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Yoon Jeong Cho  (Cho 1) 1 Article
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Effect of Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets and Intermittent Fasting on Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Hypertension Management: Consensus Statement of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, Korean Diabetes Association, and Korean Society of Hypertension
Jong Han Choi, Yoon Jeong Cho, Hyun-Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Suk Chon, Jee-Hyun Kang, Kyoung-Kon Kim, Eun Mi Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Ga Eun Nam, Kwang Il Kim, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO), Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines and Committee of Food and Nutrition, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), Policy Committee of Korean Society of Hypertension (KSH), Policy Development Committee of National Academy of Medicine of Korea (NAMOK)
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):355-376.   Published online May 25, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting (IF) have been rapidly gaining interest among the general population and patients with cardiometabolic disease, such as overweight or obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. However, there are limited expert recommendations for these dietary regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the level of scientific evidence on the benefits and harms of carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF to make responsible recommendations. A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of 66 articles on 50 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carbohydrate-restricted diets and 10 articles on eight RCTs of IF was performed. Based on the analysis, the following recommendations are suggested. In adults with overweight or obesity, a moderately-low carbohydrate or low carbohydrate diet (mLCD) can be considered as a dietary regimen for weight reduction. In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mLCD can be considered as a dietary regimen for improving glycemic control and reducing body weight. In contrast, a very-low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) and IF are recommended against in patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no recommendations are suggested for VLCD and IF in adults with overweight or obesity, and carbohydrate-restricted diets and IF in patients with hypertension. Here, we describe the results of our analysis and the evidence for these recommendations.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Metabolic changes with intermittent fasting
    Maria G. Lange, Alice A. Coffey, Paul C. Coleman, Thomas M. Barber, Thijs Van Rens, Oyinlola Oyebode, Sally Abbott, Petra Hanson
    Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics.2024; 37(1): 256.     CrossRef
  • Papel do Jejum Intermitente e da Dieta Restrita em Carboidratos na Prevenção de Doenças Cardiovasculares em Pacientes Pré-Diabéticos
    Mohamed Khalfallah, Basma Elnagar, Shaimaa S. Soliman, Ahmad Eissa, Amany Allaithy
    Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus
    Suk Chon
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 421.     CrossRef
  • Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis development in a patient with type 2 diabetes receiving a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor and a carbohydrate-restricted diet
    Gwanpyo Koh, Jisun Bang, Soyeon Yoo, Sang Ah Lee
    Journal of Medicine and Life Science.2023; 20(3): 126.     CrossRef
  • Comprehensive Understanding for Application in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of the Consensus Statement on Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets by Korean Diabetes Association, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and Korean Society of Hyperte
    Jong Han Choi, Jee-Hyun Kang, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 377.     CrossRef
  • The Related Metabolic Diseases and Treatments of Obesity
    Ming Yang, Shuai Liu, Chunye Zhang
    Healthcare.2022; 10(9): 1616.     CrossRef
  • Updated Meta-Analysis of Studies from 2011 to 2021 Comparing the Effectiveness of Intermittent Energy Restriction and Continuous Energy Restriction
    Kyoung-Kon Kim, Jee-Hyun Kang, Eun Mi Kim
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2022; 31(3): 230.     CrossRef

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