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Volume 42(5); October 2018
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Reviews
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Diabetes and Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis
Chang Hoon Lee, Seung-Whan Lee, Seong-Wook Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):355-363.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0041
  • 4,970 View
  • 58 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

It is well known that diabetic patients have a high risk of cardiovascular events, and although there has been a tremendous effort to reduce these cardiovascular risks, the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients remains high. Therefore, the early detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is necessary in those diabetic patients who are at risk of cardiovascular events. Significant medical and radiological advancements, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), mean that it is now possible to investigate the characteristics of plaques, instead of solely evaluating the calcium level of the coronary artery. Recently, several studies reported that the prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis (SCA) is higher than expected, and this could impact on CAD progression in asymptomatic diabetic patients. In addition, several reports suggest the potential benefit of using CCTA for screening for SCA in asymptomatic diabetic patients, which might dramatically decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events. For these reasons, the medical interest in SCA in diabetic patients is increasing. In this article, we sought to review the results of studies on CAD in asymptomatic diabetic patients and discuss the clinical significance and possibility of using CCTA to screen for SCA.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • Association between carotid atherosclerosis and presence of intracranial atherosclerosis using three-dimensional high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes
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  • Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease
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  • Cardiologist's approach to the diabetic patient: No further delay for a paradigm shift
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    International Journal of Cardiology.2021; 338: 248.     CrossRef
  • Co‐expression of glycosylated aquaporin‐1 and transcription factor NFAT5 contributes to aortic stiffness in diabetic and atherosclerosis‐prone mice
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  • Letter: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2019;43:582–9)
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Complications
Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Old and the New
Sentaro Kusuhara, Yoko Fukushima, Shuntaro Ogura, Naomi Inoue, Akiyoshi Uemura
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):364-376.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0182
  • 15,143 View
  • 537 Download
  • 116 Web of Science
  • 111 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Vision loss in diabetic retinopathy (DR) is ascribed primarily to retinal vascular abnormalities—including hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis—that eventually lead to anatomical and functional alterations in retinal neurons and glial cells. Recent advances in retinal imaging systems using optical coherence tomography technologies and pharmacological treatments using anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs and corticosteroids have revolutionized the clinical management of DR. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of DR are not fully determined, largely because hyperglycemic animal models only reproduce limited aspects of subclinical and early DR. Conversely, non-diabetic mouse models that represent the hallmark vascular disorders in DR, such as pericyte deficiency and retinal ischemia, have provided clues toward an understanding of the sequential events that are responsible for vision-impairing conditions. In this review, we summarize the clinical manifestations and treatment modalities of DR, discuss current and emerging concepts with regard to the pathophysiology of DR, and introduce perspectives on the development of new drugs, emphasizing the breakdown of the blood-retina barrier and retinal neovascularization.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channel deletion regulates pathological but not developmental retinal angiogenesis
    Holly C. Cappelli, Brianna D. Guarino, Anantha K. Kanugula, Ravi K. Adapala, Vidushani Perera, Matthew A. Smith, Sailaja Paruchuri, Charles K. Thodeti
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  • Involvement of miR‐126 rs4636297 and miR‐146a rs2910164 polymorphisms in the susceptibility for diabetic retinopathy: a case–control study in a type 1 diabetes population
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    Acta Ophthalmologica.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Retinal Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction and Neuroretinal Degeneration in Diabetic Patients
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  • Factors based on optical coherence tomography correlated with vision impairment in diabetic patients
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  • Single-Cell Analysis of Blood-Brain Barrier Response to Pericyte Loss
    Maarja A. Mäe, Liqun He, Sofia Nordling, Elisa Vazquez-Liebanas, Khayrun Nahar, Bongnam Jung, Xidan Li, Bryan C. Tan, Juat Chin Foo, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Markus R. Wenk, Yvette Zarb, Barbara Lavina, Susan E. Quaggin, Marie Jeansson, Chengua Gu, David
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  • VEGFR1 signaling in retinal angiogenesis and microinflammation
    Akiyoshi Uemura, Marcus Fruttiger, Patricia A. D'Amore, Sandro De Falco, Antonia M. Joussen, Florian Sennlaub, Lynne R. Brunck, Kristian T. Johnson, George N. Lambrou, Kay D. Rittenhouse, Thomas Langmann
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  • Changes in Gene Expression Profiling and Phenotype in Aged Multidrug Resistance Protein 4-Deficient Mouse Retinas
    Kyung Woo Kim, Sentaro Kusuhara, Atsuko Katsuyama-Yoshikawa, Sho Nobuyoshi, Megumi Kitamura, Sotaro Mori, Noriyuki Sotani, Kaori Ueda, Wataru Matsumiya, Akiko Miki, Takuji Kurimoto, Hisanori Imai, Makoto Nakamura
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  • Circular RNAs: Novel target of diabetic retinopathy
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    Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders.2021; 22(2): 205.     CrossRef
  • MicroRNA-431-5p encapsulated in serum extracellular vesicles as a biomarker for proliferative diabetic retinopathy
    Bo Yu, Mengran Xiao, Fuhua Yang, Jing Xiao, Hui Zhang, Lin Su, Xiaomin Zhang, Xiaorong Li
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology.2021; 135: 105975.     CrossRef
  • EndMT Regulation by Small RNAs in Diabetes-Associated Fibrotic Conditions: Potential Link With Oxidative Stress
    Roberta Giordo, Yusra M. A. Ahmed, Hilda Allam, Salah Abusnana, Lucia Pappalardo, Gheyath K. Nasrallah, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, Gianfranco Pintus
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Pharmacokinetics of genistein distribution in blood and retinas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats
    T. Hakami, M.I. Mahmoud, E. de Juan, M. Cooney
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics.2021; 39: 100404.     CrossRef
  • Nimbolide ameliorates the streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats through the inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway
    Xiangwen Shu, Yali Hu, Chao Huang, Ning Wei
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences.2021; 28(8): 4255.     CrossRef
  • Basic regulatory effects and clinical value of metalloproteinase-14 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in diabetic retinopathy
    Shuyan Li, Shiheng Lu, Lei Zhang, Shasha Liu, Lei Wang, Kai Lin, Jialun Du, Meixia Song
    Materials Express.2021; 11(6): 873.     CrossRef
  • Reduced Acrolein Detoxification in akr1a1a Zebrafish Mutants Causes Impaired Insulin Receptor Signaling and Microvascular Alterations
    Haozhe Qi, Felix Schmöhl, Xiaogang Li, Xin Qian, Christoph T. Tabler, Katrin Bennewitz, Carsten Sticht, Jakob Morgenstern, Thomas Fleming, Nadine Volk, Ingrid Hausser, Elena Heidenreich, Rüdiger Hell, Peter Paul Nawroth, Jens Kroll
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  • The Metaflammatory and Immunometabolic Role of Macrophages and Microglia in Diabetic Retinopathy
    Honglian Wu, Mengqi Wang, Xiaorong Li, Yan Shao
    Human Cell.2021; 34(6): 1617.     CrossRef
  • Inflammatory resolution and vascular barrier restoration after retinal ischemia reperfusion injury
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Editorial
Epidemiology
Trends of Diabetes Epidemic in Korea
Ji Cheol Bae
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):377-379.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0194
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Original Articles
Clinical Care/Education
Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Health Behaviors, Metabolic Control, and Chronic Complications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
So Hun Kim, Seung Youn Lee, Chei Won Kim, Young Ju Suh, Seongbin Hong, Seong Hee Ahn, Da Hae Seo, Moon-Suk Nam, Suk Chon, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Kwan Woo Lee, Young Seol Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):380-393.   Published online June 29, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0102
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors, metabolic control, and chronic complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from South Korea, a country with universal health insurance coverage and that has experienced rapid economic and social transition.

Methods

A total of 3,294 Korean men and women with T2DM aged 30 to 65 years, participating in the Korean National Diabetes Program (KNDP) cohort who reported their SES and had baseline clinical evaluation were included in the current cross-sectional analysis. SES included the level of education and monthly household income.

Results

Lower education level and lower income level were closely related, and both were associated with older age in men and women. Women and men with lower income and education level had higher carbohydrate and lower fat intake. After adjustment for possible confounding factors, higher education in men significantly lowered the odds of having uncontrolled hyperglycemia (glycosylated hemoglobin ≥7.5%) (odds ratio [OR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.91 for highest education; Ptrend=0.048), while higher household income in men significantly lowered the odds of having diabetic retinopathy (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.95 for highest income level; Ptrend=0.048). In women, lower income was associated with a higher stress level.

Conclusion

Men with lower SES had higher odds of having diabetic retinopathy and uncontrolled hyperglycemia, showing the need to improve care targeted to this population.

Citations

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Epidemiology
Ten-Year Mortality Trends for Adults with and without Diabetes Mellitus in South Korea, 2003 to 2013
Kyeong Jin Kim, Tae Yeon Kwon, Sungwook Yu, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Sin Gon Kim, Yousung Park, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):394-401.   Published online April 26, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0088
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

To estimate and compare the trends of all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for subjects with and without diabetes in South Korea, from 2003 to 2013.

Methods

Using a population-based cohort (2003 to 2013), we evaluated annual mortality rates in adults (≥30 years) with and without diabetes. The number of subjects in this analysis ranged from 585,795 in 2003 to 670,020 in 2013.

Results

Age- and sex-adjusted all-cause mortality rates decreased consistently in both groups from 2003 to 2013 (from 14.4 to 9.3/1,000 persons in subjects with diabetes and from 7.9 to 4.4/1,000 persons in those without diabetes). The difference in mortality rates between groups also decreased (6.61 per 1,000 persons in 2003 to 4.98 per 1,000 persons in 2013). The slope associated with the mortality rate exhibited a steeper decrease in subjects with diabetes than those without diabetes (regression coefficients of time: −0.50 and −0.33, respectively; P=0.004). In subjects with diabetes, the mortality rate from cardiovascular disease decreased by 53.5% (from 2.73 to 1.27 per 1,000 persons, P for trend <0.001). Notably, the decrease in mortality from ischemic stroke (79.2%, from 1.20 to 0.25 per 1,000 persowns) was more profound than that from ischemic heart disease (28.3%, from 0.60 to 0.43 per 1,000 persons).

Conclusion

All-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates decreased substantially from 2003 to 2013, and the decline in ischemic stroke mortality mainly contributed to the decreased cardiovascular mortality in Korean people with diabetes.

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Epidemiology
Development and Validation of the Korean Diabetes Risk Score: A 10-Year National Cohort Study
Kyoung Hwa Ha, Yong-ho Lee, Sun Ok Song, Jae-woo Lee, Dong Wook Kim, Kyung-hee Cho, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):402-414.   Published online July 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0014
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

A diabetes risk score in Korean adults was developed and validated.

Methods

This study used the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) of 359,349 people without diabetes at baseline to derive an equation for predicting the risk of developing diabetes, using Cox proportional hazards regression models. External validation was conducted using data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Calibration and discrimination analyses were performed separately for men and women in the development and validation datasets.

Results

During a median follow-up of 10.8 years, 37,678 cases (event rate=10.4 per 1,000 person-years) of diabetes were identified in the development cohort. The risk score included age, family history of diabetes, alcohol intake (only in men), smoking status, physical activity, use of antihypertensive therapy, use of statin therapy, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, and γ glutamyl transferase (only in women). The C-statistics for the models for risk at 10 years were 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 0.73) for the men and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.78) for the women in the development dataset. In the validation dataset, the C-statistics were 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53 to 0.73) for men and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.76) for women.

Conclusion

The Korean Diabetes Risk Score may identify people at high risk of developing diabetes and may be an effective tool for delaying or preventing the onset of condition as risk management strategies involving modifiable risk factors can be recommended to those identified as at high risk.

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Epidemiology
Article image
Diabetes Fact Sheet in Korea, 2016: An Appraisal of Current Status
Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyuk Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Kyu Chang Won, Dae Jung Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):415-424.   Published online August 9, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0017
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  • 72 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

This report presents the recent prevalence and comorbidities related to diabetes in Korea by analyzing the nationally representative data.

