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Volume 37(4); August 2013
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Identification of Novel Drug Targets for the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy
Akiyoshi Uemura
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):217-224.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.217
  • 3,510 View
  • 28 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Vision loss in diabetic retinopathy (DR) is attributable to retinal vascular disorders that result in macular edema and neoangiogenesis. In addition to laser photocoagulation therapy, intraocular injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs have contributed to the treatment of these disease conditions. Nonetheless, the clinical feasibility of intraocular drug administration has raised an increasing demand to develop alternative drugs that can fundamentally ameliorate the retinal vascular dysfunctions in DR. For this purpose, experimental animal models that reproduce human DR would be of clinical benefit. Despite the unavailability of DR models in rats or mice, pharmacological and genetic manipulations without hyperglycemia have successfully recapitulated retinal edema and neoangiogenesis in postnatal mouse retinas, thereby enabling the understanding of the pathophysiology underlying DR. This article highlights the utility of experimental mouse models of retinal vascular abnormalities and discusses cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset and progression of DR. These approaches will lead to the identification of novel drug targets for the restoration of vascular integrity and regeneration of functional capillaries in DR.

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  • A Protective Role for RHOJ in NonSmall Cell Lung Cancer Based on Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis
    Tian Zeng, Can Chen, Pan Yang, Wenwei Zuo, Xiaoqing Liu, Yanling Zhang
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Effects of Exercise Alone on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Youth
SoJung Lee, YoonMyung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):225-232.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.225
  • 3,872 View
  • 38 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

As with the dramatic increases in childhood obesity over the past decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased among children and adolescents in the United States. Insulin resistance is a common feature of childhood obesity and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in obese youth. Although cross-sectional studies report beneficial effects of physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness on insulin sensitivity, the role of regular exercise alone (e.g., no calorie restriction) as a strategy to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes is unclear in obese children and adolescents. In this mini review, we examined the independent effects of various exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese youth.

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  • Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view
    Santiago Tavares Paes, João Carlos Bouzas Marins, Ana Eliza Andreazzi
    Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition).2015; 33(1): 122.     CrossRef
  • Impact of regular physical activity on blood glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a multicenter study of 578 patients from 225 centres
    A Herbst, T Kapellen, E Schober, C Graf, T Meissner, RW Holl
    Pediatric Diabetes.2015; 16(3): 204.     CrossRef
  • Impact of exercise training without caloric restriction on inflammation, insulin resistance and visceral fat mass in obese adolescents
    M. Mendelson, A.‐S. Michallet, D. Monneret, C. Perrin, F. Estève, P. R. Lombard, P. Faure, P. Lévy, A. Favre‐Juvin, J.‐L. Pépin, B. Wuyam, P. Flore
    Pediatric Obesity.2015; 10(4): 311.     CrossRef
  • Early-life sleep deprivation persistently depresses melatonin production and bio-energetics of the pineal gland: potential implications for the development of metabolic deficiency
    Li-You Chen, Cheng Tiong, Chung-Hung Tsai, Wen-Chieh Liao, Shun-Fa Yang, Su-Chung Youn, Fu-Der Mai, Hung-Ming Chang
    Brain Structure and Function.2015; 220(2): 663.     CrossRef
  • Whey Protein Improves Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Trained Mice
    WEN-CHYUAN CHEN, WEN-CHING HUANG, CHIEN-CHAO CHIU, YU-KAI CHANG, CHI-CHANG HUANG
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.2014; 46(8): 1517.     CrossRef
  • Type 2 diabetes in the child and adolescent
    Phil Zeitler, Junfen Fu, Nikhil Tandon, Kristen Nadeau, Tatsuhiko Urakami, Timothy Barrett, David Maahs
    Pediatric Diabetes.2014; 15(S20): 26.     CrossRef
  • ENDOCRINOLOGY AND ADOLESCENCE: Aerobic exercise reduces insulin resistance markers in obese youth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Antonio García-Hermoso, Jose M Saavedra, Yolanda Escalante, Mairena Sánchez-López, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2014; 171(4): R163.     CrossRef
Diabetes Epidemics in Korea: Reappraise Nationwide Survey of Diabetes "Diabetes in Korea 2007"
Ie Byung Park, Jaiyong Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Jee-Young Oh, Seok Won Park, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Kyung Wan Min, Jeong Hyun Park, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Hwayoung Kim, Sunhee Lee, Im Bong Lee, Injeoung Choi, Sei Hyun Baik
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):233-239.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.233
  • 5,314 View
  • 59 Download
  • 62 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

There are many studies on the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and economic burden of diabetes across the past four decades in Korea. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of nationwide study regarding diabetes encompassing all age group. Eight years ago, the Committee on the Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus of Korean Diabetes Association collaborated with Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service to evaluate the status of diabetes care and characteristics in diabetic patients in Korea. In 2007, the collaborative task force team published a comprehensive survey titled "Diabetes in Korea 2007." In this review, we reappraise the diabetic epidemics from the joint report and suggest further studies that are needed to be investigated in the future.

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  • 7th Asian PAD Workshop

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Sulwon Lecture 2012
Intestinal and Hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1
Sung-Woo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):240-248.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.240
  • 3,936 View
  • 45 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Polytopic transmembrane protein, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and prevents extensive loss of cholesterol by transporting biliary cholesterol into hepatocytes. NPC1L1 is a molecular target of ezetimibe, an agent for hypercholesterolemia. Recently, NPC1L1 inhibition has been shown to prevent metabolic disorders such as fatty liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In this review, the identification and characterization of NPC1L1, NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol transport, the relationship with pathogenesis of metabolic disease and its newly introduced function for virus entry are discussed.

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Editorial
Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis
Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):249-251.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.249
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Original Articles
Serum Adiponectin and Type 2 Diabetes: A 6-Year Follow-Up Cohort Study
Sun Ha Jee, Chul Woo Ahn, Jong Suk Park, Chang Gyu Park, Hyon-Suk Kim, Sang-Hak Lee, Sungha Park, Myoungsook Lee, Chang Beom Lee, Hye Soon Park, Heejin Kimm, Sung Hee Choi, Jidong Sung, Seungjoon Oh, Hyojee Joung, Sung Rae Kim, Ho-Joong Youn, Sun Mi Kim, Hong Soo Lee, Yejin Mok, Eunmi Choi, Young Duk Yun, Soo-Jin Baek, Jaeseong Jo, Kap Bum Huh
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):252-261.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.252
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Studies on factors which may predict the risk of diabetes are scarce. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the association between adiponectin and type 2 diabetes among Korean men and women.

Methods

A total of 42,845 participants who visited one of seven health examination centers located in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea between 2004 and 2008 were included in this study. The incidence rates of diabetes were determined through December 2011. To evaluate the effects of adiponectin on type 2 diabetes, the Cox proportional hazard model was used.

Results

Of the 40,005 participants, 959 developed type 2 diabetes during a 6-year follow-up. After the adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, the risks for type 2 diabetes in participants with normoglycemia had a 1.70-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 2.38) increase in men and a 1.83-fold (95% CI, 1.17 to 2.86) increase in women with the lowest tertile of adiponectin when compared to the highest tertile of adiponectin. For participants with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), the risk for type 2 diabetes had a 1.46-fold (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.83) increase in men and a 2.52-fold (95% CI, 1.57 to 4.06) increase in women with the lowest tertile of adiponectin. Except for female participants with normoglycemia, all the risks remained significant after the adjustment for fasting glucose and other confounding variables. Surprisingly, BMI and waist circumference were not predictors of type 2 diabetes in men or women with IFG after adjustment for fasting glucose and other confounders.

Conclusion

A strong association between adiponectin and diabetes was observed. The use of adiponectin as a predictor of type 2 diabetes is considered to be useful.

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Diabetic Retinopathy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Jae-Seung Yun, Seung-Hyun Ko, Ji-Hoon Kim, Kun-Woong Moon, Yong-Moon Park, Ki-Dong Yoo, Yu-Bae Ahn
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):262-269.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.262
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

We used a cross-sectional design to examine 167 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent biochemical and ophthalmological examination. We assessed endothelial dysfunction by a flow-mediated vasodilation method of the brachial artery. Changes in vasodilation (flow-mediated vasodilatation, %FMD) were expressed as percent change over baseline values.

Results

The mean±standard deviation of patient age was 54.1±8.6 years. The %FMD was significantly lower in patients with DR than without DR. The prevalence of retinopathy decreased across increasing tertiles of %FMD. After adjusting for patients' age, sex, diabetes duration, use of insulin, use of antihypertensive, antiplatelet, and lipid lowering medications, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and urinary albumin excretion, participants with a reduced %FMD were more likely to have DR (odds ratio, 11.819; 95% confidence interval, 2.201 to 63.461; P=0.004, comparing the lowest and highest tertiles of %FMD).

Conclusion

Endothelial dysfunction was associated with DR, which was most apparent when the endothelial dysfunction was severe. Our study provides insights into the possible mechanism of the influence of endothelial dysfunction on the development of DR.

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Association of Estrogen Receptor α Genes PvuII and XbaI Polymorphisms with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Inpatient Population of a Hospital in Southern Iran
Farzaneh Mohammadi, Mohammad Pourahmadi, Mohadeseh Mosalanejad, Houshang Jamali, Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar, Saeideh Erfanian
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):270-277.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.270
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Estrogen plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Very few studies have shown the association between estrogen receptor α (ERα), PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms with T2DM in both men and women. We evaluated the hypothesis that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms of ERα gene may be associated with T2DM in adult.

Methods

From spring of 2010 to the fall of 2011, a case-control study was performed at clinical centers of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. We included 174 patients with T2DM including men and women and 174 age, sex, and body mass index frequency-matched health controls. We analyzed the PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms of ERα by using the polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

Results

No significant differences between demographic characteristics of control and patients groups were observed. Allele frequencies of both PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were significantly different between patients and control subjects (P=0.014 vs. P=0.002, respectively). When the group was separated into women and men, logistic regression analysis of genotype distribution of PvuII (pp vs. Pp+PP) in both sexes revealed that there was no significant association of PvuII genotype with men (odds ratio [OR], 1.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 3.28; P=0.89) and women (OR, 0.96; CI, 0.53 to 1.74; P=0.12).

Conclusion

PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related with T2DM in the inpatient population.

Citations

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  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms as important risk factors of diabetes among Middle East population
    Iman Akhlaghipour, Amir Reza Bina, Mohammad Reza Mogharrabi, Ali Fanoodi, Amir Reza Ebrahimian, Soroush Khojasteh Kaffash, Atefeh Babazadeh Baghan, Mohammad Erfan Khorashadizadeh, Negin Taghehchian, Meysam Moghbeli
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The Role of Skeletal Muscle in Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Jun Sung Moon, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):278-285.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.278
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely correlated with abnormal accumulation of visceral fat, but the role of skeletal muscle remains unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of skeletal muscle in development of NAFLD.

Methods

Among 11,116 subjects (6,242 males), we examined the effects of skeletal muscle mass and visceral fat area (VFA, by bioelectric impedance analysis) on NAFLD using by the fatty liver index (FLI).

Results

Of the total subjects (9,565 total, 5,293 males) included, 1,848 were classified as having NALFD (FLI ≥60). Body mass index, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome were higher in males than females, but FLI showed no significant difference. The low FLI group showed the lowest VFA and highest skeletal muscle mass of all the groups. Skeletal muscle to visceral fat ratio (SVR) and skeletal muscle index had inverse correlations with FLI, when adjusted for age and gender. In multivariate regression analysis, SVR was negatively associated with FLI. Among SVR quartiles, the highest quartile showed very low risk of NAFLD when adjusted for age, gender, lipid profile, DM, HTN, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein from the lowest quartiles (odds ratio, 0.037; 95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 0.049).

Conclusion

Skeletal muscle mass was inversely associated with visceral fat area, and higher skeletal muscle mass may have a beneficial effect in preventing NAFLD. These results suggest that further studies are needed to ameliorate or slow the progression of sarcopenia.

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    Jiaqin Yuan, Jinglin Zhang, Qiang Luo, Lipeng Peng
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Brief Reports
Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on the Peripheral Nerves in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat
Kyung Ae Lee, Kyung Taek Park, Hea Min Yu, Heung Yong Jin, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):286-290.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.286
  • 3,201 View
  • 26 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

There are controversial reports about the effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in peripheral nerve protection. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of G-CSF on peripheral nerves in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. After STZ or vehicle injection, rats were divided into five groups (n=6) as follows: normal+vehicle, normal+G-CSF (50 µg/kg for 5 days), diabetes mellitus (DM)+vehicle, DM+G-CSF (50 µg/kg for 5 days), and DM+G-CSF extension (50 µg/kg for 5 days and followed by two injections per week up to 24 weeks). Our results showed that the current perception threshold was not significantly different among experimental groups. G-CSF treatment inhibited the loss of cutaneous nerves and gastric mucosal small nerve fibers in morphometric comparison, but statistical significance was not observed. The present results demonstrated that G-CSF has no harmful but minimal beneficial effects with respect to peripheral nerve preservation in diabetic rats.

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Bidirectional Screening of Tuberculosis Patients for Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Patients for Tuberculosis
Mallikarjun V. Jali, Vinay K. Mahishale, Murigendra B. Hiremath
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):291-295.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.291
  • 4,935 View
  • 49 Download
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

To assess the feasibility and results of screening diabetes mellitus (DM) patients for tuberculosis (TB) and TB patients for DM within the routine health care setting. Prospective observational study carried out within the Diabetes Centre and Pulmonary Medicine Department from February 2012 to September 2012. The screening for active TB in DM and DM in TB patients is followed as per the guidelines of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme and national programmes in India. Total of 307 patients diagnosed with TB during the study period. Among the TB patients 9.77% were smokers, 19.54% were known cases diabetes, and 15.96% were newly diagnosed cases of diabetes. Total of 4,118 diabetes patients were screened for TB in which 111 patients found to have TB. The strengths of this study are that we implemented screening within the routine health system. It is feasible to screen DM patients for TB resulting in high rates of TB detection.

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Letter
Letter: An In Vitro Model to Probe the Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation under Hyperglycemia (Diabetes Metab J 2013;37:176-80)
In-Kyung Jeong
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):296-297.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.296
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Response
Response: An In Vitro Model to Probe the Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation under Hyperglycemia (Diabetes Metab J 2013;37:176-80)
Kusampudi Shilpa, Thangaraj Dinesh, Baddireddi Subhadra Lakshmi
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):298-299.   Published online August 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.4.298
  • 2,956 View
  • 28 Download
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal