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Original Article
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Intra-Abdominal Fat and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Are Associated in a Non-Linear Pattern in Japanese-Americans
Sun Ok Song, You-Cheol Hwang, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):277-285.   Published online March 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0008
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  • 64 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We describe the association between high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and computed tomography (CT)-measured fat depots.

Methods

We examined the cross-sectional associations between HDL-C concentration and intra-abdominal (IAF), abdominal subcutaneous (SCF), and thigh fat (TF) areas in 641 Japanese-American men and women. IAF, SCF, and TF were measured by CT at the level of the umbilicus and mid-thigh. The associations between fat area measurements and HDL-C were examined using multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes family history, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI). Non-linearity was assessed using fractional polynomials.

Results

Mean±standard deviation of HDL-C concentration and IAF in men and women were 1.30±0.34 mg/dL, 105±55.3 cm2, and 1.67±0.43 mg/dL, 74.4±46.6 cm2 and differed significantly by gender for both comparisons (P<0.001). In univariate analysis, HDL-C concentration was significantly associated with CT-measured fat depots. In multivariate analysis, IAF was significantly and non-linearly associated with HDL-C concentration adjusted for age, sex, BMI, HOMA-IR, SCF, and TF (IAF: β=−0.1012, P<0.001; IAF2: β=0.0008, P<0.001). SCF was also negatively and linearly associated with HDL-C (β=−0.4919, P=0.001).

Conclusion

HDL-C does not linearly decline with increasing IAF in Japanese-Americans. A more complex pattern better fits this association.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations of Serum Uric Acid to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio with Trunk Fat Mass and Visceral Fat Accumulation
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    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2024; Volume 17: 121.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Radiological Science.2023; 48(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • Lower High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration Is Independently Associated with Greater Future Accumulation of Intra-Abdominal Fat
    Sun Ok Song, You-Cheol Hwang, Han Uk Ryu, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Edward J. Boyko
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(4): 835.     CrossRef
Review
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Especially Pertaining to Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Sensitivity
Sun Ok Song, Ken He, Radhika R. Narla, Hyun Goo Kang, Han Uk Ryu, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(2):144-155.   Published online April 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0256
  • 7,726 View
  • 149 Download
  • 45 Web of Science
  • 45 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and diabetes has been known to be closely related to each other and both diseases impact highly on the public health. There are many evidence of reports that OSA is associated with diabetes with a bidirectional correlation. A possible causal mechanism of OSA to diabetes is intermittent hypoxemia and diabetes to OSA is microvascular complication. However, OSA and diabetes have a high prevalence rate in public and shares the common overlap characteristic and risk factors such as age, obesity, and metabolic syndrome that make it difficult to establish the exact pathophysiologic mechanism between them. In addition, studies demonstrating that treatment of OSA may help prevent diabetes or improve glycemic control have not shown convincing result but have become a great field of interest research. This review outlines the bidirectional correlation between OSA and diabetes and explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms by approaching their basic etiologies.

Citations

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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(6): 3243.     CrossRef
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    Diabetes mellitus.2024; 27(2): 158.     CrossRef
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    Sleep Medicine.2023; 102: 147.     CrossRef
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    The Clinical Respiratory Journal.2023; 17(8): 764.     CrossRef
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    M Win, K Erkalp, S Demirgan, FG Ozcan, MS Sevdi, A Selcan
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    Agata Gabryelska, Szymon Turkiewicz, Marta Ditmer, Adrian Gajewski, Piotr Białasiewicz, Dominik Strzelecki, Maciej Chałubiński, Marcin Sochal
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    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • VEGF Receptor 1 Promotes Hypoxia-Induced Hematopoietic Progenitor Proliferation and Differentiation
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Response
Response: Association of Thigh Muscle Mass with Insulin Resistance and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Americans (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:488–95)
Seung Jin Han, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):125-126.   Published online February 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0028
  • 2,769 View
  • 33 Download
PDFPubReader   
Original Articles
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Higher High Density Lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) to Total HDL Cholesterol Ratio Is Associated with a Lower Risk for Incident Hypertension
You-Cheol Hwang, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):114-122.   Published online September 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0053
  • 4,451 View
  • 46 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recent studies have suggested that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We aimed to determine the association between different HDL cholesterol subclasses and risk of future hypertension.

Methods

A total of 270 Japanese Americans (130 men, 140 women) without hypertension between the ages of 34 to 75 years were enrolled. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and average blood pressure was calculated. Incident hypertension was determined 5 to 6 and 10 to 11 years after enrollment. HDL2, HDL3, and total HDL cholesterol were measured at baseline.

Results

During 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence of hypertension was 28.1% (76/270). In univariate analysis, age, diabetes, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin resistance index, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and visceral adipose tissue were significant predictors for incident hypertension. Among the HDL cholesterol subclass, HDL2 cholesterol was inversely associated with hypertension incidence, but both total and HDL3 cholesterol were not. In addition, HDL2/HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with future hypertension risk. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 2.31; P=0.001), systolic blood pressure (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.56; P<0.001), and HDL2/HDL cholesterol (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.98; P=0.035), were associated with future development of hypertension.

Conclusion

A higher proportion of HDL2 cholesterol among total HDL cholesterol predicted a lower risk for incident hypertension. However, concentrations of total HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol were not independent predictors of incident hypertension.

Citations

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  • The Association of HDL2b with Metabolic Syndrome Among Normal HDL-C Populations in Southern China
    Tong Chen, Shiquan Wu, Ling Feng, SiYu Long, Yu Liu, WenQian Lu, Wenya Chen, Guoai Hong, Li Zhou, Fang Wang, Yuechan Luo, Hequn Zou
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    广欣 李
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Epidemiology
Association of Thigh Muscle Mass with Insulin Resistance and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Americans
Seung Jin Han, Edward J. Boyko, Soo-Kyung Kim, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):488-495.   Published online September 5, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0022
  • 4,793 View
  • 66 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 35 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Skeletal muscle plays a major role in glucose metabolism. We investigated the association between thigh muscle mass, insulin resistance, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. In addition, we examined the role of body mass index (BMI) as a potential effect modifier in this association.

Methods

This prospective study included 399 Japanese Americans without diabetes (mean age 51.6 years) who at baseline had an estimation of thigh muscle mass by computed tomography and at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We fit regression models to examine the association between thigh muscle area and incidence of T2DM and change in HOMA-IR, both measured over 10 years.

Results

Thigh muscle area was inversely associated with future HOMA-IR after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, HOMA-IR, fasting plasma glucose, total abdominal fat area, and thigh subcutaneous fat area at baseline (P=0.033). The 10-year cumulative incidence of T2DM was 22.1%. A statistically significant interaction between thigh muscle area and BMI was observed, i.e., greater thigh muscle area was associated with lower risk of incident T2DM for subjects at lower levels of BMI, but this association diminished at higher BMI levels.

Conclusion

Thigh muscle mass area was inversely associated with future insulin resistance. Greater thigh muscle area predicts a lower risk of incident T2DM for leaner Japanese Americans.

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Review
Epidemiology
The Evidence for an Obesity Paradox in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Seung Jin Han, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(3):179-187.   Published online May 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0055
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Although overweight/obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is increasing evidence that overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus experience lower mortality compared with patients of normal weight. This paradoxical finding, known as the “obesity paradox,” occurs in other chronic diseases, and in type 2 diabetes mellitus is particularly perplexing given that lifestyle intervention with one goal being weight reduction is an important feature of the management of this condition. We summarize in this review the findings from clinical and epidemiologic studies that have investigated the association between overweight and obesity (usually assessed using body mass index [BMI]) and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss potential causes of the obesity paradox. We conclude that most studies show evidence of an obesity paradox, but important conflicting findings still exist. We also evaluate if potential bias might explain the obesity paradox in diabetes, including, for example, the presence of confounding factors, measurement error due to use of BMI as an index of obesity, and reverse causation.

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Original Article
Epidemiology
Predictors of Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Americans with Normal Fasting Glucose Level
You-Cheol Hwang, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti, Edward J. Boyko
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(3):198-206.   Published online April 25, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0100
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Little is known about the natural course of normal fasting glucose (NFG) in Asians and the risk factors for future diabetes.

Methods

A total of 370 Japanese Americans (163 men, 207 women) with NFG levels and no history of diabetes, aged 34 to 75 years, were enrolled. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline, 2.5, 5, and 10 years after enrollment.

Results

During 10 years of follow-up, 16.1% of participants met criteria for diabetes diagnosis, and 39.6% of subjects still had NFG levels at the time of diabetes diagnosis. During 5 years of follow-up, age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.10; P=0.026) and family history of diabetes (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.42 to 7.40; P=0.005) were independently associated with future diabetes diagnosis; however, fasting glucose level was not an independent predictor. During 10 years of follow-up, family history of diabetes (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.37 to 5.54; P=0.004), fasting insulin level (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.02; P=0.037), and fasting glucose level (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.13 to 12.01; P=0.030) were associated with diabetes diagnosis independent of conventional risk factors for diabetes.

Conclusion

A substantial number of subjects with NFG at baseline still remained in the NFG range at the time of diabetes diagnosis. A family history of diabetes and fasting insulin and glucose levels were associated with diabetes diagnosis during 10 years of follow-up; however, fasting glucose level was not associated with diabetes risk within the relatively short-term follow-up period of 5 years in subjects with NFG.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • J-shape relationship between normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population: results from two cohort studies
    Linfeng He, Wenbin Zheng, Zeyu Li, Lu Chen, Wen Kong, Tianshu Zeng
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a group of Chinese people with normoglycemia and without obesity
    Ziqiong Wang, Zheng Liu, Sen He
    Journal of Diabetes.2021; 13(7): 601.     CrossRef
  • Hidden Risks behind Normal Fasting Glucose: Is It Significant?
    Seung-Hwan Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(3): 196.     CrossRef

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