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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Perimenopausal Women with Diabetes
Catherine Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):492-501.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0262
  • 5,476 View
  • 154 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality in women and men with diabetes. Due to age and worsening of risk factors over the menopausal transition, risk of coronary heart disease events increases in postmenopausal women with diabetes. Randomized studies have conflicted regarding the beneficial impact of estrogen therapy upon intermediate cardiovascular disease markers and events. Therefore, estrogen therapy is not currently recommended for indications other than symptom management. However, for women at low risk of adverse events, estrogen therapy can be used to minimize menopausal symptoms. The risk of adverse events can be estimated using risk engines for the calculation of cardiovascular risk and breast cancer risk in conjunction with screening tools such as mammography. Use of estrogen therapy, statins, and anti-platelet agents can be guided by such calculators particularly for younger women with diabetes. Risk management remains focused upon lifestyle behaviors and achieving optimal levels of cardiovascular risk factors, including lipids, glucose, and blood pressure. Use of pharmacologic therapies to address these risk factors, particularly specific hypoglycemic agents, may provide some additional benefit for risk prevention. The minimal benefit for women with limited life expectancy and risk of complications with intensive therapy should also be considered.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nurse-led intervention in the management of patients with cardiovascular diseases: a brief literature review
    Xiaoqin Qiu
    BMC Nursing.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determination of the Level of Cardiovascular Risk in 172,282 Spanish Working Women
    Ángel Arturo López-González, María Albaladejo Blanco, Cristina Vidal Ribas, Pilar Tomás-Gil, Pere Riutord Sbert, José Ignacio Ramírez-Manent
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(17): 2734.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of seven surrogate insulin resistance indexes for predicting the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in normal-weight individuals
    Zeyu Liu, Bi Deng, Qin Huang, Ruxin Tu, Fang Yu, Jian Xia, Jie Feng
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Approaches and Maternal-Offspring Complications
    Joon Ho Moon, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Reproductive Life Span and Severe Hypoglycemia Risk in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Soyeon Kang, Yong-Moon Park, Dong Jin Kwon, Youn-Jee Chung, Jeong Namkung, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 578.     CrossRef
  • Global hotspots and prospects of perimenopausal depression: A bibliometric analysis via CiteSpace
    Mingzhou Gao, Hao Zhang, Zhan Gao, Ya Sun, Jieqiong Wang, Fengqin Wei, Dongmei Gao
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • State of metabolic processes and ways to improve them in premenopausal women due to the life extension strategy
    I.V. Lakhno
    REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY.2021; (61): 51.     CrossRef
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women: Similarities and Differences from Other Racial/Ethnic Groups
Catherine Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):1-12.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.1
  • 3,467 View
  • 33 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • More Physical Exercise is Required for Overweight or Obese Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Achieve Good Plasma Glucose Control During Pregnancy: Finding from a Prospective Cohort in Shanghai
    Xiangjin Gao, Xiuqi Zhang, Le Kuai, Qing Yang, Huan Li, Rui Zhang, Bin Li, Ruiping Wang
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3925.     CrossRef
  • The role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in gynecological and obstetrical diseases: An update review
    Jiaqi Zhai, Zijian Li, Yue Zhou, Xiuhua Yang
    Journal of Reproductive Immunology.2022; 150: 103490.     CrossRef
  • Gestational diabetes in Korea: Temporal trends in prevalence, treatment, and short-term consequences from a national health insurance claims database between 2012 and 2016
    Chan-Hee Jung, Sang-Hee Jung, Dughyun Choi, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chul-Hee Kim, Ji-Oh Mok
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 171: 108586.     CrossRef
  • Maternal Nutrition Status Associated with Pregnancy-Related Adverse Outcomes
    Maria J Miele, Renato T Souza, Iracema M Calderon, Francisco E Feitosa, Debora F Leite, Edilberto A Rocha Filho, Janete Vettorazzi, Jussara Mayrink, Karayna G Fernandes, Matias C Vieira, Rodolfo C Pacagnella, José G. Cecatti
    Nutrients.2021; 13(7): 2398.     CrossRef
  • Pregnancy Outcomes of Women Additionally Diagnosed as Gestational Diabetes by the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Criteria
    Min Hyoung Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung-Hoon Kim, Joon Seok Hong, Hye Rim Chung, Sung Hee Choi, Moon Young Kim, Hak C. Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 766.     CrossRef
  • Environmental neglect: endocrine disruptors as underappreciated but potentially modifiable diabetes risk factors
    Robert M. Sargis, Rebecca A. Simmons
    Diabetologia.2019; 62(10): 1811.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China
    Kimberly K. Schaefer, Wanqing Xiao, Qiaozhu Chen, Jianrong He, Jinhua Lu, Fanfan Chan, Niannian Chen, Mingyang Yuan, Huimin Xia, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Jane E. Hirst, Xiu Qiu
    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics.2018; 143(2): 164.     CrossRef
  • Effects of the interaction between glycated haemoglobin genetic risk score and postpartum weight reduction on glycaemic changes: A gene–weight interaction analysis
    Liyuan Han, Donghui Duan, Shuang Zhang, Weiqin Li, Leishen Wang, Huikun Liu, Junhong Leng, Nan Li, Xiaoyun Shang, Gang Hu, Lu Qi
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2018; 20(12): 2733.     CrossRef
  • Adipokines and Insulin Resistance According to Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Eon Ju Jeon, Seong Yeon Hong, Ji Hyun Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(6): 457.     CrossRef
  • The MC4R genotype is associated with postpartum weight reduction and glycemic changes among women with prior gestational diabetes: longitudinal analysis
    Aline Martins de Carvalho, Ping Shao, Huikun Liu, Han-Ling Cheng, Yan Zheng, Junhong Leng, Weiqin Li, Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Leishen Wang, Shuang Zhang, Gang Hu, Lu Qi
    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Simple Screening Using Ultrasonography for Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(6): 438.     CrossRef
  • Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus
    Joon Ho Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Hak C. Jang
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(1): 26.     CrossRef
  • Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in umbilical vascular of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and the clinical significance
    Fei Teng, Jinfang Wu, Min Wei, Yongxiu Yang
    Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic value of haemoglobin A1c in post‐partum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    K.‐S. Kim, S.‐K. Kim, Y.‐W. Cho, S. W. Park
    Diabetic Medicine.2016; 33(12): 1668.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the performance of screening test for gestational diabetes in singleton versus twin pregnancies
    Yun Ji Jung, Ja Young Kwon, Hee Young Cho, Yong-Won Park, Young-Han Kim
    Obstetrics & Gynecology Science.2015; 58(6): 439.     CrossRef
  • Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies
    Qi-Tao Huang, Qiong Huang, Wei Luo, Fei Li, Li-Lin Hang, Yan-Hong Yu, Mei Zhong
    Gynecological Endocrinology.2015; 31(5): 337.     CrossRef
  • Transition of maternal and child nutrition in Asia
    Pattanee Winichagoon
    Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care.2015; 18(3): 312.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes in Asians
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2015; 30(3): 263.     CrossRef
  • The rs2237892 Polymorphism in KCNQ1 Influences Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Levels: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis
    Deng Ao, Hai-jun Wang, Li-fang Wang, Jie-yun Song, Hui-xia Yang, Yan Wang, Marta Letizia Hribal
    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(6): e0128901.     CrossRef
  • Late Preterm Infants' Outcome Born from Mothers with Positive Screening but Negative Diagnostic Test for Gestational Diabetes
    Jeong Min Lee, Bo Seon Seo, Eun Sun Kim
    Korean Journal of Perinatology.2015; 26(3): 200.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal