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Volume 33(3); June 2009
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Reviews
Diabetes and Osteoporosis.
Ki Won Oh
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):169-177.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.169
  • 2,007 View
  • 23 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Increased life expectancy and increased obesity have contributed to an increasing incidence of osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Recent meta-analyses and cohort studies confirm that diabetes is associated with a higher risk of fracture. Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit increased fracture risks despite a higher bone mass, which are mainly attributable to non-skeletal risk factors. Patients with type 1 diabetes may have impaired bone formation because of absence of the anabolic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) system. Several clinical studies have reported adverse skeletal actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist in humans. Obesity regulates bone metabolism not only by increasing weight loading but also by modulating adipokines that are known to affect bone remodeling.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship between hs-CRP and HbA1c in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: 2015–2017 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yo-Han Seo, Hee-Young Shin
    Chonnam Medical Journal.2021; 57(1): 62.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Hemoglobin A1c in Gwangju General Hospital Patients
    Yo-Han Seo, Hee-Young Shin
    The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science.2018; 50(3): 313.     CrossRef
  • Bergapten exerts inhibitory effects on diabetes-related osteoporosis via the regulation of the PI3K/AKT, JNK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoprotegerin knockout mice
    Xue-Ju Li, Zhe Zhu, Si-Lin Han, Zi-Long Zhang
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine.2016; 38(6): 1661.     CrossRef
  • The association of Osteoporosis and Thyroid Hormone in euthyroid adults
    Hyun Yoon, Eun-Jin Ryu
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(2): 1137.     CrossRef
  • A Study on the Correlation between Menopausal Rating Scale and Bone Mineral Density for Menopausal Osteoporosis Patients
    Kyu In Kwak, Jae Hui Kang, Yun Joo Kim, Hyun Lee
    The Acupuncture.2014; 31(3): 25.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Korean Postmenopausal Women Aged 50 Years and Above: Using 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Son-Ok Mun, Jihye Kim, Yoon Jung Yang
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2013; 18(2): 177.     CrossRef
  • Influencing Factors of Bone Mineral Density in Men
    Dong-Ha Lee, Eun-Nam Lee
    Journal of muscle and joint health.2011; 18(1): 5.     CrossRef
Diabetes, Depression and Doctor-Patient Relationship.
Hong seock Lee, Joong seo Lee, Heung pyo Lee, Chul eun Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):178-182.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.178
  • 1,993 View
  • 17 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Although diabetes mellitus (DM) is treatable, it is still not curable. Its chronicity is associated with a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially depression in type 2 DM and learned helplessness in type 1 DM. In turn, this depression and helplessness may affect a patient's adherence to medical appointments, compliance to treatment, and effective doctor-patient relationships, which are vital to promising outcomes. This study reviews the existing literature regarding the interactional relationships between depression, DM and the doctor/patient relationship, and also suggests certain aspects of the doctor/patient relationship which can contribute to more successful treatment outcomes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diabetes and depression
    Eon-Ju Jeon
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine.2018; 35(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study on HbA1C, Self-care Behavior, and Quality of Life by Depression Status in Type II Diabetic Patients
    Young-Min Jeong, Mi-Young Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2012; 19(3): 353.     CrossRef
  • Perception and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Diabetic Patients in Busan Area
    Hyeryung Kim, Eunjoo Son, Mikyung Kim, Eunsoon Lyu
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2011; 16(4): 488.     CrossRef
Editorial
Screening for Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Diabetic Patients.
Tae Seo Shon
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):183-184.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.183
  • 1,615 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
Effects of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) on Pancreatic Islets in Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Ji Won Kim, Dong Sik Ham, Heon Seok Park, Yu Bai Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Kun Ho Yoon, Ki Dong Yoo, Myung Jun Kim, In Kyung Jeong, Seung Hyun Ko
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):185-197.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.185
  • 2,353 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is associated with the development of diabetic complications. However, it is unknown whether systemic VEGF treatment has any effects on the pancreatic islets in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Anti-VEGF peptide (synthetic ATWLPPR, VEGF receptor type 2 antagonist) was injected into db/db mice for 12 weeks. We analyzed pancreatic islet morphology and quantified beta-cell mass. Endothelial cell proliferation and the severity of islet fibrosis were also measured. VEGF expression in isolated islets was determined using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: When anti-VEGF was administered, db/db mice exhibited more severe hyperglycemia and associated delayed weight gain than non-treated db/db mice. Pancreas weight and pancreatic beta-cell mass were also significantly decreased in the anti-VEGF-treated group. VEGF and VEGF receptor proteins (types 1 and 2) were expressed in the pancreatic islets, and their expression was significantly increased in the db/db group compared with the db/dm group. However, the elevated VEGF expression was significantly reduced by anti-VEGF treatment compared with the db/db group. The anti-VEGF-treated group had more prominent islet fibrosis and islet destruction than db/db mice. Intra-islet endothelial cell proliferation was also remarkably reduced by the anti-VEGF peptide. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of VEGF action by the VEGF receptor 2 antagonist not only suppressed the proliferation of intra-islet endothelial cells but also accelerated pancreatic islet destruction and aggravated hyperglycemia in a type 2 diabetes mouse model. Therefore, the potential effects of anti-VEGF treatment on pancreatic beta cell damage should be considered.
Nitric Oxide Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle by Improving Mitochondrial Function and Insulin Signaling.
Woo Je Lee, Hyoun Sik Kim, Hye Sun Park, Mi Ok Kim, Mina Kim, Ji Young Yun, Eun Hee Kim, Sang Ah Lee, Seung Hun Lee, Eun Hee Koh, Joong Yeol Park, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):198-205.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.198
  • 2,167 View
  • 24 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Accumulating evidence has suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Recent studies also suggested NO as an important molecule regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. This study examined the effect of the NO donor, 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and tested the hypothesis that NO's effect on glucose metabolism is mediated by its effect on mitochondrial function. METHODS: In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with SIN-1 for 4 weeks, insulin sensitivity was measured by a glucose clamp study. Triglyceride content and fatty acid oxidation were measured in the skeletal muscle. In addition, mitochondrial DNA content and mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis markers were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and Akt were examined by Western blot analysis in skeletal muscle. In C2C12 cells, insulin sensitivity was measured by 2-deoxyglucose uptake and Western blot analysis was used to examine the expression of IRS-1 and Akt. RESULTS: SIN-1 improved insulin sensitivity in C2C12 cells and skeletal muscles of SD rats. In addition, SIN-1 decreased triglyceride content and increased fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial DNA contents and biogenesis in the skeletal muscle were increased by SIN-1 treatment. Moreover, SIN-1 increased the expression of phosphor-IRS-1 and phosphor-Akt in the skeletal muscle and muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NO mediates glucose uptake in skeletal muscle both in vitro and in vivo by improving mitochondrial function and stimulating insulin signaling pathways.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • NO-Rich Diet for Lifestyle-Related Diseases
    Jun Kobayashi, Kazuo Ohtake, Hiroyuki Uchida
    Nutrients.2015; 7(6): 4911.     CrossRef
  • Metformin Activates AMP Kinase through Inhibition of AMP Deaminase
    Jiangyong Ouyang, Rahulkumar A. Parakhia, Raymond S. Ochs
    Journal of Biological Chemistry.2011; 286(1): 1.     CrossRef
Effect of Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein (ADRP) on Glucose Uptake of Skeletal Muscle.
Yun Hyi Ku, Min Kim, Sena Kim, Ho Seon Park, Han Jong Kim, In Kyu Lee, Dong Hoon Shin, Sung Soo Chung, Sang Gyu Park, Young Min Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Kyong Soo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):206-214.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.206
  • 2,188 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Skeletal muscle is the most important tissue contributing to insulin resistance. Several studies have shown that accumulation of intramyocellular lipid is associated with the development of insulin resistance. Thus, proteins involved in lipid transport, storage and metabolism might also be involved in insulin action in skeletal muscle. Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), which is localized at the surface of lipid droplets, is known to be regulated by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). However, it is not known whether ADRP plays a role in regulating glucose uptake and insulin action in skeletal muscle. METHODS: ADRP expression in skeletal muscle was measured by RT-PCR and western blot in db/db mice with and without PPARgamma agonist. The effect of PPARgamma agonist or high lipid concentration (0.4% intralipos) on ADRP expression was also obtained in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. Glucose uptake was measured when ADRP was down-regulated with siRNA or when ADRP was overexpressed with adenovirus. RESULTS: ADRP expression increased in the skeletal muscle of db/db mice in comparison with normal controls and tended to increase with the treatment of PPARgamma agonist. In cultured human skeletal muscle cells, the treatment of PPARgamma agonist or high lipid concentration increased ADRP expression. siADRP treatment decreased both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake whereas ADRP overexpression increased glucose uptake in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION: ADRP expression in skeletal muscle is increased by PPARgamma agonist or exposure to high lipid concentration. In these conditions, increased ADRP contributed to increase glucose uptake. These results suggest that insulin-sensitizing effects of PPARgamma are at least partially achieved by the increase of ADRP expression, and ADRP has a protective effect against intramyocellular lipid-induced insulin resistance.
The Effect of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase on Impaired Fasting Glucose or Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Men.
Tae Yeon Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hae Park, Kyung Hwan Cho, Seung Hwan Lee, Hyuk Ga, Hwan cheol Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):215-224.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.215
  • 2,267 View
  • 20 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We sought to determine the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels within the normal range and the risk for development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study spanned four years (2002~2006) with 1,717 Korean men who underwent periodic health examinations at a university hospital in Incheon, Korea and were not diagnosed with IFG or type 2 diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured at the annual health examination. IFG and diabetes were defined as a serum fasting glucose concentration of 100~125 mg/dL and more than 126 mg/dL, respectively. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the association between serum GGT levels and development of IFG or type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: There was a strong dose-response relationship between serum GGT levels and the incidence of IFG and diabetes. A total of 570 cases (33.2%) of incident IFG and 50 cases (2.9%) of diabetes were found. After controlling potential predictors, the relative risks for the incidence of IFG for GGT levels < or = 19, 20~25, 26~34, 35~50 and > or = 51 were 1.00, 0.99, 1.17, 1.23 and 1.38 respectively (P for trend 0.015), and for the incidence of diabetes were 1.00, 1.44, 1.80, 2.55 and 2.58 respectively (P for trend 0.050). CONCLUSION: The risk for development of IFG and type 2 diabetes increased in a dose-dependent manner as serum GGT increased within its normal range in Korean men.

Citations

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  • Evaluation of Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels in Diabetic Patients With and Without Retinopathy
    Neda Valizadeh, Rasoul Mohammadi, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Qader Motarjemizadeh, Hamid Reza Khalkhali
    Shiraz E-Medical Journal.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
Frequency of Silent Myocardial Ischemia Detected by Thallium-201 SPECT in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Dong Woo Kim, Eun Hee Jung, Eun Hee Koh, Min Seon Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Seung Whan Lee, Seong Wook Park, Jin Sook Ryu, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):225-231.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.225
  • 1,848 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients than among the general population. It is not yet established whether a routine screening test for SMI is necessary, and which screening test would be most useful. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SMI detected by Thallium-201 perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 173 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients were included in the study. Thallium-201 perfusion SPECT was performed to screen for SMI. RESULTS: Among the 173 patients, abnormal perfusion patterns were found in 11 patients. Coronary angiography was carried out for these patients, and significant coronary artery stenosis was found in ten of them (positive predictive value; 90.9%). There was a significant association between SMI and overt albuminuria (OR = 7.33, 95% CI, 1.825-29.437). CONCLUSION: Thallium-201 perfusion SPECT is not sensitive enough to identify SMI, but is accurate in detecting decreased myocardial perfusion. This may be a useful screening tool for detecting SMI in type 2 diabetic patients with impaired renal function.
Clinical Trial
The Effect of Cellular Phone-Based Telemedicine on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Insulin Therapy.
Yun Jeong Lee, Mi Hyun Jeong, Joo Hyung Kim, Juri Park, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):232-240.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.232
  • 2,273 View
  • 22 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cellular phones are extremely prevalent in modern society and they enable appropriate feedback mechanisms through real time monitoring and short message services regarding blood glucose levels. We investigated whether cellular phone-based telemedicine support system could improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients who were in inadequate glycemic control regardless of insulin therapy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted involving 74 type 2 diabetic patients with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c levels > 7%) regardless of insulin therapy. The intervention (cellular phone-based telemedicine) group managed their blood glucose using a cellular phone for 3 months, while the control (self monitoring of blood glucose) group managed their blood glucose with a standard glucometer for the same period. RESULTS: Three months later, HbA1c levels were decreased in both groups. However, the decrease in the control group from 8.37% to 8.20% was only 0.20% (P = 0.152) which was not significant. In contrast, the intervention group had a significant reduction of 0.61% from 8.77% to 8.16% (P < 0.001). Moreover, among patients with a baseline > or = 8%, the patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction of 0.81% from 9.16% to 8.34% (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HbA1c levels were significantly decreased in the cellular phone-based telemedicine group compared with the control group after 3 months. This study suggests that cellular phone-based telemedicine is helpful for better glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients who previously were unable to control glucose levels adequately with insulin therapy.

Citations

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  • A Survey on Ubiquitous Healthcare Service Demand among Diabetic Patients
    Soo Lim, So-Youn Kim, Jung Im Kim, Min Kyung Kwon, Sei Jin Min, Soo Young Yoo, Seon Mee Kang, Hong Il Kim, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Jun Oh Ryu, Hayley Shin, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(1): 50.     CrossRef
Original Article
The Current Status of Type 2 Diabetes Management at a University Hospital.
Young Sil Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):241-250.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.241
  • 2,301 View
  • 22 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased worldwide, as have the incidence and mortality of associated cardiovascular complication. However current status of diabetes management is poor. This study was performed to evaluate the management of care for type 2 diabetes patients at a university hospital. METHODS: This study comprised 926 type 2 diabetes patients, over the age of 30, who were treated at the Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital between January and December 2008. Medical records were reviewed to collect demographic information, biochemical test results and the pharmacologic agents prescribed. RESULTS: The mean age, duration of diabetes and body mass index were 62.5 +/- 11.8 years, 9.1 +/- 7.2 year and 24.7 +/- 6.3 kg/m2, respectively. There were 251/926 (27.1%) patients with cardiovascular disease. In addition, 49.2% and 27.5% of patients had HbA1c levels < 7% and < 6.5%, respectively. There were 66.3% of the patients with blood pressure < 130/80 mm Hg. Fifty one percent and 47.4% of the patients had an LDL-C < 100 mg/dL and a non-HDL-C < 130 mg/dL, respectively. In addition, 19.7% of the patients with cardiovascular disease had an LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Antiplatelet agents were used in 81.2% of the patients. The mean number of HbA1c measurements was 1.07 +/- 0.7 /year. HbA1c and lipid profiles were not checked in 21.4% and 23.1% of the patients, respectively. Over the previous six months, 6.9% of the patients had not had their blood pressure monitored. CONCLUSION: Among the patients with type 2 diabetes evaluated, 30~70% received in inadequate level of care. These findings point to the need for more aggressive efforts for optimal metabolic control.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Developing a nomogram for predicting depression in diabetic patients after COVID-19 using machine learning
    Haewon Byeon
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing the Utilization of Diabetes Complication Tests Under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Machine Learning Approach
    Haewon Byeon
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Correlation between the Activity of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase and Oxidative Stress Markers in the Saliva of Diabetic Patients
    Hina Younus, Sumbul Ahmad, Md. Fazle Alam
    Protein & Peptide Letters.2019; 27(1): 67.     CrossRef
  • Current status of treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ningbo, China
    Tianmeng Yang, Rongjiong Zheng, Qingmei Chen, Yushan Mao
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Current Status of Management in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at General Hospitals in South Korea
    Jin-Hee Jung, Jung-Hwa Lee, Jin-Won Noh, Jeong-Eun Park, Hee-Sook Kim, Joo-Wha Yoo, Bok-Rye Song, Jeong-rim Lee, Myeong-Hee Hong, Hyang-Mi Jang, Young Na, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jeong-Mi Lee, Yang-Gyo Kang, Sun-Young Kim, Kang-Hee Sim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(4): 307.     CrossRef
  • Glucose, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Control in Korean Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes
    Sun-Joo Boo
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2012; 24(4): 406.     CrossRef
  • Diabetics' Preference in the Design Factors and Performance Requirements of Diabetic Socks
    Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Ah Kwon
    Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles.2011; 35(5): 527.     CrossRef
  • Effect on Glycemic, Blood Pressure, and Lipid Control according to Education Types
    Mi-Ju Choi, Seung-Hyun Yoo, Kum-Rae Kim, Yoo-Mi Bae, Sun-Hee Ahn, Seong-Shin Kim, Seong-Ah Min, Jin-Sun Choi, Seung-Eun Lee, Yeo-Jin Moon, Eun Jung Rhee, Cheol-Young Park, Won Young Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Sun Woo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(6): 580.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Target Achievement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients after Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia Management
    Ah Young Kang, Su Kyung Park, So Young Park, Hye Jeong Lee, Ying Han, Sa Ra Lee, Sung Hwan Suh, Duk Kyu Kim, Mi Kyoung Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 264.     CrossRef
  • A Predictive Model on Self Care Behavior for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Based on Self-Determination Theory
    Yeong Mi Seo, Won Hee Choi
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2011; 41(4): 491.     CrossRef
Case Report
Hypoglycemia due to Focal Nesidioblastosis in a Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Eun Jung Lee, Kee Ho Song, Suk Kyeong Kim, Seong Hwan Chang, Dong Lim Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):251-256.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.251
  • 2,265 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a 45-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who presented with recurrent hypoglycemia. Biochemical and imagingstudies did not show any mass-like lesion in the pancreas, so prednisolone and diazoxide were administered for the treatment of hypoglycemia. However, the hypoglycemia persisted during and after the medical treatment. A selective arterial calcium stimulation test was performed and revealed a suspicious lesion at the head of the pancreas. The patient underwent enucleation of the pancreas head lesion. The lesion was confirmed histologically to be focal nesidioblastosis and surgical resection was successfully performed. The patient showed no hypoglycemic symptoms postoperatively.
Letters
Letter: Risk Factors for Early Development of Macrovascular Complications in Korean Type 2 Diabetes (Korean Diabetes J 33(2):134-142, 2009).
Byung Joon Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):257-258.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.257
  • 1,815 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Responses: Risk Factors for Early Development of Macrovascular Complications in Korean Type 2 Diabetes (Korean Diabetes J 33(2):134-142, 2009).
Hae Ri Lee, Eun Gyoung Hong
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):259-260.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.259
  • 1,919 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

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