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Volume 30(3); May 2006
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Review
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Vascular Complication.
Hee Kyung Kim, In Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):145-150.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.145
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  • 19 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
No Abstract available.

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  • Binding of silver nanowaste using jellyfish immune reaction extract and an assessment of aquatic toxicity
    Euna Kim, Min-Kyeong Yeo, Bong Gu Lee, Sun Woo Geum
    Molecular & Cellular Toxicology.2022; 18(3): 339.     CrossRef
  • Metformin Down-regulates TNF-α Secretion via Suppression of Scavenger Receptors in Macrophages
    Bobae Hyun, Seulmee Shin, Aeri Lee, Sungwon Lee, Youngcheon Song, Nam-Joo Ha, Kyung-Hea Cho, Kyungjae Kim
    Immune Network.2013; 13(4): 123.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Protective Effect of PGC-1 on Lipid Overload-induced Apoptosis in Vascular Endothelial Cell.
Eun Hee Koh, Youn Mi Kim, Ha Jung Kim, Woo Je Lee, Jong Chul Won, Min Seon Kim, Ki Up Lee, Joong Yeol Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):151-160.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.151
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Fatty acids contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction and apoptosis by inducing accumulation of long chain fatty acyl CoA (LCAC), which increases oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells. Forced expression of PGC-1 was shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and to control expression of mitochondrial enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that PGC-1 overexpression could prevent endothelial cell apoptosis by enhancing fatty acid oxidation and relieving oxidative stress in vascular endothelium. METHODS: Adenoviruses containing human PGC-1 (Ad-PGC-1) and beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta-gal) were transfected to confluent human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). To investigate the effect of adenoviral PGC-1 gene transfer on apoptosis, combined treatment of linoleic acid (LA), an unsaturated fatty acid, was performed. RESULTS: PGC-1 overexpression inhibited the increase in ROS production and apoptosis of HAECs induced by LA. Also, PGC-1 led to a significant increase in fatty acid oxidation and decrease in triglyceride content in HAECs. LA caused the decrease of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) activity and transient mitochondrial hyperpolarization, which was followed by depolarization. PGC-1 overexpression prevented these processes. CONCLUSION: In summary, PGC-1 overexpression inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by facilitating fatty acid oxidation and protecting against the damage from oxidative stress in HAECs. The data collectively suggest that the regulation of intracellular PGC-1 expression might play a critical role in preventing atherosclerosis.
Effects of Caloric Restriction on the Expression of PGC-1 and PPARs mRNA in Liver of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats.
Sang Yong Kim, Jin Hwa Kim, Hak Yeon Bae, Byoung Rai Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):161-169.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.161
  • 1,808 View
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BACKGROUND
Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. PPARgamma-coactivator 1 (PGC-1) and Peroxisome proliferator -activated receptors (PPARs) costimulate the expression of key enzymes of gluconeogenetic pathway. This study was performed to evaluate the response to dietary caloric restriction (CR) on the PPARs and PGC-1 expression in liver of diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. METHODS: Diabetic OLETF rats (male, 24 weeks) and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (male, 24 weeks) were used in this study. Liver PPARs and PGC-1 mRNA, and blood glucose levels were investigated at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the beginning of 30% CR. PPARs and PGC-1 mRNA were determined by RT-PCR and blood glucose levels were measured by spectrophotometric assay. RESULTS: The liver PGC-1 mRNA expressions were increased to 19% in non-diabetic LETO rats but significant change was not observed in diabetic OLETF rats by 30% CR. The liver PPARgamma mRNA expressions were not changed in non-diabetic LETO rats but increased to 23% in diabetic OLETF rats by 30% CR. The difference of PPARalpha and PPARbeta mRNA expressions in liver of OLETF and LETO rats were not observed. CONCLUSION: The liver PPARgamma and PGC-1 expression response to CR are altered in OLETF rats compared to in LETO rats. These findings suggested that PPARgamma and PGC-1 expression control system altered in diabetic OLETF rat liver and altered PPARgamma and PCG-1 expression may some roles on the aberrantly activated gluconeogenesis in diabetes mellitus.
The Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Epidermal Nerve Preservation in the Diabetic Neuropathy of OLETF Rats.
Ming Han Piao, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):170-176.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.170
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) administration has been reported to ameliorate some of symptoms of peripheral polyneuropathy in diabetic patients and to improve endoneurial nutritive neural blood flow and nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. But it is not clear whether ALA has the preservation effect on epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs) density. METHODS: We tested the efficacy of ALA in preserving current perception thresholds (CPTs) and ENFs (numbers/mm) in OLETF (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, which were fed with sucrose until diabetes mellitus developed. Thereafter, one group of OLETF rats was fed with ALA and the other was not for 40 weeks. Diabetic rats were administered with ALA (80 mg/kg of body weight/day) by oral feeding for 40 weeks. The effect of ALA treatment on ENFs preservation was assessed by protein gene product 9.5 immunostaining. Quantification of neuropathic symptoms on the dorsum of hind paws of rat was measured by CPT test every 4 weeks. RESULTS: Numbers of ENF significantly decreased in OLETF rats fed without ALA compared with OLETF rats fed with ALA (P < 0.01). The thresholds at 2000, 250 and 5 Hz in OLETF rats fed with ALA did not increased and OLETF rats without ALA significantly increased at 80 weeks (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that administrations of ALA may be useful for preserving ENFs and CPTs in OLETF rats dorsum of hind paws skin.
Clustering Characteristics of Risk Variables of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Rural Populations.
Yong Moon Park, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Sun Young Lim, Jin Hee Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yong Gyu Park, Dong Suk Kim, Kwang ho Meng, Won Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):177-189.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.177
  • 2,221 View
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The risks of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease are mainly associated with the metabolic syndrome which is characterized by clustering of metabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to examine the relations among metabolic risk variables and the underlying structure of the metabolic syndrome that unites related components. METHODS: Subjects were selected by stratified random cluster sampling among persons aged over 40 years from a rural area. Waist circumference, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were used as risk variables of metabolic syndrome. Factor analysis, a multivariate correlation statistical technique, was performed on a dataset from nondiabetic 3,443 men and women without history of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors in both gender (obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia-insulin resistance in men; obesity-insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in women). Fasting insulin was a common contributor to the structure of metabolic syndrome in male subjects, smokers and alcohol drinking group. Confirmatory factor analysis based on the results of exploratory factor analysis revealed that metabolic syndrome was represented primarily by obesity factor in men, obesity-insulin resistance factor in women, and that dyslipidemia factor was highly correlated with obesity factor in men, with insulin resistance factor in women. CONCLUSION: Underlying structure of metabolic syndrome was different between men and women, and obesity might be a primary target for prevention of both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Disjoint factor analysis with cross-loadings
    Maurizio Vichi
    Advances in Data Analysis and Classification.2017; 11(3): 563.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with control of blood pressure among elderly people diagnosed with hypertension in a rural area of South Korea: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort Study (CMC study)
    Hong-Seok Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ho Young Son, Dong Suk Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee
    Blood Pressure.2010; 19(1): 31.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Reflecting Insulin Resistance as a Diagnostic Criterion of Metabolic Syndrome in a Nondiabetic Korean Population Aged 40 Years and Over: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study
    Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Sun Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ho-Young Son, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2010; 51(4): 511.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among People Over 40 Years Old in a Rural Area of South Korea: The Chungju Metabolic Disease Cohort (CMC) Study
    Hong-Seok Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Jin-Hee Lee, Young Joon Park, Sun Young Lim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ho-Young Son, Dong Suk Kim, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee
    Clinical and Experimental Hypertension.2010; 32(3): 166.     CrossRef
The Clinical Characteristics of Young Onset Diabetes According to Etiology Based Classification.
Mina Park, Yang Il Kang, Suk Chon, Seung joon Oh, Jeong taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):190-197.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.190
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recently, the number of young diabetic patients is increasing. It is important to understand the characteristics of young diabetes and classify it correctly to manage these patients successfully. We aimed to classify young onset diabetes according to etiology and evaluate the clinical characteristics. METHODS: Young patients (15~30 years old) who have been treated diabetes in Kyunghee medical center in 2004 were included. We investigated family history of diabetes, disease duration, body mass index (BMI), the history of diabetic ketoacidosis, HbA1c, fasting C-peptide, autoantibody, lipid profile and treatment method via medical records. RESULT: Total 85 patients (M:F 40:45) were evaluated. Type 1 diabetes was 45.9%, type 2 diabetes was 23.5% and unclassified group was 25.9%. Many type 2 diabetic patients were overweight or obese (94.8%). Most young diabetic patients were using insulin (95.4%). Many type 1 diabetic patients have been treated by insulin only and many type 2 diabetic patients have been received combined therapy of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent. The recent HbA1c was average 8.32 +/- 2.7%. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy was 32.9%, 22.4% and 16.4% as each. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of young onset diabetes was type 1 diabetes but many others were also classified to type 2 diabetes or unclassified group. It is important to provide a consistent algorithm for assessment and investigation for newly diagnosed young diabetic patients. More education and effort are required to control diabetes strictly and prevent its complication.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Difference in Risk Factors Between Adults With Early-Onset (<40 Years Old) Versus Late-Onset (≥40 Years Old) Type 2 Diabetes in a University Hospital From January 2015-December 2017
    Marilyn Katrina C Caro, Elaine C Cunanan
    Journal of Medicine, University of Santo Tomas.2022; 6(2): 1009.     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle-related predictors affecting prediabetes and diabetes in 20-30-year-old young Korean adults
    Kyong Sil Park, Seon Young Hwang
    Epidemiology and Health.2020; 42: e2020014.     CrossRef
  • The Clinical Characteristics of the Newly Diagnosed Early Onset (< 40 Years Old) Diabetes in Outpatients' Clinic
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Hyun-Ju Oh, Ji-Woon Kim, Yeo-Kyung Lee, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seok-Won Park, Yoo-Lee Kim, Won-Keun Park, Yong-Wook Cho
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 119.     CrossRef
  • Anti-GAD Antibody in Patients with Adult-Onset Diabetes in Korea
    Eun-Gyoung Hong
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(1): 13.     CrossRef
Insulin Secretion and Insulin Resistance in Newly Diagnosed, Drug Naive Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Patients With/Without Metabolic Syndrome.
Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Jeong Taek Woo
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):198-206.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.198
  • 2,148 View
  • 24 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To evaluate the relationships between deterioration in insulin secretion and aggravated insulin resistance in patients with newly diagnosed prediabetes (preDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to the presence of metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: We performed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on 322 drug naive subjects with a history of hyperglycemia of < or = 3 months, and divided these patients into 3 groups, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), preDM (IFG and/or IGT) and T2DM. We also diagnosed these subjects with respect to MS according to ATP III criteria modified by Asia-Pacific guidelines and compared IGI and HOMA-IR in the 3 groups. RESULTS: According to OGTT, 63 subjects were diagnosed with NGT, 81 with preDM, and 178 with T2DM. Using modified ATP III criteria, 218 (67.7%) subjects were diagnosed as MS. When compare groups stratified by the presence of MS, preDM and T2DM groups with MS showed significantly higher mean HOMA-IR and IGI than those without MS. When compare groups with respect to glucose tolerance, NGT, preDM, and T2DM subgroups in MS group showed significant higher HOMA-IR and lower IGI according to glucose tolerance. However, NGT, preDM, and T2DM subgroups in non-MS group showed a significant decrease in IGI but no significant difference in HOMA-IR as glucose tolerance worsened. CONCLUSION: Deterioration in IGI and aggravation of HOMA-IR are both important in the primary pathogenesis of diabetes in those with MS. However, IGI deterioration may be the only important factor in the primary pathogenesis of T2DM in the absence of MS.

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  • The Relationship between β-cell Function and Nutrient Intakes in Korean Adult - Using 4thKorea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 -
    You Mi Lee, Hye Kyung Chung, Heejin Kimm, Sun Ha Jee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2012; 17(2): 243.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Visceral & Subcutaneous Fat and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):207-216.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.207
  • 2,083 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Visceral obesity is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Small dense (sd) LDL is closely associated with CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentration. METHODS: 264 type 2 diabetic patients underwent ultrasonography to estimate visceral & subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentrations were measured. RESULTS: BMI, total cholesterol, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in male than those in lowest tertile. BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in female than those in lowest tertile. But sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were not different among three groups based on the tertile of subcutaneous fat length in male and female. Visceral fat length was correlated with sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, but negatively with percentage of large buoyant LDL-C and HDL-C after adjustment of age, sex and BMI. Subcutaneous fat length was not correlated with sd LDL-C and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C. CONCLUSION: The association between visceral fat length and sd LDL-C could be a factor that explains the association between visceral obesity and CVD.
Randomized Controlled Trial
The Effect of Green Tea Polyphenol on Plasma Glucose, Lipid Levels and Antioxidant Systems in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Ji Hye Suk, Mi Kyung Kim, Jae Won Ju, Ji Sook Han, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):217-225.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.217
  • 2,346 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Green-tea polyphenol (GTP) is a well known antioxidant with favorable effect on blood glucose and lipid level in animal models. We were to investigate the effects of GTP on plasma glucose, lipid and antioxidant systems in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We recruited non-complicated type 2 diabetic patients with stable glycemic control by oral hypoglycemic agents. Subjects were randomly assigned to GTP group or placebo group for 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, lipid levels, liver function test, renal function test, urine microalbumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences in age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, dietary status, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels between GTP and placebo group. However, FPG levels and triglyceride levels were significantly different between GTP and placebo group at baseline. In both of GTP and placebo group, there were no significant change after 12 weeks of treatment in FPG, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, levels of MDA, and GSHPx activities. SOD activities significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment in both of GTP and placebo group. The increase of SOD activities were significantly higher in GTP group than in placebo group (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of green tea polyphenol increased antioxidant activity in type 2 diabetic patients. The effect on plasma glucose and lipid level was not significant but should be confirmed in further large scaled studies.

Citations

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  • Effect of Young Barley Leaf Powder on Glucose Control in the Diabetic Rats
    Hee-Kyoung Son, Yu-Mi Lee, Yong-Hyun Park, Jae-Joon Lee
    The Korean Journal of Community Living Science.2016; 27(1): 19.     CrossRef
Original Article
Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Seung Hyun Ko, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jung Min Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Jae Hyung Cho, Ki Dong Yoo, Yong Moon Park, Won Chul Lee, Ki Ho Song, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yu Bai Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):226-235.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.226
  • 2,515 View
  • 27 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy has a significant negative impact on survival and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Especially cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is clinically important, because of its correlation to cardiovascular death. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of CAN in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 1798 type 2 diabetic patients, 727 males and 1071 females, visited Diabetes Clinic at St. Vincent Hospital, Korea, were included from January 2001 to December 2005. Clinical evaluation, laboratory test and assessment of diabetic complication were completed. Standard test for CAN were performed: 1) heart rate variability (HRV) during deep breathing (E/I ratio) 2) Valsalva maneuver 3) 30:15 ratio 4) blood pressure response to standing. CAN score was determined according to the results of the test as following: 0 = normal, 1 = abnormal. RESULTS: Mean age and diabetic duration of patients were 56.7 +/- 10.9, and 9.4 +/- 7.5 years. Normal and abnormal CAN were detected in 815 (45.3%) and 983 (54.7%) of the patients, respectively. Abnormal E/I, valsalva, and 30:15 ratio were found in 333 (18.5%), 717 (39.9%), and 546 (30.4%) patients, respectively. Age, diabetic duration, postprandial hyperglycemia, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, and microalbumuria levels were significantly different between normal and abnormal CAN groups. 49 (6.0%) patients of normal and 100 (10.2%) patients of abnormal CAN group showed previous attack of stroke (P = 0.004). In addition, diabetic foot was more frequent in patients with CAN (normal vs. abnormal, 14 (1.7%) vs. 73 (7.4%), P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CAN is frequently found in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. It was associated with diabetic duration, uncontrolled diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate, presence of retinopathy, postprandial hyperglycemia.

Citations

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  • Effects of High-Dose α-Lipoic Acid on Heart Rate Variability of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Korea
    Sol Jae Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Yu Chang Lee, Yong Hoon Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Chong Hwa Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Bong Yun Cha
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(4): 275.     CrossRef
  • Screening of Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(5): 346.     CrossRef
  • Decision trees and multi-level ensemble classifiers for neurological diagnostics
    Herbert F. Jelinek, Jemal H. Abawajy, Andrei V. Kelarev, Morshed U. Chowdhury, Andrew Stranieri
    AIMS Medical Science.2014; 1(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between Predictors for Diabetic Gastroparesis and Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy
    Kyung-Ju Lee, Kyoung-Ho Ryu, Jin-Ook Chung, Dong-Hyeok Cho, Dong-Jin Chung, Min-Young Chung
    Chonnam Medical Journal.2009; 45(3): 175.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiologic Characteristics of Diabetes Mellitus in Korea: Current Status of Diabetic Patients Using Korean Health Insurance Database
    Ie Byung Park, Sei Hyun Baik
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(5): 357.     CrossRef
  • The Status of Diabetes Mellitus and Effects of Related Factors on Heart Rate Variability in a Community
    Kyeong-Soon Chang, Kwan Lee, Hyun-Sul Lim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 537.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal