therapy: REFIND study
    Soree Ryang, Sang Soo Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Ji Min Han, Su Kyoung Kwon, Young Il Kim, Il Seong Nam‐Goong, Eun Sook Kim, Mi‐kyung Kim, Chang Won Lee, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(9): 1800.     CrossRef
  • Nonalbumin proteinuria is a simple and practical predictor of the progression of early-stage type 2 diabetic nephropathy
    Jong Ho Kim, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim, Min Jin Lee, Yun Kyung Jeon, Bo Hyun Kim, Sang Heon Song, Yong Ki Kim
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2017; 31(2): 395.     CrossRef
Relationship between the Korean Version Survey of the Autonomic Symptoms Score and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Parameters in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Sun Hee Kim, Kyung Ae Lee, Heung Yong Jin, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(5):349-355.   Published online October 17, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.5.349
  • 5,130 View
  • 50 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The Survey of Autonomic Symptom (SAS) scale was reported as an easy instrument to assess the autonomic symptoms in patients with early diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the SAS scale and the parameters of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in Korean patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN).

Methods

The SAS scale was tested in 30 healthy controls and 73 patients with DPN at Chonbuk National University Hospital, in Korea. The SAS score was compared to the parameters of the CAN test and the total symptom score (TSS) for DPN in patients with DPN.

Results

The SAS symptom score and total impact score were increased in patients with DPN compared to the control group (P=0.01), particularly in sudomotor dysfunction (P=0.01), and vasomotor dysfunction (P=0.01). The SAS score was increased in patients with CAN compared to patients without CAN (P<0.05). Among the diverse CAN parameters, the valsalva ratio and postural hypotension were associated with the SAS score (P<0.05). However, there was no association between the SAS scale and TSS for DPN, and TSS for DPN did not differ between patients with and without CAN.

Conclusion

SAS is a simple instrument that can be used to assess autonomic symptoms in patients with diabetes and can be used as a screening tool for autonomic neuropathy, particularly for CAN.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Autonomic neuropathic symptoms in patients with diabetes: practical tools for screening in daily routine
    Ana Raquel Souza de Azevedo Vieira, Lara Benigno Porto-Dantas, Flaviene Alves do Prado Romani, Patrícia Souza Carvalho, Rodica Pop-Busui, Hermelinda Cordeiro Pedrosa
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Symptomatic diabetic autonomic neuropathy in type 1 diabetes (T1D): Findings from the T1D exchange
    Kara Mizokami-Stout, Ryan Bailey, Lynn Ang, Grazia Aleppo, Carol J. Levy, Michael R. Rickels, Viral N. Shah, Sarit Polsky, Bryce Nelson, Anders L. Carlson, Francesco Vendrame, Rodica Pop-Busui
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2022; 36(5): 108148.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Assessment Scales in Autonomic Nervous System Disorders
    Eun Bin Cho, Ki-Jong Park
    Journal of the Korean Neurological Association.2021; 39(2 Suppl): 60.     CrossRef
  • Peripheral Nerve Conduction And Sympathetic Skin Response Are Reliable Methods to Detect Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy
    Xiaopu Lin, Chuna Chen, Yingshan Liu, Yu Peng, Zhenguo Chen, Haishan Huang, Lingling Xu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predictive model to identify the risk of losing protective sensibility of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus
    Esther Chicharro‐Luna, Francisco José Pomares‐Gómez, Ana Belen Ortega‐Ávila, Ana Marchena‐Rodríguez, José Francisco Javier Blanquer‐Gregori, Emmanuel Navarro‐Flores
    International Wound Journal.2020; 17(1): 220.     CrossRef
  • The hemodynamic and pain impact of peripheral nerve block versus spinal anesthesia in diabetic patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery
    Hou Yee Lai, Li Lian Foo, Siu Min Lim, Chen Fei Yong, Pui San Loh, Sook Hui Chaw, Mohd Shahnaz Hasan, Chew Yin Wang
    Clinical Autonomic Research.2020; 30(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • Update on the Impact, Diagnosis and Management of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes: What Is Defined, What Is New, and What Is Unmet
    Vincenza Spallone
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Validation of the Composite Autonomic Symptom Score 31 (COMPASS 31) for the assessment of symptoms of autonomic neuropathy in people with diabetes
    C. Greco, F. Di Gennaro, C. D'Amato, R. Morganti, D. Corradini, A. Sun, S. Longo, D. Lauro, G. Pierangeli, P. Cortelli, V. Spallone
    Diabetic Medicine.2017; 34(6): 834.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction Predicts Diabetic Foot Ulcers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Without Diabetic Polyneuropathy
    Jae-Seung Yun, Seon-Ah Cha, Tae-Seok Lim, Eun-Young Lee, Ki-Ho Song, Yu-Bae Ahn, Ki-Dong Yoo, Joon-Sung Kim, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Medicine.2016; 95(12): e3128.     CrossRef
  • Retinal Neurodegeneration Associated With Peripheral Nerve Conduction and Autonomic Nerve Function in Diabetic Patients
    Kiyoung Kim, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung Woo Kwak, Eung Suk Kim
    American Journal of Ophthalmology.2016; 170: 15.     CrossRef
  • Screening of Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(5): 346.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on the Peripheral Nerves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat
Kyung Ae Lee, Kyung Taek Park, Hea Min Yu, Heung Yong Jin, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):286-290.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.286
  • 3,190 View
  • 26 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

There are controversial reports about the effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in peripheral nerve protection. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of G-CSF on peripheral nerves in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. After STZ or vehicle injection, rats were divided into five groups (n=6) as follows: normal+vehicle, normal+G-CSF (50 µg/kg for 5 days), diabetes mellitus (DM)+vehicle, DM+G-CSF (50 µg/kg for 5 days), and DM+G-CSF extension (50 µg/kg for 5 days and followed by two injections per week up to 24 weeks). Our results showed that the current perception threshold was not significantly different among experimental groups. G-CSF treatment inhibited the loss of cutaneous nerves and gastric mucosal small nerve fibers in morphometric comparison, but statistical significance was not observed. The present results demonstrated that G-CSF has no harmful but minimal beneficial effects with respect to peripheral nerve preservation in diabetic rats.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Colony stimulating factors in the nervous system
    Violeta Chitu, Fabrizio Biundo, E. Richard Stanley
    Seminars in Immunology.2021; 54: 101511.     CrossRef
  • Non-glucose risk factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
    Kyung Ae Lee, Tae Sun Park, Heung Yong Jin
    Endocrine.2020; 70(3): 465.     CrossRef
  • Two to Tango: Dialogue between Adaptive and Innate Immunity in Type 1 Diabetes
    Lin Sun, Shugang Xi, Guangyu He, Zhuo Li, Xiaokun Gang, Chenglin Sun, Weiying Guo, Guixia Wang
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
  • Transplantation of human mobilized mononuclear cells improved diabetic neuropathy
    Se Hee Min, Jung Hee Kim, Yu Mi Kang, Seung Hak Lee, Byung-Mo Oh, Kyou-Sup Han, Meihua Zhang, Hoe Suk Kim, Woo Kyung Moon, Hakmo Lee, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
    Journal of Endocrinology.2018; 239(3): 277.     CrossRef
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor as a treatment for diabetic neuropathy in rat
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Yi-Sun Song, Jiyong Jin, Jun-Ho Joe, Byung-Im So, Jun-Young Park, Cheng-Hu Fang, Mi Jung Kim, Youl-Hee Cho, Sejin Hwang, Young-Suck Ro, Hyuck Kim, You-Hern Ahn, Hak-Joon Sung, Jung-Joon Sung, Sung-Hye Park, Stuart A. Lipton
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.2015; 414: 64.     CrossRef
Original Articles
The Correlation and Accuracy of Glucose Levels between Interstitial Fluid and Venous Plasma by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
Young Ha Baek, Heung Yong Jin, Kyung Ae Lee, Seon Mee Kang, Woong Ji Kim, Min Gul Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Soo Wan Chae, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):350-358.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.350
  • 4,750 View
  • 50 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Clinical experience with the continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) is limited in Korea. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the CGMS and the correlation between interstitial fluid and venous plasma glucose level in Korean healthy male subjects.

Methods

Thirty-two subjects were served with glucose solution contained same amount of test food's carbohydrate and test foods after separate overnight fasts. CGMS was performed over 3 days during hopitalization for each subjects. Venous plasma glucose measurements were carried out during 4 hours (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours) just before and after glucose solution and test food load. The performance of the CGMS was evaluated by comparing its readings to those obtained at the same time by the hexokinase method using the auto biochemistry machine (Hitachi 7600-110). Also, correlations between glucose recorded with CGMS and venous plasma glucose value were examined.

Results

CGMS slightly underestimated the glucose value as compared with the venous plasma glucose level (16.3 ± 22.2 mg/dL). Correlation between CGMS and venous plasma glucose values throughout sensor lifetime is 0.73 (regression analysis: slope = 1.08, intercept = 8.38 mg/dL). Sensor sensitivity can deteriorate over time, with correlations between venous blood glucose and CGMS values dropping from 0.77 during 1st day to 0.65 during 2nd and 3rd day.

Conclusion

The accuracy of data provided by CGMS may be less than expected. CGMS sensor sensitivity is decreased with the passage of time. But, from this study, CGMS can be used for glucose variability tendency monitoring conveniently to the Korean.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluation of the performance and usability of a novel continuous glucose monitoring system
    Li Yan, Qiang Li, Qingbo Guan, Mingsong Han, Yu Zhao, Junfei Fang, Jiajun Zhao
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(4): 551.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between short- and mid-term hemoglobin A1c and glycemic control determined by continuous glucose monitoring
    Jen-Hung Huang, Yung-Kuo Lin, Ting-Wei Lee, Han-Wen Liu, Yu-Mei Chien, Yu-Chun Hsueh, Ting-I Lee, Yi-Jen Chen
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Accuracy of Flash Glucose Monitoring During Postprandial Rest and Different Walking Conditions in Overweight or Obese Young Adults
    Xiaoyuan Zhang, Fenghua Sun, Waris Wongpipit, Wendy Y. J. Huang, Stephen H. S. Wong
    Frontiers in Physiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The MEDGICarb-Study: Design of a multi-center randomized controlled trial to determine the differential health-promoting effects of low- and high-glycemic index Mediterranean-style eating patterns
    Robert E. Bergia, Izabela Biskup, Rosalba Giacco, Giuseppina Costabile, Savanna Gray, Amy Wright, Marilena Vitale, Wayne W. Campbell, Rikard Landberg, Gabriele Riccardi
    Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications.2020; 19: 100640.     CrossRef
  • A genetic programming-based regression for extrapolating a blood glucose-dynamics model from interstitial glucose measurements and their first derivatives
    I. De Falco, A. Della Cioppa, A. Giugliano, A. Marcelli, T. Koutny, M. Krcma, U. Scafuri, E. Tarantino
    Applied Soft Computing.2019; 77: 316.     CrossRef
  • Genetic Programming-based induction of a glucose-dynamics model for telemedicine
    Ivanoe De Falco, Antonio Della Cioppa, Tomas Koutny, Michal Krcma, Umberto Scafuri, Ernesto Tarantino
    Journal of Network and Computer Applications.2018; 119: 1.     CrossRef
  • A high-accuracy measurement method of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid based on microdialysis
    Dachao Li, Qingmei Xu, Yu Liu, Ridong Wang, Kexin Xu, Haixia Yu
    Measurement Science and Technology.2017; 28(11): 115701.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults
    Akua Amankwaah, R. Sayer, Amy Wright, Ningning Chen, Megan McCrory, Wayne Campbell
    Nutrients.2017; 9(4): 352.     CrossRef
  • High Surface Area Electrodes Generated via Electrochemical Roughening Improve the Signaling of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Biosensors
    Netzahualcóyotl Arroyo-Currás, Karen Scida, Kyle L. Ploense, Tod E. Kippin, Kevin W. Plaxco
    Analytical Chemistry.2017; 89(22): 12185.     CrossRef
  • Hyperglycemia-Induced Changes in Hyaluronan Contribute to Impaired Skin Wound Healing in Diabetes: Review and Perspective
    Sajina Shakya, Yan Wang, Judith A. Mack, Edward V. Maytin
    International Journal of Cell Biology.2015; 2015: 1.     CrossRef
  • Hypoglycemia in everyday life after gastric bypass and duodenal switch
    Niclas Abrahamsson, Britt Edén Engström, Magnus Sundbom, F Anders Karlsson
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2015; 173(1): 91.     CrossRef
  • The use of reinforcement learning algorithms to meet the challenges of an artificial pancreas
    Melanie K Bothe, Luke Dickens, Katrin Reichel, Arn Tellmann, Björn Ellger, Martin Westphal, Ahmed A Faisal
    Expert Review of Medical Devices.2013; 10(5): 661.     CrossRef
  • Continuous glucose monitoring: current clinical use
    Hun‐Sung Kim, Jeong‐Ah Shin, Jin‐Sun Chang, Jae‐Hyoung Cho, Ho‐Young Son, Kun‐Ho Yoon
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2012; 28(s2): 73.     CrossRef
  • Correlations of Glucose Levels in Interstitial Fluid Estimated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems and Venous Plasma
    Byung-Joon Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 338.     CrossRef
The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on the Protection of Epidermal Nerve Fibers and Microcapillaries in the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Ming Han Piao, Heung Yong Jin, Sun Kyung Song, Seun Mi Kang, So Young Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(6):488-497.   Published online November 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.6.488
  • 2,300 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic neuropathy is associated with risk factors for macrovascular diseases and other microvascular complications. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration has been reported to improve metabolic abnormalities and ameliorate peripheral polyneuropathy in diabetic patients. In addition, ALA improves endoneurial nutritive neural blood flow and nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. But it is not clear whether ALA has a preservation effect on microvasculature in addition to the effect on intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs). We investigated the effect of ALA on intraepidermal nerve fiber density (numbers/mm) and cutaneous capillary length in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetes without diet control, diabetes with diet control, and diabetes with ALA treatment. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and the effect of ALA treatment was assessed by IENF immunostained with protein gene product 9.5 and by quantification of total cutaneous capillary length with mouse anti-rat reca-1 immunostaining. RESULTS: The value of IENF density significantly increased in ALA treatment group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Quantification of microvascularity was also significantly increased in ALA treatment group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that ALA administration in diabetic rats may be beneficial in the prevention of peripheral neuropathy associated with improvement of microvascularity. And the symptomatic amelioration after ALA treatment may be attributed to this morphological improvement.
Erythropoietin Levels According to the Presence of Peripheral Neuropathy in Diabetic Patients with Anemia.
Heung Yong Jin, Su Jin Jeung, Chong Hwa Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(2):151-156.   Published online March 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.2.151
  • 1,848 View
  • 19 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, contributing the greatest morbidity and mortality and impairing the quality of life. Recently the receptor of erythropoietin (Epo) was proven to be expressed in neuronal cell and recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) has been shown to have neuroprotective and neurotrophic potential in peripheral neuropathy. But there is no report about baseline Epo level in blood before rhEpo treatment with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: From Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2006, diabetic patients were reviewed about Epo level in blood, anemia, and peripheral neuropathy in Chonbuk National University Hospital. And we compared the mean value of baseline Epo level in diabetic patients with anemia according to the peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS: The mean value of Epo of patients with peripheral neuropathy was lower than that of patients without peripheral neuropathy (16.3 +/- 7.1 vs 26.1 +/- 29.7 mU/mL, P < 0.05). There was no significance in the correlation between hemoglobin and Epo level in diabetic patients with anemia irrespective of presence of peripheral neuropathy (r = -0.02, P = 0.81). CONCLUSION: We suggest that decreased Epo level in blood is possible to be an additional cause in the development of peripheral neuropathy. However, simultaneously another possibility that neuropathy causes reduced Epo level should be considered, so further studies are warranted in this field.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Association between Serum GGT Concentration and Diabetic Peripheral Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Ho Chan Cho
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 111.     CrossRef
Randomized Controlled Trial
Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Glimepiride/Metformin Fixed Combination Versus Free Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Seung Hwan Lee, In Kyu Lee, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Ki Ho Song, Kwan Woo Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyoung Woo Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Moon Suk Nam, Hong Sun Baek, Yong Ki Kim, Hyo Young Rhim, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):466-475.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.466
  • 2,294 View
  • 33 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Failure to manage diabetes mellitus receiving monotherapy increases as the duration of the disease is protracted, and in many cases it becomes inevitable to introduce combined therapies. However, compliance of the patients tends to decrease. We conducted a clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of preconstituted and fixed combination therapy of glimepiride plus metformin to those of free combination therapy. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed at least six months ago were randomly assigned either to a fixed group or a free group. The initial dosage was chosen according to the previous treatment history and then adjusted every two weeks following a predefined titration algorithm to meet the target mean fasting glucose levels (140 mg/dL). The medications were given for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c level from baseline to week 16. Various parameters were checked as secondary outcome measures and safety criteria. RESULTS: HbA1c level of the fixed group and the free group decreased by 1.09% and 1.08%, respectively. The 95% CI of the changes' difference between the two groups (-0.21%, +0.19%) was within the predefined equivalence interval (-0.5%, +0.5%). Secondary outcome measures (the changes of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose level, response rate and compliance) and safety criteria (frequency of hypoglycemia and adverse reactions) were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Fixed combination of glimepiride/metformin is as effective and safe therapy as free combination in type 2 diabetes patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and safety of glimepiride/metformin sustained release once daily vs. glimepiride/metformin twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Y.-C. Hwang, M. Kang, C. W. Ahn, J. S. Park, S. H. Baik, D. J. Chung, H. C. Jang, K.-A. Kim, I.-K. Lee, K. W. Min, M. Nam, T. S. Park, S. M. Son, Y.-A. Sung, J.-T. Woo, K. S. Park, M.-K. Lee
    International Journal of Clinical Practice.2013; 67(3): 236.     CrossRef
  • Pharmacokinetic comparison of a new glimepiride 1-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation and a glimepiride 2-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, two-way crossover study in
    Bo-Hyung Kim, Kwang-Hee Shin, JaeWoo Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyu-pyo Kim, Jung-Ryul Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Sang-Goo Shin, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu
    Clinical Therapeutics.2009; 31(11): 2755.     CrossRef
Original Article
The Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Epidermal Nerve Preservation in the Diabetic Neuropathy of OLETF Rats.
Ming Han Piao, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):170-176.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.170
  • 1,720 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) administration has been reported to ameliorate some of symptoms of peripheral polyneuropathy in diabetic patients and to improve endoneurial nutritive neural blood flow and nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. But it is not clear whether ALA has the preservation effect on epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs) density. METHODS: We tested the efficacy of ALA in preserving current perception thresholds (CPTs) and ENFs (numbers/mm) in OLETF (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, which were fed with sucrose until diabetes mellitus developed. Thereafter, one group of OLETF rats was fed with ALA and the other was not for 40 weeks. Diabetic rats were administered with ALA (80 mg/kg of body weight/day) by oral feeding for 40 weeks. The effect of ALA treatment on ENFs preservation was assessed by protein gene product 9.5 immunostaining. Quantification of neuropathic symptoms on the dorsum of hind paws of rat was measured by CPT test every 4 weeks. RESULTS: Numbers of ENF significantly decreased in OLETF rats fed without ALA compared with OLETF rats fed with ALA (P < 0.01). The thresholds at 2000, 250 and 5 Hz in OLETF rats fed with ALA did not increased and OLETF rats without ALA significantly increased at 80 weeks (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that administrations of ALA may be useful for preserving ENFs and CPTs in OLETF rats dorsum of hind paws skin.
Randomized Controlled Trial
Relationship between Carotid Atherosclerosis and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Seropositivity in Type 2 Diabetes.
Su Jin Jung, Ji Hye Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Tae Sun Park, Hong Sun Baek
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):352-357.   Published online July 1, 2005
  • 1,165 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The major causes of death in diabetic patients are atherosclerosis-related diseases. Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae(C. pneumoniae) has been reported to play a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. However, data relating to C. pneumoniae exposure are rare in type 2 diabetes that are more susceptible to infection. The aim of this study was to see whether C. pneumoniae seropositivity was associated with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 135 type 2 diabetic patients. Serum samples from the subjects were assayed for risk factors, including lipid profiles, HbA1c, fibrinogen and CRP. Serum titers of antibodies to C. pneumoniae(IgG, IgM) were measured using microimmunofluorescence(MIF). tests Carotid ultrasound examination was used to measure the intima-media thickness(IMT), plaques and the presence of stenosis in each segment of both carotid arteries. RESULTS: C. pneumoniae seropositivity was detected in 17.8%(n=24), but without any difference between the sexes, in the 135 type 2 diabetic patients. The CRP level was increased in the seropositive group(P=0.041). The presence of carotid stenosis and IMT were significantly from a associated with C. pneumoniae seropositivity from a univariate analysis(IMTmean: IgG(+), 0.93mm vs. IgG(-), 0.85mm, P = 0.038, IMTmax: IgG(+), 1.29mm vs. IgG(-), 1.17mm, P = 0.025, stenosis: IgG (+), 25% vs. IgG(-) 7.2%, P = 0.020). No association was found for the plaque count or score. After controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, including age, sex, hypertension, cholesterol, and CRP, the association of C. pneumonia seropositivity with the IMTmean or carotid stenosis remained significant(IMTmean: P = 0.027, stenosis: P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of C. pneumoniae infection was detected in 17.8% randomly-assigned type 2 diabetic patients. C. pneumoniae seropositivity may be a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients.
Original Article
The Relation Between Serum and Intracellular Magnesium Level And Diabetic Microvascular Complications.
Kyung Hoon Min, Ji Hye Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tian Ze Ma, Bing Zhe Hong, Yong Geun Kwak, Hyung Sub Kang, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(4):284-292.   Published online August 1, 2004
  • 1,277 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Low serum magnesium levels are related to diabetes mellitus (DM), high blood pressure (HBP) and metabolic syndrome (MS). However, as far as is known, there have been no previous studies analyzing the relevance of the serum and intracellular magnesium concentrations in diabetic microvascular complication individuals compared with healthy individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pilot study was performed to compare 35 individuals with DM with 22 disease-free control subjects. The serum and intracellular magnesium levels of each group were measured, and found to be elevated in the diabetic group with diabetic microvascular complications. RESULTS: The mean serum magnesium levels among the subjects with DM and the control subjects were 0.0503 +/- 0.0750 and 0.9166 0.1149 mmol/L (p<0.001), respectively. The mean intracellular magnesium levels among the subjects with DM and the control subjects were 3.3548+/-0.1863 and 3.6732 0.2428 mM/mg protein (p<0.001), respectively. In those diabetic subjects whose serum magnesium concentration was measured, 28 had diabetic retinopathy, 30 diabetic nephropathy and 20 diabetic neuropathy. The mean serum magnesium concentrations of each diabetic microvascular complication were 0.9320 0.2813, 0.9259 0.1188 and 0.9305 0.1293 mmol/L, respectively, which that were significantly lower than those of the healthy subjects (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01). Also, the diabetic subjects whose intracellular magnesium concentrations were measured, 13 had diabetic retinopathy, 15 diabetic nephropathy and 9 diabetic neuropathy. The mean intracellular magnesium concentrations of each diabetic microvascular complication were 3.3484 0.1607, 3.3289 0.1832 and 3.3768 0.2096 mM/mg protein, respectively, and were also significantly lower than those of the healthy subjects (p<0.001and p<0.01). Each diabetic microvascular complication was also negatively correlated with the serum magnesium and intracellular magnesium levels. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that a significant relation ship exists between low serum and intracellular magnesium levels and diabetic microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy and nephropathy. A large scale study on these subjects will be required to generalize our results.
Review
New Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Evaluation of Diabetic Neuropathy.
Park Tae Sun, Hong Sun Baek
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(5):328-331.   Published online October 1, 2001
  • 719 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal