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The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):101-110.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.101
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  • 56 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Our goal was to investigate the effects of low intensity resistance training on body fat, muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Twenty-eight overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 15). RG performed resistance training using elastic bands, of which strength was equal to 40 to 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), for three days per week. Each exercise consisted of three sets for 60 minutes. We assessed abdominal fat using computed tomography, muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength using Keiser's chest and leg press. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the insulin tolerance test, and aerobic capacity was expressed as oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT-VO2) before and after the 12-week exercise program.

Results

The age of participants was 56.4 ± 7.1 years, duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.5 years, and BMI was 27.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2, without significant differences between two groups. During intervention, a greater increase in muscle mass and greater decreases in both total fat mass and abdominal fat were observed in RG compared to those of CG (P = 0.015, P = 0.011, P = 0.010, respectively). Increase in 1RM of upper and lower extremities was observed in the RG (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, respectively), without changes in AT-VO2 and insulin resistance in either group.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the low intensity resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength and reducing total fat mass without change of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Abdominal Fat, Thigh Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Subject
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hee Geum Seok, Bo Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Ah Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):23-31.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.23
  • 3,796 View
  • 44 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Aerobic exercise can effectively reduce visceral fat. However, few studies have examined the effect of daily physical activity on obesity and cardiopulmonary function in the subjects with diabetes. We examined the effect of moderate intensity of walking in obese diabetes patients by monitoring of daily activity and measuring the change in abdominal fat area, muscle are and maximal muscle strength.

Methods

We randomly assigned 27 obese women with type 2 diabetes to an aerobic exercise group (AG, n = 13) and control group (CG, n = 14). The AG performed moderate intensity walking for 60 minutes per exercise, 5 times per week, and for 12 weeks. The activity energy expenditure was monitored by a multi-record accelerometer. The CG maintained routine daily activities. At the time of the initiation of the study and after 12 weeks of exercise, the aerobic exercise capacity was assessed using oxygen consumption rate at anaerobic threshold (VO2-AT). The abdominal fat area and the quadriceps muscle area were measured by computed tomography, and the maximum muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was measured by a chest press and a leg press, respectively.

Results

The mean age of the study subjects was 56.6 ± 8.0 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 6.3 ± 6.0 years, and the body weight index (BMI) was 27.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The BMI of the AG was significantly decreased (P = 0.003). In the AG, the visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area were also significantly decreased (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively) but not in CG. VO2-AT of the AG was significantly improved, while that of the CG did not change (P = 0.009 and P = 0.115, respectively). The quadriceps muscle mass and the maximal muscle strength of the AG did not change, however, the CG showed a significant decrease. Duration of moderate intensity exercise was correlated with the decrease in total abdominal fat area (r = -0.484; P = 0.011) and that of high intensity exercise was correlated with improvement of cardiopulmonary function (r = 0.414; P = 0.032).

Conclusion

Daily moderate intensity aerobic exercise is effective at reducing abdominal fat mass, while high intensity exercise improves cardiopulmonary function.

Citations

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Randomized Controlled Trial
Effects of Aerobic Exercise Intensity on Insulin Resistance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Yun Hyi Ku, Bo Kyung Koo, Hee Jung Ahn, Ji Yun Jeong, Hee Geum Seok, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(5):401-411.   Published online October 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.5.401
  • 2,959 View
  • 38 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Exercise offers protection against atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. We evaluated the benefits of exercise at different levels of intensity for ameliorating inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance in a sample of type 2 diabetic subjects. METHODS: Fifty-nine overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to control (CG, N = 18), moderate-intensity exercise (MEG, N = 17), and vigorous-intensity exercise (VEG, N = 14) groups. Patients in the two experimental groups completed a 12-week exercise program, with their exercise activities monitored by accelerometers. We assessed the patients' body weights, total abdominal fat (TF), subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) via computed tomography, measurements of plasma levels of hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), assessment of endothelial function by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and evaluation of insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance tests, at baseline, at the end of the 12-week interventions, and one year after initiation of the study. RESULTS: At baseline, the average age of all subjects was 54 +/- 7 years, and average body mass index (BMI) was 26.9 +/- 2.5 kg/m2. During the intervention, patients in the MEG and VEG groups expended comparable amounts of activity-related calories (488.6 +/- 111.9 kcal/day, 518.8 +/- 104.1 kcal/day, respectively). Although BMI, TF, and SF decreased similarly in the MEG and VEG groups (deltaBMI: -1.1 +/- 0.7, -0.8 +/- 0.5, deltaTF: -4,647 +/- 3,613 mm2, -2,577 +/- 2,872 mm2, deltaSF: -2,057 +/- 2,021 mm2, -1,141 +/- 1,825 mm2, respectively), compared to control (P<0.01), hs-CRP, IL-6, and FMD remained constant in both exercise groups even after completion of the 12-week exercise intervention. Insulin sensitivity improved only in patients subjected to vigorous exercise (VEG). Visceral fat loss was observed only in patients subjected to moderate exercise (MEG). At one-year follow up, these values had all returned to baseline. CONCLUSION: Exercise vigorous enough to result in significant weight and fat reduction did not ameliorate inflammation and endothelial dysfunction as measured at the end of a 12-week exercise intervention, nor did it result in sustained improvements in insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic subjects.

Citations

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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