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Volume 46(1); January 2022
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Special Editorial
Diabetes and Metabolism Journal in 2022: The Flywheel Effect for DMJ
Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):1-2.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0348
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  • 179 Download
PDFPubReader   ePub   
Reviews
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Approaches and Maternal-Offspring Complications
Joon Ho Moon, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):3-14.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0335
  • 14,423 View
  • 881 Download
  • 54 Web of Science
  • 61 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication during pregnancy and is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring and maternal complications. For GDM screening and diagnosis, a two-step approach (1-hour 50 g glucose challenge test followed by 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) has been widely used. After the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study implemented a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in all pregnant women, a one-step approach was recommended as an option for the diagnosis of GDM after 2010. The one-step approach has more than doubled the incidence of GDM, but its clinical benefit in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes remains controversial. Long-term complications of mothers with GDM include type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, and complications of their offspring include childhood obesity and glucose intolerance. The diagnostic criteria of GDM should properly classify women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term complications. The present review summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the one-step and two-step approaches for the diagnosis of GDM based on recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We also describe the long-term maternal and offspring complications of GDM.

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Pathophysiology
Insulin Resistance: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Strategies
Shin-Hae Lee, Shi-Young Park, Cheol Soo Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):15-37.   Published online December 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0280
  • 29,942 View
  • 2,632 Download
  • 157 Web of Science
  • 186 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Insulin resistance is the pivotal pathogenic component of many metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is defined as a state of reduced responsiveness of insulin-targeting tissues to physiological levels of insulin. Although the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance is not fully understood, several credible theories have been proposed. In this review, we summarize the functions of insulin in glucose metabolism in typical metabolic tissues and describe the mechanisms proposed to underlie insulin resistance, that is, ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. In addition, we suggest potential therapeutic strategies for addressing insulin resistance.

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Islet Studies and Transplantation
Regulation of Pancreatic β-Cell Mass by Gene-Environment Interaction
Shun-ichiro Asahara, Hiroyuki Inoue, Yoshiaki Kido
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):38-48.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0045
  • 4,484 View
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The main pathogenic mechanism of diabetes consists of an increase in insulin resistance and a decrease in insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. The number of diabetic patients has been increasing dramatically worldwide, especially in Asian people whose capacity for insulin secretion is inherently lower than that of other ethnic populations. Causally, changes of environmental factors in addition to intrinsic genetic factors have been considered to have an influence on the increased prevalence of diabetes. Particular focus has been placed on “gene-environment interactions” in the development of a reduced pancreatic β-cell mass, as well as type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in the intrauterine environment, such as intrauterine growth restriction, contribute to alterations of gene expression in pancreatic β-cells, ultimately resulting in the development of pancreatic β-cell failure and diabetes. As a molecular mechanism underlying the effect of the intrauterine environment, epigenetic modifications have been widely investigated. The association of diabetes susceptibility genes or dietary habits with gene-environment interactions has been reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of gene-environment interactions in pancreatic β-cell failure as revealed by previous reports and data from experiments.

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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors and Cardiometabolic Outcomes
Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):49-62.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0316
  • 5,638 View
  • 221 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Despite strenuous efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by improving cardiometabolic risk factors, such as glucose and cholesterol levels, and blood pressure, there is still residual risk even in patients reaching treatment targets. Recently, researchers have begun to focus on the variability of metabolic variables to remove residual risks. Several clinical trials and cohort studies have reported a relationship between the variability of metabolic parameters and CVDs. Herein, we review the literature regarding the effect of metabolic factor variability and CVD risk, and describe possible mechanisms and potential treatment perspectives for reducing cardiometabolic risk factor variability.

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    Yonghao Wu, Peng Shen, Lisha Xu, Zongming Yang, Yexiang Sun, Luhua Yu, Zhanghang Zhu, Tiezheng Li, Dan Luo, Hongbo Lin, Liming Shui, Mengling Tang, Mingjuan Jin, Kun Chen, Jianbing Wang
    Endocrine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors: Causative Factor or Epiphenomenon?
    Hye Jin Yoo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 257.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Variability in Physiological Measures in Relation to Mortality and Epigenetic Aging: Prospective Studies in the US and China
    Hui Chen, Tianjing Zhou, Shaowei Wu, Yaying Cao, Geng Zong, Changzheng Yuan
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Drug/Regimen
Increasing Age Associated with Higher Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibition Rate Is a Predictive Factor for Efficacy of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors
Sangmo Hong, Chang Hee Jung, Song Han, Cheol-Young Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):63-70.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0253
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
It is not known which type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients would most benefit from dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment. We aimed to investigate the predictors of response to DPP-4 inhibitors considering degree of DPP-4 inhibition.
Methods
This study is a post hoc analysis of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial that compared the efficacy and safety of a DPP-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin vs. sitagliptin) in patients with T2DM. Subjects were classified into tertiles of T1 <65.26%, T2=65.26%–76.35%, and T3 ≥76.35% by DPP-4 inhibition. We analyzed the change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) according to DPP-4 inhibition with multiple linear regression adjusting for age, ethnicity, body mass index, baseline HbA1c, and DPP-4 activity at baseline.
Results
The mean age was greater in the high tertile group compared with the low tertile group (T1: 49.8±8.3 vs. T2: 53.1±10.5 vs. T3: 55.3±9.5, P<0.001) of DPP-4 inhibition. Although HbA1c at baseline was not different among tertiles of DPP-4 inhibition (P=0.398), HbA1c after 24-week treatment was lower in the higher tertile compares to the lower tertile (T1: 7.30%±0.88% vs. T2: 7.12%±0.78% vs. T3: 7.00%±0.78%, P=0.021). In multiple regression analysis, DPP-4 enzyme inhibition rate was not a significant determent for HbA1c reduction due to age. In subgroup analysis by tertile of DPP-4 inhibition, age was the only significant predictor and only in the highest tertile (R2=0.281, B=–0.014, P=0.024).
Conclusion
This study showed that HbA1c reduction by DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with increasing age, and this association was linked with higher DPP-4 inhibition.
Drug/Regimen
Efficacy and Safety of Self-Titration Algorithms of Insulin Glargine 300 units/mL in Individuals with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (The Korean TITRATION Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial
Jae Hyun Bae, Chang Ho Ahn, Ye Seul Yang, Sun Joon Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Young Min Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):71-80.   Published online June 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0274
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To compare the efficacy and safety of two insulin self-titration algorithms, Implementing New Strategies with Insulin Glargine for Hyperglycemia Treatment (INSIGHT) and EDITION, for insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300) in Korean individuals with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
In a 12-week, randomized, open-label trial, individuals with uncontrolled T2DM requiring basal insulin were randomized to either the INSIGHT (adjusted by 1 unit/day) or EDITION (adjusted by 3 units/week) algorithm to achieve a fasting self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in the range of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The primary outcome was the proportion of individuals achieving a fasting SMBG ≤5.6 mmol/L without noct urnal hypoglycemia at week 12.
Results
Of 129 individuals (age, 64.1±9.5 years; 66 [51.2%] women), 65 and 64 were randomized to the INSIGHT and EDITION algorithms, respectively. The primary outcome of achievement was comparable between the two groups (24.6% vs. 23.4%, P=0.876). Compared with the EDITION group, the INSIGHT group had a greater reduction in 7-point SMBG but a similar decrease in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The increment of total daily insulin dose was significantly higher in the INSIGHT group than in the EDITION group (between-group difference: 5.8±2.7 units/day, P=0.033). However, body weight was significantly increased only in the EDITION group (0.6±2.4 kg, P=0.038). There was no difference in the occurrence of hypoglycemia between the two groups. Patient satisfaction was significantly increased in the INSIGHT group (P=0.014).
Conclusion
The self-titration of Gla-300 using the INSIGHT algorithm was effective and safe compared with that using the EDITION algorithm in Korean individuals with uncontrolled T2DM (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03406663).

Citations

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  • Basal insulin titration algorithms in patients with type 2 diabetes: the simplest is the best (?)
    V.I. Katerenchuk
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2023; 19(1): 72.     CrossRef
  • Issues of insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes and ways to solve them
    V.I. Katerenchuk, A.V. Katerenchuk
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2023; 19(3): 240.     CrossRef
  • Time for Using Machine Learning for Dose Guidance in Titration of People With Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review of Basal Insulin Dose Guidance
    Camilla Heisel Nyholm Thomsen, Stine Hangaard, Thomas Kronborg, Peter Vestergaard, Ole Hejlesen, Morten Hasselstrøm Jensen
    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology.2022; : 193229682211459.     CrossRef
Drug/Regimen
Effects of Teneligliptin on HbA1c levels, Continuous Glucose Monitoring-Derived Time in Range and Glycemic Variability in Elderly Patients with T2DM (TEDDY Study)
Ji Cheol Bae, Soo Heon Kwak, Hyun Jin Kim, Sang-Yong Kim, You-Cheol Hwang, Sunghwan Suh, Bok Jin Hyun, Ji Eun Cha, Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):81-92.   Published online June 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0016
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range, and glycemic variability in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Methods
This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in eight centers in Korea (clinical trial registration number: NCT03508323). Sixty-five participants aged ≥65 years, who were treatment-naïve or had been treated with stable doses of metformin, were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of teneligliptin (n=35) or placebo (n=30) for 12 weeks. The main endpoints were the changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to week 12, CGM metrics-derived time in range, and glycemic variability.
Results
After 12 weeks, a significant reduction (by 0.84%) in HbA1c levels was observed in the teneligliptin group compared to that in the placebo group (by 0.08%), with a between-group least squares mean difference of –0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.08 to –0.44). The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion significantly decreased in participants treated with teneligliptin as compared to those in the placebo group. Teneligliptin treatment significantly decreased the time spent above 180 or 250 mg/dL, respectively, without increasing the time spent below 70 mg/dL. The mean percentage of time for which glucose levels remained in the 70 to 180 mg/dL time in range (TIR70–180) at week 12 was 82.0%±16.0% in the teneligliptin group, and placebo-adjusted change in TIR70–180 from baseline was 13.3% (95% CI, 6.0 to 20.6).
Conclusion
Teneligliptin effectively reduced HbA1c levels, time spent above the target range, and glycemic variability, without increasing hypoglycemia in our study population.

Citations

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  • Comparison of teneligliptin and other gliptin-based regimens in addressing insulin resistance and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study
    Harmanjit Singh, Ravi Rohilla, Shivani Jaswal, Mandeep Singla
    Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 19(1): 81.     CrossRef
  • Potential approaches using teneligliptin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: current status and future prospects
    Harmanjit Singh, Jasbir Singh, Ravneet Kaur Bhangu, Mandeep Singla, Jagjit Singh, Farideh Javid
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology.2023; 16(1): 49.     CrossRef
  • Mechanism of molecular interaction of sitagliptin with human DPP4 enzyme - New Insights
    Michelangelo Bauwelz Gonzatti, José Edvar Monteiro Júnior, Antônio José Rocha, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Antônio José de Jesus Evangelista, Fátima Morgana Pio Fonseca, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto, Ariclécio Cunha de Oliveira, José Ednésio da Cruz Freire
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  • A prospective multicentre open label study to assess effect of Teneligliptin on glycemic control through parameters of time in range (TIR) Metric using continuous glucose monitoring (TOP-TIR study)
    Banshi Saboo, Suhas Erande, A.G. Unnikrishnan
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2022; 16(2): 102394.     CrossRef
  • Association between Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors and Cardiometabolic Outcomes
    Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 49.     CrossRef
Type 1 Diabetes
Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microvascular Complications in Chinese Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Qianwen Huang, Daizhi Yang, Hongrong Deng, Hua Liang, Xueying Zheng, Jinhua Yan, Wen Xu, Xiangwen Liu, Bin Yao, Sihui Luo, Jianping Weng
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):93-103.   Published online August 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0240
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality yet with increasing heterogeneity. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS among adult patients with T1DM in China and investigate its associated risk factors, and relationship with microvascular complications.
Methods
We included adult patients who had been enrolled in the Guangdong T1DM Translational Medicine Study conducted from June 2010 to June 2015. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program criterion. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for the association between MetS and the risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR).
Results
Among the 569 eligible patients enrolled, the prevalence of MetS was 15.1%. While female gender, longer diabetes duration, higher body mass index, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were risk factors associated with MetS (OR, 2.86, 1.04, 1.14, and 1.23, respectively), received nutrition therapy education was a protective factor (OR, 0.46). After adjustment for gender, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, MetS status was associated with an increased risk of DKD and DR (OR, 2.14 and 3.72, respectively; both P<0.05).
Conclusion
Although the prevalence of MetS in adult patients with T1DM in China was relatively low, patients with MetS were more likely to have DKD and DR. A comprehensive management including lifestyle modification might reduce their risk of microvascular complications in adults with T1DM.

Citations

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  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Risk Factors Influence on Microvascular Complications in Patients With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Asad Riaz, Shoaib Asghar, Salman Shahid, Haider Tanvir, Muhammad Hamza Ejaz, Mamuna Akram
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Daye Diana Choi, Kyung-Ah Park, Kyungdo Han, Sei Yeul Oh
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    Shujuan Yang, Bin Yu, Wanqi Yu, Shaoqing Dai, Chuanteng Feng, Ying Shao, Xing Zhao, Xiaoqing Li, Tianjing He, Peng Jia
    Nature Communications.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Endotoxemia with Low-Grade Inflammation, Metabolic Syndrome and Distinct Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Type 1 Diabetes
    Aleksejs Fedulovs, Leonora Pahirko, Kaspars Jekabsons, Liga Kunrade, Jānis Valeinis, Una Riekstina, Valdis Pīrāgs, Jelizaveta Sokolovska
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(12): 3269.     CrossRef
  • Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microvascular Complications in Chinese Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2022;46:93-103)
    Qianwen Huang, Sihui Luo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 515.     CrossRef
  • Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Microvascular Complications in Chinese Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2022;46:93-103)
    Gyuri Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 512.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic syndrome associated with higher glycemic variability in type 1 diabetes: A multicenter cross-sectional study in china
    Keyu Guo, Liyin Zhang, Jianan Ye, Xiaohong Niu, Hongwei Jiang, Shenglian Gan, Jian Zhou, Lin Yang, Zhiguang Zhou
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Complications
Renal Tubular Damage Marker, Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase, as a Predictive Marker of Hepatic Fibrosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hae Kyung Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):104-116.   Published online July 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0273
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is closely associated with the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated whether urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (u-NAG), an early renal tubular damage biomarker in DKD, could be related to the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM.
Methods
A total of 300 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis were determined using transient elastography. The levels of urinary biomarkers, including u-NAG, albumin, protein, and creatinine, and glucometabolic parameters were measured.
Results
Based on the median value of the u-NAG to creatinine ratio (u-NCR), subjects were divided into low and high u-NCR groups. The high u-NCR group showed a significantly longer duration of diabetes, worsened hyperglycemia, and a more enhanced hepatic fibrosis index. A higher u-NCR was associated with a greater odds ratio for the risk of higher hepatic fibrosis stage (F2: odds ratio, 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 3.82). Also, u-NCR was an independent predictive marker for more advanced hepatic fibrosis, even after adjusting for several confounding factors (β=1.58, P<0.01).
Conclusion
The elevation of u-NAG was independently associated with a higher degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM. Considering the common metabolic milieu of renal and hepatic fibrosis in T2DM, the potential use of u-NAG as an effective urinary biomarker reflecting hepatic fibrosis in T2DM needs to be validated in the future.

Citations

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  • Intermittent fasting plus early time-restricted eating versus calorie restriction and standard care in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial
    Xiao Tong Teong, Kai Liu, Andrew D. Vincent, Julien Bensalem, Bo Liu, Kathryn J. Hattersley, Lijun Zhao, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Timothy J. Sargeant, Gary A. Wittert, Amy T. Hutchison, Leonie K. Heilbronn
    Nature Medicine.2023; 29(4): 963.     CrossRef
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    Jaehyun Bae, Byung-Wan Lee
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(7): 1928.     CrossRef
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    Fei Lu, Jinlei Fan, Fangxuan Li, Lijing Liu, Zhiyu Chen, Ziyu Tian, Liping Zuo, Dexin Yu
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  • β‐Amyrin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in mice and regulates the miR‐181b‐5p/HMGB2 axis in high glucose‐stimulated HK‐2 cells
    Wenhua Xu, Hongwu Zhang, Qinfeng Zhang, Jialan Xu
    Environmental Toxicology.2022; 37(3): 637.     CrossRef
  • High Glycated Hemoglobin Instead of High Body Mass Index Might Increase the Urine N-Acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase Con-Centration in Children and Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus
    Jin-Soon Suh, Kyoung Soon Cho, Seul Ki Kim, Shin-Hee Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Min Ho Jung, Moon Bae Ahn
    Life.2022; 12(6): 879.     CrossRef
Complications
Influence of Glucose Fluctuation on Peripheral Nerve Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Yu Ji Kim, Na Young Lee, Kyung Ae Lee, Tae Sun Park, Heung Yong Jin
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):117-128.   Published online September 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0275
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
It is unclear whether glycemic variability (GV) is a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), and whether control of GV is beneficial for DPN. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GV on peripheral nerve damage by inducing glucose fluctuation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods
Rats were divided into four groups: normal (normal glucose group [NOR]), diabetes without treatment (sustained severe hyperglycemia group; diabetes mellitus [DM]), diabetes+once daily insulin glargine (stable hyperglycemia group; DM+LAN), and diabetes+once daily insulin glargine with twice daily insulin glulisine (unstable glucose fluctuation group; DM+Lantus [LAN]+Apidra [API]). We measured anti-oxidant enzyme levels and behavioral responses against tactile, thermal, and pressure stimuli in the plasma of rats. We also performed a quantitative comparison of cutaneous and sciatic nerves according to glucose fluctuation.
Results
At week 24, intraepidermal nerve fiber density was less reduced in the insulin-administered groups compared to the DM group (P<0.05); however, a significant difference was not observed between the DM+LAN and DM+LAN+API groups irrespective of glucose fluctuation (P>0.05; 16.2±1.6, 12.4±2.0, 14.3±0.9, and 13.9±0.6 for NOR, DM, DM+LAN, and DM+LAN+API, respectively). The DM group exhibited significantly decreased glutathione levels compared to the insulin-administered groups (2.64±0.10 μmol/mL, DM+LAN; 1.93±0.0 μmol/mL, DM+LAN+API vs. 1.25±0.04 μmol/mL, DM; P<0.05).
Conclusion
Our study suggests that glucose control itself is more important than glucose fluctuation in the prevention of peripheral nerve damage, and intra-day glucose fluctuation has a limited effect on the progression of peripheral neuropathy in rats with diabetes.

Citations

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  • Glucose Fluctuation Inhibits Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Hippocampal Tissues and Exacerbates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
    Haiyan Chi, Yujing Sun, Peng Lin, Junyu Zhou, Jinbiao Zhang, Yachao Yang, Yun Qiao, Deshan Liu, Eusebio Chiefari
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
  • Artesunate Inhibits Apoptosis and Promotes Survival in Schwann Cells via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Axis in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
    Xin Zhang, Zhifang Liang, Ying Zhou, Fang Wang, Shan Wei, Bing Tan, Yujie Guo
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin.2023; 46(6): 764.     CrossRef
  • The Potential of Glucose Treatment to Reduce Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Apoptosis of Inflamed Neural Cells In Vitro
    Juin-Hong Cherng, Shu-Jen Chang, Hsin-Da Tsai, Chung-Fang Chun, Gang-Yi Fan, Kenneth Dean Reeves, King Hei Stanley Lam, Yung-Tsan Wu
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    Haiyan Chi, Min Song, Jinbiao Zhang, Junyu Zhou, Deshan Liu, Victor Manuel Mendoza-Nuñez
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(9): e0289782.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Serum Retinol-Binding Protein Levels Are Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Real-World Study
Zhi-Hui Zhang, Jiang-Feng Ke, Jun-Xi Lu, Yun Liu, Ai-Ping Wang, Lian-Xi Li
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):129-139.   Published online August 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0222
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The association of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains controversial. Furthermore, few studies have investigated their relationship in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the association between serum RBP levels and NAFLD in Chinese inpatients with T2DM.
Methods
This cross-sectional, real-world study included 2,263 Chinese T2DM inpatients. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The subjects were divided into four groups based on RBP quartiles, and clinical characteristics were compared among the four groups. The associations of both RBP levels and quartiles with the presence of NAFLD were also analyzed.
Results
After adjustment for sex, age, and diabetes duration, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of NAFLD from the lowest to the highest RBP quartiles (30.4%, 40.0%, 42.4%, and 44.7% for the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, P<0.001 for trend). Fully adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that both increased RBP levels (odds ratio, 1.155; 95% confidence interval, 1.012 to 1.318; P=0.033) and quartiles (P=0.014 for trend) were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in T2DM patients.
Conclusion
Increased serum RBP levels were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in Chinese T2DM inpatients. Serum RBP levels may be used as one of the indicators to assess the risk of NAFLD in T2DM patients.

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  • The relationship between NAFLD and retinol-binding protein 4 - an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
    Rui Hu, Xiaoyue Yang, Xiaoyu He, Guangyao Song
    Lipids in Health and Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Blood lactate levels are associated with an increased risk of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes: a real-world study
    Yi-Lin Ma, Jiang-Feng Ke, Jun-Wei Wang, Yu-Jie Wang, Man-Rong Xu, Lian-Xi Li
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • High‐normal unconjugated bilirubin is associated with decreased risk of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes: A real‐world study
    Man‐Rong Xu, Chun‐Hua Jin, Jun‐Xi Lu, Mei‐Fang Li, Lian‐Xi Li
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  • Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
    Elina En Li Cho, Chong Zhe Ang, Jingxuan Quek, Clarissa Elysia Fu, Lincoln Kai En Lim, Zane En Qi Heng, Darren Jun Hao Tan, Wen Hui Lim, Jie Ning Yong, Rebecca Zeng, Douglas Chee, Benjamin Nah, Cosmas Rinaldi Adithya Lesmana, Aung Hlaing Bwa, Khin Maung W
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  • Serum iron is closely associated with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes: A real-world study
    Jun-Wei Wang, Chun-Hua Jin, Jiang-Feng Ke, Yi-Lin Ma, Yu-Jie Wang, Jun-Xi Lu, Mei-Fang Li, Lian-Xi Li
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  • Low-normal serum unconjugated bilirubin levels are associated with late but not early carotid atherosclerotic lesions in T2DM subjects
    Chun-Hua Jin, Jun-Wei Wang, Jiang-Feng Ke, Jing-Bo Li, Mei-Fang Li, Lian-Xi Li
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    Yi-Lin Ma, Chun-Hua Jin, Cui-Chun Zhao, Jiang-Feng Ke, Jun-Wei Wang, Yu-Jie Wang, Jun-Xi Lu, Gao-Zhong Huang, Lian-Xi Li
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  • Decreased Serum Osteocalcin is an Independent Risk Factor for Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease in Type 2 Diabetes
    Yu-Jie Wang, Chun-Hua Jin, Jiang-Feng Ke, Jun-Wei Wang, Yi-Lin Ma, Jun-Xi Lu, Mei-Fang Li, Lian-Xi Li
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2022; Volume 15: 3717.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Postprandial Free Fatty Acids at Mid-Pregnancy Increase the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
So-Yeon Kim, Young Shin Song, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Wook Cho, Kyung-Soo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):140-148.   Published online August 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0023
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the association between free fatty acid (FFA) level at mid-pregnancy and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Methods
We enrolled 710 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from February 2009 to October 2016. GDM was diagnosed by a ‘two-step’ approach with Carpenter and Coustan criteria. We measured plasma lipid profiles including fasting and 2-hour postprandial FFA (2h-FFA) levels at mid-pregnancy. LGA was defined if birthweights of newborns were above the 90th percentile for their gestational age.
Results
Mean age of pregnant women in this study was 33.1 years. Mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 22.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of LGA was 8.3% (n=59). Levels of 2h-FFA were higher in women who delivered LGA newborns than in those who delivered non-LGA newborns (416.7 μEq/L vs. 352.5 μEq/L, P=0.006). However, fasting FFA was not significantly different between the two groups. The prevalence of delivering LGA newborns was increased with increasing tertile of 2h-FFA (T1, 4.3%; T2, 9.8%; T3, 10.7%; P for trend <0.05). After adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fasting plasma glucose, the highest tertile of 2h-FFA was 2.38 times (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.13) more likely to have LGA newborns than the lowest tertile. However, there was no significant difference between groups according to fasting FFA tertiles.
Conclusion
In women with GDM, a high 2h-FFA level (but not fasting FFA) at mid-pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of delivering LGA newborns.

Citations

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Short Communication
Type 1 Diabetes
Real-World Analysis of Therapeutic Outcome in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus at a Tertiary Care Center
Antonia Kietaibl, Michaela Riedl, Latife Bozkurt
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):149-153.   Published online July 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0267
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Insulin replacement in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) needs intensified treatment, which can either be performed by multiple daily injections (MDI) or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). This retrospective analysis of a real-world scenario aimed to evaluate whether glycaemic and cardiovascular risk factors could be controlled with CSII outclass MDI as suggested by recent evidence. Data from patients with either insulin pump (n=68) or injection (n=224) therapy at an Austrian tertiary care centre were analysed between January 2016 and December 2017. There were no significant differences with regard to the latest glycosylated hemoglobin, cardiovascular risk factor control or diabetes-associated late complications. Hypoglycaemia was less frequent (P<0.001), sensor-augmented therapy was more common (P=0.003) and mean body mass index (BMI) was higher (P=0.002) with CSII treatment. This retrospective analysis of real-world data in T1DM did not demonstrate the superiority of insulin pump treatment with regard to glycaemic control or cardiovascular risk factor control.
Brief Report
Technology/Device
Do-It-Yourself Open Artificial Pancreas System in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Real-World Data
Min Sun Choi, Seunghyun Lee, Jiwon Kim, Gyuri Kim, Sung Min Park, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):154-159.   Published online November 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0011
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  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Few studies have been conducted among Asian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using do-it-yourself artificial pancreas system (DIY-APS). We evaluated real-world data of pediatric T1DM patients using DIY-APS. Data were obtained for 10 patients using a DIY-APS with algorithms. We collected sensor glucose and insulin delivery data from each participant for a period of 4 weeks. Average glycosylated hemoglobin was 6.2%±0.3%. The mean percentage of time that glucose level remained in the target range of 70 to 180 mg/dL was 82.4%±7.8%. Other parameters including time above range, time below range and mean glucose were also within the recommended level, similar to previous commercial and DIY-APS studies. However, despite meeting the target range, unadjusted gaps were still observed between the median basal setting and temporary basal insulin, which should be handled by healthcare providers.

Citations

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