Methods

Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013 to 2014, the percentages and the total number of subjects over the age of 30 years with diabetes and prediabetes were estimated and applied to the National Population Census in 2014. Diagnosis of diabetes was based on fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL), current taking of antidiabetic medication, history of previous diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined by fasting plasma glucose in the range of 100 to 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes.

Results

About 4.8 million (13.7%) Korean adults (≥30 years old) had diabetes, and about 8.3 million (24.8%) Korean adults had IFG. However, 29.3% of the subjects with diabetes are not aware of their condition. Of the subjects with diabetes, 48.6% and 54.7% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 31.6% had hypercholesterolemia. Although most subjects with diabetes (89.1%) were under medical treatment, and mostly being treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (80.2%), 10.8% have remained untreated. With respect to overall glycemic control, 43.5% reached the target of HbA1c <7%, whereas 23.3% reached the target when the standard was set to HbA1c <6.5%, according to the Korean Diabetes Association guideline.

Conclusion

Diabetes is a major public health threat in Korea, but a significant proportion of adults were not controlling their illness. We need comprehensive approaches to overcome the upcoming diabetes-related disease burden in Korea.

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Complications
The Association between Pancreatic Steatosis and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Jee Sun Jeong, Mee Kyung Kim, Kyung Do Han, Oak Kee Hong, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Dong Jin Chung, Jung-Min Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):425-432.   Published online August 9, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0107
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Whether pancreatic steatosis has a local or systemic effect, like ectopic fat of other major organs, remains unknown. Data on the influence of pancreatic steatosis on microvascular complication are rare. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between pancreatic steatosis and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

The attenuation of three pancreatic regions (head, body, and tail) and the spleen (S) in 186 patients with T2DM was measured using non-enhanced computed tomography imaging. We used three parameters for the assessment of pancreatic steatosis (‘P’ mean: mean attenuation of three pancreatic regions; P–S: difference between ‘P’ mean and ‘S’; P/S: the ‘P’ mean to ‘S’ ratio). The presence of DR was assessed by an expert ophthalmologist using dilated fundoscopy.

Results

The average P mean was 29.02 Hounsfield units (HU), P–S was −18.20 HU, and P/S was 0.61. The three pancreatic steatosis parameters were significantly associated with the prevalence of DR in non-obese T2DM patients. In the non-obese group, the odds ratios of P mean, P–S, and P/S for the prevalence of DR, after adjustment for age, sex, and glycosylated hemoglobin level, were 2.449 (P=0.07), 2.639 (P=0.04), and 2.043 (P=0.02), respectively.

Conclusion

In this study, pancreatic steatosis was significantly associated with DR in non-obese patients with T2DM. Further studies are necessary to clarify the causal relationship between pancreatic steatosis and the development of DR.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intra‐pancreatic fat is associated with continuous glucose monitoring metrics
    Yutong Liu, Wandia Kimita, Xiatiguli Shamaitijiang, Loren Skudder‐Hill, Ivana R. Sequeira‐Bisson, Maxim S. Petrov
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(6): 2359.     CrossRef
  • Association between Intrapancreatic Fat Deposition and Lower High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Individuals with Newly Diagnosed T2DM
    Jianliang Wang, Qingyun Cai, Xiaojuan Wu, Jiaxuan Wang, Xiaona Chang, Xiaoyu Ding, Jia Liu, Guang Wang, Muhittin Yurekli
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
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    Bedriye Koyuncu Sokmen, Tolga Sahin, Alihan Oral, Erdem Kocak, Nagihan Inan
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Computed Tomography-Estimated Pancreatic Steatosis is Associated with Carotid Plaque in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study from China
    Pengtao Sun, Chunzhi Fan, Rengui Wang, Tongwei Chu, Xiaoli Sun, Dongxue Zhang, Xuechao Du
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2021; Volume 14: 1329.     CrossRef
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Comparison of Competitive Models of Metabolic Syndrome Using Structural Equation Modeling: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis
Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):433-441.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0010
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of this study was to apply the structural equation modeling (SEM) to compare the fitness of different competing models (one, two, and three factors) of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Iranian adult population.

Methods

Data are given on the cardiometabolic risk factors of 841 individuals with nondiabetic adults from a cross-sectional population-based study of glucose, lipids, and MetS in the north of Iran. The three conceptual hypothesized models (single factor, two correlated factors, and three correlated latent factors) were evaluated by using confirmatory factor analysis with the SEM approach. The summary statistics of correlation coefficients and the model summary fitting indexes were calculated.

Results

The findings show that a single-factor model and a two-correlated factor model had a poorer summary fitting index compared with a three-correlated factor model. All fitting criteria met the conceptual hypothesized three-correlated factor model for both sexes. However, the correlation structure between the three underlying constructs designating the MetS was higher in women than in men.

Conclusion

These results indicate the plausibility of the pathophysiology and etiology of MetS being multifactorial, rather than a single factor, in a nondiabetic Iranian adult population.

Citations

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  • Structural Equation Modelling for Predicting the Relative Contribution of Each Component in the Metabolic Syndrome Status Change
    José E. Teixeira, José A. Bragada, João P. Bragada, Joana P. Coelho, Isabel G. Pinto, Luís P. Reis, Paula O. Fernandes, Jorge E. Morais, Pedro M. Magalhães
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    Liying Li, Ziqiong Wang, Muxin Zhang, Haiyan Ruan, Linxia Zhou, Xin Wei, Ye Zhu, Jiafu Wei, Sen He
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    Gunter Matthias Christian Flemming, Sarah Bussler, Antje Körner, Wieland Kiess
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    Pamela Mattar, Sofía Sanhueza, Gabriela Yuri, Lautaro Briones, Claudio Perez-Leighton, Assaf Rudich, Sergio Lavandero, Mariana Cifuentes
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Brief Report
Complications
The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice
Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):442-446.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0090
  • 4,526 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Early recognition and appropriate management of diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPNP) is important. We evaluated the necessity of simple, non-invasive tests for DPNP detection in clinical practice. We enrolled 136 randomly-chosen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and examined them with the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination, the 128-Hz tuning-fork, ankle-reflex, and pinprick tests; the Total Symptom Score and the 15-item self-administered questionnaire of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Among 136 patients, 48 had subjective neuropathic symptoms and 88 did not. The abnormal-response rates varied depending on the methods used according to the presence of subjective neuropathic symptoms (18.8% vs. 5.7%, P<0.05; 58.3% vs. 28.4%, P<0.005; 81.3% vs. 54.5%, P<0.005; 12.5% vs. 5.7%, P=0.195; 41.7% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001; and 77.1% vs. 9.1%, P<0.001; respectively). The largest abnormal response was derived by combining all methods. Moreover, these tests should be implemented more extensively in diabetic patients without neuropathic symptoms to detect DPNP early.

Citations

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    Fahmida Haque, Mamun B. I. Reaz, Muhammad E. H. Chowdhury, Mohd Ibrahim bin Shapiai, Rayaz A. Malik, Mohammed Alhatou, Syoji Kobashi, Iffat Ara, Sawal H. M. Ali, Ahmad A. A. Bakar, Mohammad Arif Sobhan Bhuiyan
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    Emina Karahmet Sher, Amina Džidić-Krivić, Alma Karahmet, Merima Beća-Zećo, Esma Karahmet Farhat, Adaleta Softić, Farooq Sher
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  • Response: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442–6)
    Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(6): 546.     CrossRef
  • Letter: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442-6)
    Jun Hwa Hong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(6): 544.     CrossRef
Letter
Letter: Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index as a Surrogate Marker of Early Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:285-95)
Dongwon Yi
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):447-448.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0185
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PDFPubReader   

Citations

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  • M2AI-CVD: Multi-modal AI approach cardiovascular risk prediction system using fundus images
    Premalatha Gurumurthy, Manjunathan Alagarsamy, Sangeetha Kuppusamy, Niranjana Chitra Ponnusamy
    Network: Computation in Neural Systems.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
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