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Young Joo Park  (Park YJ) 4 Articles
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Rg3 Improves Mitochondrial Function and the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes
Min Joo Kim, Young Do Koo, Min Kim, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Sung Soo Chung, Hak C. Jang, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(5):406-413.   Published online August 12, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.5.406
  • 4,361 View
  • 64 Download
  • 20 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Panax ginseng has glucose-lowering effects, some of which are associated with the improvement in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Because mitochondria play a pivotal role in the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, we investigated the effects of the ginsenoside Rg3, one of the active components of P. ginseng, on mitochondrial function and biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes.

Methods

C2C12 myotubes were treated with Rg3 for 24 hours. Insulin signaling pathway proteins were examined by Western blot. Cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the oxygen consumption rate were measured. The protein or mRNA levels of mitochondrial complexes were evaluated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.

Results

Rg3 treatment to C2C12 cells activated the insulin signaling pathway proteins, insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt. Rg3 increased ATP production and the oxygen consumption rate, suggesting improved mitochondrial function. Rg3 increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor, which are transcription factors related to mitochondrial biogenesis. Subsequent increased expression of mitochondrial complex IV and V was also observed.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that Rg3 improves mitochondrial function and the expression of key genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to an improvement in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Rg3 may have the potential to be developed as an anti-hyperglycemic agent.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Preparation and bioactivity of the rare ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2: An updated review
    Wenqi Xu, Wei Lyu, Cuicui Duan, Fumin Ma, Xiaolei Li, Dan Li
    Fitoterapia.2023; 167: 105514.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenoside Rc, an Active Component of Panax ginseng, Alleviates Oxidative Stress-Induced Muscle Atrophy via Improvement of Mitochondrial Biogenesis
    Aeyung Kim, Sang-Min Park, No Soo Kim, Haeseung Lee
    Antioxidants.2023; 12(8): 1576.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 protects glucocorticoid‑induced muscle atrophy in vitro through improving mitochondrial biogenesis and myotube growth
    Ryuni Kim, Jee Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae
    Molecular Medicine Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Beneficial Effects of Walnut Oligopeptides on Muscle Loss in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone-8 (SAMP8) Mice: Focusing on Mitochondrial Function
    Rui Fan, Yuntao Hao, Qian Du, Jiawei Kang, Meihong Xu, Yong Li
    Nutrients.2022; 14(10): 2051.     CrossRef
  • Ginseng and ginsenosides: Therapeutic potential for sarcopenia
    Weiwei Zha, Yuanhai Sun, Wenwen Gong, Linghuan Li, Wonnam Kim, Hanbing Li
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2022; 156: 113876.     CrossRef
  • Bioactive Oligopeptides from Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) Suppress Oxidative Stress-Induced Senescence in Fibroblasts via NAD+/SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway
    Na Zhu, Mei-Hong Xu, Yong Li
    Nutrients.2022; 14(24): 5289.     CrossRef
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    Qingxia Huang, Song Gao, Daqing Zhao, Xiangyan Li
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2021; 45(3): 371.     CrossRef
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    Yage Liu, Hao Zhang, Xuan Dai, Ruyuan Zhu, Beibei Chen, Bingke Xia, Zimengwei Ye, Dandan Zhao, Sihua Gao, Alexander N. Orekhov, Dongwei Zhang, Lili Wang, Shuzhen Guo
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  • Chronic Adipose Tissue Inflammation Linking Obesity to Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
    Federica Zatterale, Michele Longo, Jamal Naderi, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Antonella Desiderio, Claudia Miele, Francesco Beguinot
    Frontiers in Physiology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Stereoisomer-specific ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 reverses replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via Akt-mTOR-Sirtuin signaling
    Kyeong-Eun Yang, Hyun-Jin Jang, In-Hu Hwang, Eun Mi Hong, Min-Goo Lee, Soon Lee, Ik-Soon Jang, Jong-Soon Choi
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2020; 44(2): 341.     CrossRef
  • Ginsenosides for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases: Pharmacology and mechanisms
    Wenxiang Fan, Yongliang Huang, Hui Zheng, Shuiqin Li, Zhuohong Li, Li Yuan, Xi Cheng, Chengshi He, Jianfeng Sun
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2020; 132: 110915.     CrossRef
  • Ca2+-activated mitochondrial biogenesis and functions improve stem cell fate in Rg3-treated human mesenchymal stem cells
    Taeui Hong, Moon Young Kim, Dat Da Ly, Su Jung Park, Young Woo Eom, Kyu-Sang Park, Soon Koo Baik
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Chang-Yun Woo, Jung Eun Jang, Seung Eun Lee, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
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  • Ginsenoside Rg3 upregulates myotube formation and mitochondrial function, thereby protecting myotube atrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    Sang-Jin Lee, Ju Hyun Bae, Hani Lee, Hyunji Lee, Jongsun Park, Jong-Sun Kang, Gyu-Un Bae
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2019; 242: 112054.     CrossRef
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    Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2018; 42(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Molecular signaling of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 and their mode of actions
    Padmanaban Mohanan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Deok-Chun Yang
    Journal of Ginseng Research.2018; 42(2): 123.     CrossRef
  • Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) enhances skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism
    W.F. Theeuwes, H.R. Gosker, R.C.J. Langen, K.J.P. Verhees, N.A.M. Pansters, A.M.W.J. Schols, A.H.V. Remels
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  • Anti-Fatigue Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer in Mice
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Clinical Care/Education
Hyperglycemia Is Associated with Impaired Muscle Quality in Older Men with Diabetes: The Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging
Ji Won Yoon, Yong-Chan Ha, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Jae Young Lim, Ki Woong Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):140-146.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.140
  • 6,418 View
  • 74 Download
  • 84 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperglycemia on muscle quality in older men with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

This was a subsidiary study of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Health and Aging. Among 326 older men consenting to tests of body composition and muscle strength, 269 men were ultimately analyzed after the exclusion because of stroke (n=30) and uncertainty about the diagnosis of diabetes (n=27). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. Muscle strength for knee extension was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle quality was assessed from the ratio of leg strength to the entire corresponding leg muscle mass.

Results

The muscle mass, strength, and quality in patients with type 2 diabetes did not differ significantly from controls. However, when patients with diabetes were subdivided according to their glycemic control status, patients with a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of ≥8.5% showed significantly decreased leg muscle quality by multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 4.510; P=0.045) after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking amount, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and duration of diabetes. Physical performance status was also impaired in subjects with an HbA1c of ≥8.5%.

Conclusion

Poor glycemic control in these older patients with diabetes was associated with significant risk of decreased muscle quality and performance status. Glycemic control with an HbA1c of <8.5% might be needed to reduce the risk of adverse skeletal and functional outcomes in this population.

Citations

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    Alan J. Sinclair, Ahmed H. Abdelhafiz
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Carotid Intimal-Medial Thickness Is Not Increased in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Yun Hyi Ku, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Young Min Cho, Young Joo Park, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(5):497-503.   Published online October 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.5.497
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Measuring the carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) is a non-invasive technique used to evaluate early atherosclerosis and to predict future cardiovascular diseases. We examined the association between CIMT and cardiovascular risk factors in young Korean women with previous GDM.

Methods

One hundred one women with previous GDM and 19 women who had normal pregnancies (NP) were recruited between 1999 and 2002. At one year postpartum, CIMT was measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography, and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin levels and lipid profiles were also measured. CIMTs in the GDM and NP groups were compared, and the associations between CIMT and cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in the GDM group.

Results

CIMT results of the GDM group were not significantly different from those of the NP group (GDM, 0.435±0.054 mm; NP, 0.460±0.046 mm; P=0.069). In the GDM group, a higher HbA1c was associated with an increase in CIMT after age adjustment (P=0.011). CIMT results in the group with HbA1c >6.0% were higher than those of the normal HbA1c (HbA1c ≤6.0%) (P=0.010). Nine of the patients who are type 2 diabetes mellitus converters within one year postpartum but showed no significant difference in CIMT results compared to NP group.

Conclusion

Higher HbA1c is associated with an increase in CIMT in women with previous GDM. However, CIMT at one year postpartum was not increased in these women compared to that in NP women.

Citations

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Insulin Secretion and Incretin Hormone Concentration in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Sung Hoon Yu, Bongjun Cho, Yejin Lee, Eunhye Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Ka Hee Yi, Young Joo Park, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):58-64.   Published online February 28, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.58
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We examined the change in the levels of incretin hormone and effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM).

Methods

A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on 34 women with pGDM. In addition, 11 women with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age, height and weight, were also tested. The insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon concentrations were measured, and their anthropometric and biochemical markers were also measured.

Results

Among 34 women with pGDM, 18 had normal glucose tolerance, 13 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 1 had diabetes. No significant differences were found in GLP-1 concentration between the pGDM and control group. However, a significantly high level of glucagon was present in the pGDM group at 30 minutes into the OGTT. The GIP concentration was elevated at 30 minutes and 60 minutes in the pGDM group. With the exception of the 30-minute timepoint, women with IGT had significantly high blood glucose from 0 to 120 minutes. However, there was no significant difference in insulin or GLP-1 concentration. The GIP level was significantly high from 0 to 90 minutes in patients diagnosed with IGT.

Conclusion

GLP-1 secretion does not differ between pGDM patients and normal women. GIP was elevated, but that does not seem to induce in increase in insulin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that other factors such as heredity and environment play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes.

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