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Drug/Regimen
Real-World Prescription Patterns and Barriers Related to the Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors among Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease
Jong Ha Baek, Ye Seul Yang, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyung Do Han, Jae Hyeon Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Jong Han Choi, Kyu Yeon Hur, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):701-712.   Published online June 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0002
  • 4,897 View
  • 319 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate prescription trends and clinical factors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) use according to the presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or heart failure (HF) in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Prescription patterns of SGLT2i use between 2015 and 2019 were determined using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database of claims.
Results
Of all patients with T2DM (n=4,736,493), the annual prescription rate of SGLT2i increased every year in patients with ASCVD (from 2.2% to 10.7%) or HF (from 2.0% to 11.1%). After the first hospitalization for ASCVD (n=518,572), 13.7% (n=71,259) of patients initiated SGLT2i with a median of 10.6 months. After hospitalization for HF (n=372,853), 11.2% (n=41,717) of patients initiated SGLT2i after a median of 8.8 months. In multivariate regression for hospitalization, older age (per 10 years, odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.57), lower household income (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.95), rural residents (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.97), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) users (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.84) were associated with lesser initiation of SGLT2i in ASCVD. Additionally, female gender (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) was associated with lesser initiation of SGLT2i in HF.
Conclusion
The prescription rate of SGLT2i increased gradually up to 2019 but was suboptimal in patients with ASCVD or HF. After the first hospitalization for ASCVD or HF, older age, female gender, low household income, rural residents, and DPP-4i users were less likely to initiate SGLT2i.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effectiveness and safety of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in Asian populations
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2024; 15(3): 285.     CrossRef
  • Real-World Treatment Patterns according to Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Established Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: Multicenter, Retrospective, Observational Study
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Review
Guideline/Fact Sheet
2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Kyu Yeon Hur, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Jong Ha Baek, Junghyun Noh, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Ye Seul Yang, Jang Won Son, Jong Han Choi, Kee Ho Song, Nam Hoon Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jin Wha Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Dae Jung Kim, SungWan Chun, Eun-Jung Rhee, Hyun Min Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Donghyun Jee, Jae Hyun Kim, Won Seok Choi, Eun-Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hyun Ko, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):461-481.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0156
  • 23,874 View
  • 1,624 Download
  • 121 Web of Science
  • 140 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

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Original Articles
Complications
Renal Tubular Damage Marker, Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase, as a Predictive Marker of Hepatic Fibrosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hae Kyung Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):104-116.   Published online July 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0273
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is closely associated with the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG), an early renal tubular damage biomarker in DKD, could be related to the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM.
Methods
A total of 300 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were determined using transient elastography. The levels of urinary biomarkers, including u-NAG, albumin, protein, and creatinine, and glucometabolic parameters were measured.
Results
Based on the median value of the u-NAG to creatinine ratio (u-NCR), subjects were divided into low and high u-NCR groups. The high u-NCR group showed a significantly longer duration of diabetes, worsened hyperglycemia, and a more enhanced hepatic fibrosis index. A higher u-NCR was associated with a greater odds ratio for the risk of higher hepatic fibrosis stage (F2: odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.82). Also, u-NCR was an independent predictive marker for more advanced hepatic fibrosis, even after adjusting for several confounding factors (β=1.58, P<0.01).
Conclusion
The elevation of u-NAG was independently associated with a higher degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. Considering the common metabolic milieu of renal and hepatic fibrosis in T2DM, the potential use of u-NAG as an effective urinary biomarker reflecting hepatic fibrosis in T2DM needs to be validated in the future.

Citations

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Basic Research
Ipragliflozin, an SGLT2 Inhibitor, Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Changes by Upregulating Energy Expenditure through Activation of the AMPK/ SIRT1 Pathway
Ji-Yeon Lee, Minyoung Lee, Ji Young Lee, Jaehyun Bae, Eugene Shin, Yong-ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(6):921-932.   Published online February 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0187
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  • 20 Web of Science
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that exhibit multiple extraglycemic effects. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibition on energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ipragliflozin (a selective SGLT2 inhibitor) on energy metabolism.
Methods
Six-week-old male 129S6/Sv mice with a high propensity for adipose tissue browning were randomly assigned to three groups: normal chow control, 60% high-fat diet (HFD)-fed control, and 60% HFD-fed ipragliflozin-treated groups. The administration of diet and medication was continued for 16 weeks.
Results
The HFD-fed mice became obese and developed hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue hypertrophy, but their random glucose levels were within the normal ranges; these features are similar to the metabolic features of a prediabetic condition. Ipragliflozin treatment markedly attenuated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and reduced the size of hypertrophied adipocytes to that of smaller adipocytes. In the ipragliflozin treatment group, uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and other thermogenesis-related genes were significantly upregulated in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and fatty acid oxidation was increased in the brown adipose tissue. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) pathway in the liver and adipose tissue.
Conclusion
SGLT2 inhibition by ipragliflozin showed beneficial metabolic effects in 129S6/Sv mice with HFD-induced obesity that mimics prediabetic conditions. Our data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors, through their upregulation of energy expenditure, may have therapeutic potential in prediabetic obesity.

Citations

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Technology/Device
Data Configuration and Publication Trends for the Korean National Health Insurance and Health Insurance Review & Assessment Database
Hae Kyung Kim, Sun Ok Song, Junghyun Noh, In-Kyung Jeong, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(5):671-678.   Published online October 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0207
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Big data reports related to diseases and health care for the Korean population have been published since the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) and the Health Insurance Review & Assessment (HIRA) Service provided limited open access to their databases. Here, we reviewed the structure, content, and means of using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers and presented the latest publication trends in Korean healthcare data procured from the NHI and HIRA databases.
Methods
Since 2013, researchers have been able to obtain nationwide population-based studies using the NHI and HIRA databases of the insured. We searched publications using the NHI and the HIRA databases between 2013 and 2019 retrieved from PubMed.
Results
The NHI and HIRA databases provide nationwide population-based data. The total number of publications from 2014 to 2019 using NHI and HIRA databases is 2,541 and 655, respectively. A total of 5,465 endocrinology-related studies were performed during 2014 to 2019.
Conclusion
The NHIS and HIRA databases have provided tools for guidelines to approach world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research.

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Type 1 Diabetes
Age at Diagnosis and the Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Jong Ha Baek, Woo Je Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Soo Kyoung Kim, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):46-54.   Published online July 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0134
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and risk of diabetic complications according to age at diagnosis among young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods

A total of 255 T1DM patients aged less than 40 years were included. Patients were categorized into three groups (<20, 20 to 29, and 30 to 40 years) according to age at diagnosis. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was defined when spot urine-albumin creatinine ratio was 300 mg/g or more and/or estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) level was 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less.

Results

Median age at diagnosis was 25 years and disease duration was 14 years. Individuals diagnosed with T1DM at childhood/adolescent (age <20 years) had lower stimulated C-peptide levels. They received more intensive insulin treatment with higher total daily insulin doses compared to older onset groups. The prevalence of DN was higher in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in older onset groups (25.3% vs. 15.3% vs. 9.6%, P=0.022). The eGFR was inversely associated with disease duration whilst the degree of decrease was more prominent in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in the later onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; P<0.001). Childhood/adolescent-onset group was independently associated with the risk of DN compared to the older onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; odds ratio, 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 8.33; P=0.005).

Conclusion

In individuals with childhood/adolescent-onset T1DM, the reduction in renal function is more prominent with disease duration. Early age-onset T1DM is an independent risk of DN.

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Drug/Regimen
Effect of Dapagliflozin as an Add-on Therapy to Insulin on the Glycemic Variability in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DIVE): A Multicenter, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Study
Seung-Hwan Lee, Kyung-Wan Min, Byung-Wan Lee, In-Kyung Jeong, Soon-Jib Yoo, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Yoon-Hee Choi, Kun-Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):339-348.   Published online May 28, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0203
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Glycemic variability is associated with the development of diabetic complications and hypoglycemia. However, the effect of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on glycemic variability is controversial. We aimed to examine the effect of dapagliflozin as an add-on therapy to insulin on the glycemic variability assessed using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

In this multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 84 subjects received 10 mg of dapagliflozin (n=41) or the placebo (n=43) for 12 weeks. CGM was performed before and after treatment to compare the changes in glycemic variability measures (standard deviation [SD], mean amplitude of glycemic excursions [MAGEs]).

Results

At week 12, significant reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.74%±0.66% vs. 0.01%±0.65%, P<0.001), glycated albumin (−3.94%±2.55% vs. −0.67%±2.48%, P<0.001), and CGM-derived mean glucose (−41.6±39.2 mg/dL vs. 1.1±46.2 mg/dL, P<0.001) levels were observed in the dapagliflozin group compared with the placebo group. SD and MAGE were significantly decreased in the dapagliflozin group, but not in the placebo group. However, the difference in ΔSD and ΔMAGE failed to reach statistical significance between two groups. No significant differences in the incidence of safety endpoints were observed between the two groups.

Conclusion

Dapagliflozin effectively decreased glucose levels, but not glucose variability, after 12 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin treatment. The role of SGLT2 inhibitors in glycemic variability warrants further investigations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Review
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Byung-Wan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Bong-Soo Cha, Dae Ho Lee, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) Fatty Liver Research Group
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):382-401.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.

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Corrigendum
Corrigenda: Table Correction. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Diabetes. Part I: Epidemiology and Diagnosis
Yong-ho Lee, Yongin Cho, Byung-Wan Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Dae Ho Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun-Jung Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):731-731.   Published online October 24, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0188
Corrects: Diabetes Metab J 2019;43(1):31
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Original Article
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Effectiveness and Safety of Adding Basal Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Exhibiting Inadequate Response to Metformin and DPP-4 Inhibitors with or without Sulfonylurea
Yu Mi Kang, Chang Hee Jung, Seung-Hwan Lee, Sang-Wook Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Sin Gon Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Young Min Cho, Tae Sun Park, Bon Jeong Ku, Gwanpyo Koh, Dol Mi Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Joong-Yeol Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):432-446.   Published online June 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0092
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of adding basal insulin to initiating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and metformin and/or sulfonylurea (SU) in achieving the target glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

This was a single-arm, multicenter, 24-week, open-label, phase 4 study in patients with inadequately controlled (HbA1c ≥7.5%) T2DM despite the use of DPP-4 inhibitor and metformin. A total of 108 patients received insulin glargine while continuing oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of subjects achieving HbA1c ≤7.0%. Other glycemic profiles were also evaluated, and the safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs) and hypoglycemia.

Results

The median HbA1c at baseline (8.9%; range, 7.5% to 11.1%) decreased to 7.6% (5.5% to 11.7%) at 24 weeks. Overall, 31.7% subjects (n=33) achieved the target HbA1c level of ≤7.0%. The mean differences in body weight and fasting plasma glucose were 1.2±3.4 kg and 56.0±49.8 mg/dL, respectively. Hypoglycemia was reported in 36 subjects (33.3%, 112 episodes), all of which were fully recovered. There was no serious AE attributed to insulin glargine. Body weight change was significantly different between SU users and nonusers (1.5±2.5 kg vs. −0.9±6.0 kg, P=0.011).

Conclusion

The combination add-on therapy of insulin glargine, on metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors with or without SU was safe and efficient in reducing HbA1c levels and thus, is a preferable option in managing T2DM patients exhibiting dysglycemia despite the use of OADs.

Citations

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Short Communication
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
A Lower Baseline Urinary Glucose Excretion Predicts a Better Response to the Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor
You-Cheol Hwang, Jae Hyeon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Woo Je Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):898-905.   Published online June 14, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0257
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We aimed to identify the clinical variables associated with a better glucose-lowering response to the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor ipragliflozin in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We especially focused on urinary glucose excretion (UGE). This was a single-arm multicenter prospective study. A total of 92 people with T2DM aged 20 to 70 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels ≥7.0% and ≤9.5% were enrolled. Ipragliflozin (50 mg) was added to the background therapy for these people for 12 weeks. After 3 months treatment with ipragliflozin, the mean HbA1c levels were decreased from 7.6% to 6.9% and 62.0% of the people reached the HbA1c target of less than 7.0% (P<0.001). In addition, body weight, blood pressure, and lipid parameters were improved after ipragliflozin treatment (all P<0.001). The baseline HbA1c (r=0.66, P<0.001) and morning spot urine glucose to creatinine ratio (r=−0.30, P=0.001) were independently associated with the HbA1c reduction. Ipragliflozin treatment for 12 weeks improves glycemic control and other metabolic parameters. A higher HbA1c and lower UGE at baseline predicts a better glucose-lowering efficacy of ipragliflozin.

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Review
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Diabetes: Part II: Treatment
Kyung-Soo Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Yong Jin Kim, Dae Ho Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Cheol-Young Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(2):127-143.   Published online April 15, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0034
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are common metabolic disorders that are often comorbid conditions. Among many proposed treatments, weight reduction is the only approved option for NAFLD to date. However, it is not easy to maintain weight loss by lifestyle modification alone; pharmacological treatments are helpful in this regard. Although many drugs have been investigated, pioglitazone could be a first-line therapy in patients with NAFLD and diabetes. Many more drugs are currently being developed and investigated, and it is likely that combination strategies will be used for future treatment of NAFLD and diabetes. Attention should be paid to the management of NAFLD and diabetes and efforts should be made to intervene early and individualize treatment of NAFLD in patients with diabetes.

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Original Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hokyou Lee, Gyuri Kim, Young Ju Choi, Byung Wook Huh, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):267-276.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0001
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Impaired diastolic heart function has been observed in persons with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unclear whether NAFLD fibrotic progression, i.e., non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, poses an independent risk for diastolic dysfunction in T2DM. We investigated the association between liver fibrosis and left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in T2DM.

Methods

We analyzed 606 patients with T2DM, aged ≥50 years, who had undergone liver ultrasonography and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Insulin sensitivity was measured by short insulin tolerance test. Presence of NAFLD and/or advanced liver fibrosis was determined by abdominal ultrasonography and NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). LV diastolic dysfunction was defined according to transmitral peak early to late ventricular filling (E/A) ratio and deceleration time, using echocardiography.

Results

LV diastolic dysfunction was significantly more prevalent in the NAFLD versus non-NAFLD group (59.7% vs. 49.0%, P=0.011). When NAFLD was stratified by NFS, subjects with advanced liver fibrosis exhibited a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction (49.0%, 50.7%, 61.8%; none, simple steatosis, advanced fibrosis, respectively; P for trend=0.003). In multivariable logistic regression, liver fibrosis was independently associated with diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 2.34; P=0.022) after adjusting for insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors. This association remained significant in patients without insulin resistance (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.73 to 11.51; P=0.002).

Conclusions

Liver fibrosis was associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with T2DM and may be an independent risk factor for diastolic dysfunction, especially in patients without systemic insulin resistance.

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Predictors of the Therapeutic Efficacy and Consideration of the Best Combination Therapy of Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitors
Ji-Yeon Lee, Yongin Cho, Minyoung Lee, You Jin Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(2):158-173.   Published online January 25, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0057
  • 5,921 View
  • 160 Download
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  • 15 Crossref
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Background

We investigated the predictive markers for the therapeutic efficacy and the best combination of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ipragliflozin) therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

A total of 804 patients with T2DM who had taken SGLT2 inhibitor as monotherapy or an add-on therapy were analyzed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of SGLT2 inhibitor response including the classes of baseline anti-diabetic medications.

Results

After adjusting for age, sex, baseline body mass index (BMI), diabetes duration, duration of SGLT2 inhibitor use, initial glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and other anti-diabetic agent usage, multivariate analysis revealed that shorter diabetes duration, higher initial HbA1c and eGFR were associated with better glycemic response. However, baseline BMI was inversely correlated with glycemic status; lean subjects with well-controlled diabetes and obese subjects with inadequately controlled diabetes received more benefit from SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. In addition, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor use was related to a greater reduction in HbA1c in patients with higher baseline HbA1c ≥7%. Sulfonylurea users experienced a larger change from baseline HbA1c but the significance was lost after adjustment for covariates and metformin and thiazolidinedione use did not affect the glycemic outcome.

Conclusion

A better response to SGLT2 inhibitors is expected in Korean T2DM patients who have higher baseline HbA1c and eGFR with a shorter diabetes duration. Moreover, the add-on of an SGLT2 inhibitor to a DPP4 inhibitor is likely to show the greatest glycemic response.

Citations

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Acarbose Add-on Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Metformin and Sitagliptin Failure: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Hae Kyung Yang, Seung-Hwan Lee, Juyoung Shin, Yoon-Hee Choi, Yu-Bae Ahn, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Jung Rhee, Kyung Wan Min, Kun-Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(3):287-301.   Published online December 20, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0054
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We evaluated the efficacy and safety of acarbose add-on therapy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are inadequately controlled with metformin and sitagliptin.

Methods

A total of 165 subjects were randomized to metformin and sitagliptin (Met+Sita, n=65), metformin, sitagliptin, and acarbose (Met+Sita+Acarb, n=66) and sitagliptin and acarbose (Sita+Acarb, exploratory assessment, n=34) therapy in five institutions in Korea. After 16 weeks of acarbose add-on or metformin-switch therapy, a triple combination therapy was maintained from week 16 to 24.

Results

The add-on of acarbose (Met+Sita+Acarb group) demonstrated a 0.44%±0.08% (P<0.001 vs. baseline) decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at week 16, while changes in HbA1c were insignificant in the Met+Sita group (−0.09%±0.10%, P=0.113). After 8 weeks of triple combination therapy, HbA1c levels were comparable between Met+Sita and Met+Sita+Acarb group (7.66%±0.13% vs. 7.47%±0.12%, P=0.321). Acarbose add-on therapy demonstrated suppressed glucagon secretion (area under the curve of glucagon, 4,726.17±415.80 ng·min/L vs. 3,314.38±191.63 ng·min/L, P=0.004) in the absence of excess insulin secretion during the meal tolerance tests at week 16 versus baseline. The incidence of adverse or serious adverse events was similar between two groups.

Conclusion

In conclusion, a 16-week acarbose add-on therapy to metformin and sitagliptin, effectively lowered HbA1c without significant adverse events. Acarbose might be a good choice as a third-line therapy in addition to metformin and sitagliptin in Korean subjects with T2DM who have predominant postprandial hyperglycemia and a high carbohydrate intake.

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