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Volume 37(6); December 2013
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Reviews
Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity
Cesar Corzo, Patrick R. Griffin
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):395-403.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.395
  • 3,870 View
  • 30 Download
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here.

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Resistin in Rodents and Humans
Hyeong Kyu Park, Rexford S. Ahima
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):404-414.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.404
  • 5,834 View
  • 55 Download
  • 122 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Obesity is characterized by excess accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue and other organs, and chronic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases are major health concerns. Resistin was first discovered as an adipose-secreted hormone (adipokine) linked to obesity and insulin resistance in rodents. Adipocyte-derived resistin is increased in obese rodents and strongly related to insulin resistance. However, in contrast to rodents, resistin is expressed and secreted from macrophages in humans and is increased in inflammatory conditions. Some studies have also suggested an association between increased resistin levels and insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Genetic studies have provided additional evidence for a role of resistin in insulin resistance and inflammation. Resistin appears to mediate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, arterial inflammation, and formation of foam cells. Indeed, resistin is predictive of atherosclerosis and poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke. There is also growing evidence that elevated resistin is associated with the development of heart failure. This review will focus on the biology of resistin in rodents and humans, and evidence linking resistin with type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease.

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Diabetogenic Effect of Statins: A Double-Edged Sword?
Ji Sung Yoon, Hyoung Woo Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):415-422.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.415
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Statins are widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering agents, which have been demonstrated to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, recent trials have reported that statins cause worsening of hyperglycemia and increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. The association between the diabetogenic effect of statins with intensive dose and accompanying major risk factors for diabetes has been demonstrated. However, statins do not appear to have a class effect on insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic patients. Numerous mechanisms have been suggested to explain how statins cause β-cell insulin secretory dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance leading to incident diabetes. According to findings from an aggregate of large clinical trials, the benefits of statin treatment appear to outweigh the risk of new-onset diabetes. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to discontinue the use of statins for prevention of cardiovascular events because of its potential risk for development of incident diabetes. This review addresses the currently available evidence related to statin use and new-onset diabetes from a clinical perspective.

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Clinical Marker of Platelet Hyperreactivity in Diabetes Mellitus
Jin Hwa Kim, Hak Yeon Bae, Sang Yong Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):423-428.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.423
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Atherothrombotic complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Diabetes has been considered to be a prothrombotic status. Several factors contribute to the prothrombotic condition, such as increasing coagulation, impaired fibrinolysis, endothelial dysfunction, and platelet hyperreactivity. Among the factors that contribute to the prothrombotic status in diabetes, altered platelet function plays a crucial role. Although understanding platelet function abnormalities in diabetes still remains as a challenge, more attention should be focused on platelet function for effective management and the prediction of atherothrombotic events in diabetic patients. This review will provide an overview on the current status of knowledge of platelet function abnormalities and clinical marker of platelet hyperreactivity in patients with diabetes.

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Editorial
Metformin Based Dual-Combination Therapies in Drug Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Dong-Lim Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):429-432.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.429
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PDFPubReader   

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Original Articles
Prevalence and Management of Dyslipidemia in Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1998 to 2010
Eun Roh, Seung-Hyun Ko, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Nan Hee Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Jong Chul Won, Dae Jung Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Bong-Yun Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):433-449.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.433
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the changing trends in the prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia among Korean adults.

Methods

The prevalence of dyslipidemia and the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were investigated in adults aged ≥20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Surveys (KNHANES) 1998 to 2010. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria was used, which define dyslipidemia as having one or more of the following lipid abnormalities: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or diagnosis of dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering drugs), hypertriglyceridemia (≥150 mg/dL), hyper-low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia (≥160 mg/dL or diagnosis of dyslipidemia or use of lipid-lowering drugs), and hypo-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterolemia (<40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women).

Results

The number of participants was 6,921, 4,894, 5,312, 2,733, 6,295, 6,900, and 5,738 in KNHANES 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Age-standardized prevalence rates of dyslipidemia were 54.0%, 65.8%, 66.5%, 60.6%, 58.7%, 58.9%, and 59.0% in 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia were the two most frequent lipid abnormalities. The overall prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia increased by 1.36- and 1.35-fold in 2010 compared with 2007, respectively. Awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia improved over the period of surveys in both sexes. In 2010, about 30% of dyslipidemic patients who received lipid-lowering treatment reached target levels.

Conclusion

Although the management status of dyslipidemia has improved during recent years, effective strategy is required for achieving better prevention, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia.

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Subclinical Hypothyroidism Is Independently Associated with Microalbuminuria in a Cohort of Prediabetic Egyptian Adults
Mervat M. El-Eshmawy, Hala A. Abd El-Hafez, Walaa Othman El Shabrawy, Ibrahim A. Abdel Aal
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):450-457.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.450
  • 3,426 View
  • 37 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recent evidence has suggested an association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, whether SCH is related to microalbuminuria among subjects with prediabetes has not been studied. Thus, we evaluated the association between SCH and microalbuminuria in a cohort of prediabetic Egyptian adults.

Methods

A total of 147 prediabetic subjects and 150 healthy controls matched for age and sex were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements, plasma glucose, lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine, triiodothyronine levels, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed.

Results

The prevalence of SCH and microalbuminuria in the prediabetic subjects was higher than that in the healthy controls (16.3% vs. 4%, P<0.001; and 12.9% vs. 5.3%, P=0.02, respectively). Prediabetic subjects with SCH were characterized by significantly higher HOMA-IR, TSH levels, UACR, and prevalence of microalbuminuria than those with euthyroidism. TSH level was associated with total cholesterol (P=0.05), fasting insulin (P=0.01), HOMA-IR (P=0.01), and UACR (P=0.005). UACR was associated with waist circumference (P=0.01), fasting insulin (P=0.05), and HOMA-IR (P=0.02). With multiple logistic regression analysis, SCH was associated with microalbuminuria independent of confounding variables (β=2.59; P=0.01).

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that prediabetic subjects with SCH demonstrate higher prevalence of microalbuminuria than their non-SCH counterparts. SCH is also independently associated with microalbuminuria in prediabetic subjects. Screening and treatment for SCH may be warranted in those patients.

Citations

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Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass Is Associated with Development of Metabolic Syndrome
Byung Sam Park, Ji Sung Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):458-464.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.458
  • 5,885 View
  • 106 Download
  • 73 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Visceral adiposity is related to insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle plays a central role in insulin-mediated glucose disposal; however, little is known about the association between muscle mass and metabolic syndrome (MS). This study is to clarify the clinical role of skeletal muscle mass in development of MS.

Methods

A total of 1,042 subjects were enrolled. Subjects with prior MS and chronic diseases were excluded. After 24 months, development of MS was assessed using NCEP-ATP III criteria. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM; kg), body fat mass (BFM; kg), and visceral fat area (VFA; cm2) were obtained from bioelectrical analysis. Then, the following values were calculated as follows: percent of SMM (SMM%; %): SMM (kg)/weight (kg), skeletal muscle index (SMI; kg/m2): SMM (kg)/height (m2), skeletal muscle to body fat ratio (MFR): SMM (kg)/BFM (kg), and skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR; kg/cm2): SMM (kg)/VFA (cm2).

Results

Among 838 subjects, 88 (10.5%) were newly diagnosed with MS. Development of MS increased according to increasing quintiles of BMI, SMM, VFA, and SMI, but was negatively associated with SMM%, MFR, and SVR. VFA was positively associated with high waist circumference (WC), high blood pressure (BP), dysglycemia, and high triglyceride (TG). In contrast, MFR was negatively associated with high WC, high BP, dysglycemia, and high TG. SVR was negatively associated with all components of MS.

Conclusion

Relative SMM ratio to body composition, rather than absolute mass, may play a critical role in development of MS and could be used as a strong predictor.

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Glycemic Effectiveness of Metformin-Based Dual-Combination Therapies with Sulphonylurea, Pioglitazone, or DPP4-Inhibitor in Drug-Naïve Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Young Ki Lee, Sun Ok Song, Kwang Joon Kim, Yongin Cho, Younjeong Choi, Yujung Yun, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun-Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):465-474.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.465
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study compared the glycemic effectiveness of three metformin-based dual therapies according to baseline hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to evaluate the appropriateness of the guideline enforced by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea for initial medication of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods

This prospective observational study was conducted across 24 weeks for drug-naïve Korean T2D patients with HbA1c greater than 7.5%. Subjects were first divided into three groups based on the agent combined with metformin (group 1, gliclazide-modified release or glimepiride; group 2, pioglitazone; group 3, sitagliptin). Subjects were also classified into three categories according to baseline HbA1c (category I, 7.5%≤HbA1c<9.0%; category II, 9.0%≤HbA1c<11.0%; category III, 11.0%≤HbA1c).

Results

Among 116 subjects, 99 subjects completed the study, with 88 subjects maintaining the initial medication. While each of the metformin-based dual therapies showed a significant decrease in HbA1c (group 1, 8.9% to 6.4%; group 2, 9.0% to 6.6%; group 3, 9.3% to 6.3%; P<0.001 for each), there was no significant difference in the magnitude of HbA1c change among the groups. While the three HbA1c categories showed significantly different baseline HbA1c levels (8.2% vs. 9.9% vs. 11.9%; P<0.001), endpoint HbA1c was not different (6.4% vs. 6.6% vs. 6.0%; P=0.051).

Conclusion

The three dual therapies using a combination of metformin and either sulfonylurea, pioglitazone, or sitagliptin showed similar glycemic effectiveness among drug-naïve Korean T2D patients. In addition, these regimens were similarly effective across a wide range of baseline HbA1c levels.

Citations

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Pattern of Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia according to Type of Diabetes: A Predator Stress Model
Jin-Sun Chang, Young-Hye You, Shin-Young Park, Ji-Won Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Jae-Hyoung Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):475-483.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.475
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We aimed to quantify stress-induced hyperglycemia and differentiate the glucose response between normal animals and those with diabetes. We also examined the pattern in glucose fluctuation induced by stress according to type of diabetes.

Methods

To load psychological stress on animal models, we used a predator stress model by exposing rats to a cat for 60 minutes and measured glucose level from the beginning to the end of the test to monitor glucose fluctuation. We induced type 1 diabetes model (T1D) for ten Sprague-Dawley rats using streptozotocin and used five Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats as obese type 2 diabetes model (OT2D) and 10 Goto-Kakizaki rats as nonobese type 2 diabetes model (NOT2D). We performed the stress loading test in both the normal and diabetic states and compared patterns of glucose fluctuation among the three models. We classified the pattern of glucose fluctuation into A, B, and C types according to speed of change in glucose level.

Results

Increase in glucose, total amount of hyperglycemic exposure, time of stress-induced hyperglycemia, and speed of glucose increase were significantly increased in all models compared to the normal state. While the early increase in glucose after exposure to stress was higher in T1D and NOT2D, it was slower in OT2D. The rate of speed of the decrease in glucose level was highest in NOT2D and lowest in OT2D.

Conclusion

The diabetic state was more vulnerable to stress compared to the normal state in all models, and the pattern of glucose fluctuation differed among the three types of diabetes. The study provides basic evidence for stress-induced hyperglycemia patterns and characteristics used for the management of diabetes patients.

Citations

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Letter
Letter: Predicting Mortality of Critically Ill Patients by Blood Glucose Levels (Diabetes Metab J 2013;37:385-90)
Hyeong Kyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):484-485.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.484
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PDFPubReader   
Erratums
Erratum: Figure Correction. Intestinal and Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1
Sung-Woo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):486-487.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.486
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PDFPubReader   
Erratum: Author's Name Correction. Diabetic Retinopathy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Jae-Seung Yun, Seung-Hyun Ko, Ji-Hoon Kim, Keon-Woong Moon, Yong-Moon Park, Ki-Dong Yoo, Yu-Bae Ahn
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):488-488.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.488
  • 2,766 View
  • 23 Download
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PDFPubReader   

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: The role of human induced pluripotent stem cells and tissue engineering
    Mary H. C. Florido, Nicholas P. Ziats
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef

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