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Volume 28(1); February 2004
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Review
Human Islet Transplantation.
Yu Bae Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):1-8.   Published online February 1, 2004
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No abstract available.
Original Articles
Common Genetic Polymorphisms in the Promoter of Resistin Gene are Major Determinants of Plasma Resistin Concentrations in Humans.
Young Min Cho, Byung Soo Youn, Sung Soo Chung, Ki Woo Kim, Bo Kyeong Koo, Kang Yeol Yu, Hong Je Park, Hyoung Doo Shin, Hak Chul Jang, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Hong Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):9-19.   Published online February 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Resistin has been postulated to be an important link between obesity and insulin resistance. Genetic polymorphisms in the resistin gene promotor have been suggested as a determinant of the expression of resistin mRNA, which is possibly associated with obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, the association between the genotype of the resistin promoter, and its plasma concentrations, were investigated. METHODS: The g.-537A>C and g.-420C>G polymorphisms in the resistin promoter were examined, and the levels of plasma resistin measured in the Korean subjects, both with and without type 2 diabetes. Haplotype-based promoter activity and the gel electrophoretic mobility-shift assays(EMSA) were also performed. RESULTS: The -420G and the -537A alleles, which were in linkage disequilibrium, were associated with higher plasma resistin concentrations. Individuals with the A-G(-537 A and -420G) haplotypes showed significantly higher plasma resistin levels than those that did not. The haplotypes A-G had modestly increased promoter activities compared to the other haplotypes. The EMSA revealed the -420 G allele to be specific for binding of the nuclear proteins from adipocytes and monocytes. However, neither polymorphism was associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity in our study subjects. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in the promoter of the resistin gene are major determinants of plasma resistin concentrations in humans
Activin A Converts Pancreatic Ductal Cells into Insulin-Secreting Cells.
Kyoung Hee Lee, Mi Kyung Park, Han Wook Kang, Hyun Jin Kim, In Kyung Jeong, Hyung Joon Yoo, Jae Hoon Jeong, Yong Ki Min, Myung Shik Lee, Kwang Won Kim, Moon Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):20-27.   Published online February 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Islet transplantation as a potential treatment for diabetes has been investigated extensively over the past years. One of the major limitations to successful islet transplantation is shortage of insulin-producing tissue, which has stimulated the search for alternative sources, and recently, attention has been focused on the possible use of controlled differentiation of stem cells to obtain specialized cells useful in treating many diseases. It is currently believed that pancreatic progenitor or stem cells exist in the ductal cell population. Activin A is a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, which can block the exocrine pancreatic development and potentiate the endocrine development of the pancreas. In this study, whether activin A could expand and/or differentiate the ductal cells into insulin-producing cells was examined. METHODS: From a collagenase P digested pancreas, ductal tissue was cultured under conditions that allowed expansion as a monolayer, where the cells were overlaid with a rat tail collagen I-coated dish. Activin A cDNA was transfected into rat ductal cells by using Lipofectamine, and the insulin secretion, content and differentiation markers examined. RESULT: The clumps of ductal tissue adhered to the dish 24 hr later, and formed a complete monolayer after 3 days of culture. Activin A overexpression significantly increased both the insulin secretion and content from the ductal cells. The glucose(16.7mM)-induced insulin secretion was also significantly increased. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analyses revealed expression of PDX-1, as well as insulin & GLUT2. CONCLUSION: Activin A overexpression could potentiate the differentiation of pancreatic ductal cells, which might provide a potential new source of cinsulin- producing cells for transplantation
Change of Cardiac Function and NT-proBNP According to Degree of Albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Bon Jeong Ku, Jeong Hee Kim, Jin Ok Jeong, Eun Seok Jeon, Dong Hyun Seo, Jae Min Lee, Si Wan Choi, In Whan Seong, Young Kun Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):28-35.   Published online February 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has increased recently. The morbidity and mortality of diabetic patients are mainly caused by chronic complications, especially cardiovascular events. N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide(NT-proBNP) is a neurohormone that is secreted from ventricular myocardium due to myocardial dilatation or pressure overload. NT-proBNP has prognostic value, and reflects cardiac function in patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure. This study was performed to evaluate functional changes of the heart, according to the degree of albuminuria and the prognostic value of NT-proBNP in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 57 patients with type 2 diabetes were divided into three groups according to their degree of albuminuria, these being normal(below 30mg/day), microalbuminuria(30 between 300mg/day) and overt proteinuria(over 300mg/ day). The clinical parameters in each of the patients were evaluated, echocardiography performed and the levels of NT-proBNP checked, and compared between the three groups. RESULTS: Of the 57 patients with type 2 diabetes the male:female ratio of 32:25, with mean age, duration of diabetes and BMI of 55.8+/-10.1 and 11.3+/-8.2 years, and 23.2+/-4.0kg/m2, respectively. Twenty-eight patients showed normal(49.1%), 15 microalbuminuria(26.3%) and 14 overt proteinuria(24.6%). The age, BMI, diastolic BP and glycosylated hemoglobin showed no significant difference between the three groups. The duration of diagnosed diabetes was significantly longer, the systolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels significantly higher and the serum hemoglobin significantly lower (p<0.05) in the overt proteinuria compared to the normal group. The duration of diabetes was significantly longer and serum creatinine levels significantly higher in the overt proteinuria than the microalbuminuria group(p<0.05). The echocardiographic data showed no difference among the groups. The NT-proBNP levels also showed no significant difference, but tended to be elevated toward albuminuria. CONCLUSION: The cardiac function and NT-proBNP levels showed no significant difference between each of the albuminuric groups. This study suggests that the degree of albuminuria is not a predictive factor for changes of the cardiac function and NT-proBNP levels
Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Koreans with the Metabolic Syndrome.
Kyung Mook Choi, Kye Won Lee, Sul Hye Ryoung, Ji A Seo, Jeong Heon Oh, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):36-44.   Published online February 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is known as metabolic syndrome. In this study, the association between the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity(baPWV), a novel non-invasive means of measuring atherosclerosis, and the cardiovascular risk factors of the metabolic syndrome were investigated. METHODS: The study group comprised 460 non-diabetic Koreans, male:female ratio 158:302, with a mean age of 52.4+/-11.3 years. The anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose(FBG), lipid profiles, ankle-brachial pressure index(ABI) and baPWV were measured in each subject. RESULTS: The ABI and baPWV levels were significantly higher in the men than the women. In both the men and women, the baPWV was closely associated with the cardiovascular risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. Those who had more metabolic syndrome components showed higher baPWV levels. Women with metabolic syndrome showed higher baPWV levels compared to those without (1517+/-281 vs. 1336+/-250, P<0.001). A multiple regression analysis showed the baPWV to be significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and FBG (adjusted R-square 0.554). CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that the baPWV was significantly associated with the features of metabolic syndrome, including the FBG, in non-diabetic Koreans.
Case Report
A Case of Primary Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a Patient Suspected of Having an Insulinoma.
Sung Ju Lee, Jee Hyun Kong, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Chul Sik Kim, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):45-50.   Published online February 1, 2004
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Insulin autoimmune syndrome consists of fasting hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and detectable insulin-binding antibodies in patients never been exposed to exogenous insulin. Most affected patients present with other autoimmune disorders, most often Graves' disease. A significant increase in the insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations and the presence of other anti organ antibodies are also observed. Awareness of insulin autoimmune syndrome hypoglycemia is important as this may produce severe neuroglycopenic symptoms, which may be confused with the presence of an insulinoma. The correct diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention in patients who are best treated with conservative support, watchful waiting, or in some cases, immunosuppressive therapy. Herein, a case of autoimmune insulin syndrome, suspected as being an insulinoma is reported.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal