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Xue Cai  (Cai X) 3 Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Prediabetes Progression and Regression on Objectively- Measured Physical Function: A Prospective Cohort Study
Shanhu Qiu, Yiming Zhu, Bo Xie, Wenji Chen, Duolao Wang, Xue Cai, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):859-868.   Published online August 23, 2023
  • 1,547 View
  • 130 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Prediabetes leads to declines in physical function in older adults, but the impact of prediabetes progression or regression on physical function is unknown. This study assessed this longitudinal association, with physical function objectivelymeasured by grip strength, walking speed, and standing balance, based on the Health and Retirement Study enrolling United States adults aged >50 years.
Participants with prediabetes were followed-up for 4-year to ascertain prediabetes status alteration (maintained, regressed, or progressed), and another 4-year to assess their impacts on physical function. Weak grip strength was defined as <26 kg for men and <16 kg for women, slow walking speed was as <0.8 m/sec, and poor standing balance was as an uncompleted fulltandem standing testing. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed.
Of the included 1,511 participants with prediabetes, 700 maintained as prediabetes, 306 progressed to diabetes, and 505 regressed to normoglycemia over 4 years. Grip strength and walking speed were declined from baseline during the 4-year followup, regardless of prediabetes status alteration. Compared with prediabetes maintenance, prediabetes progression increased the odds of developing weak grip strength by 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 2.44) and exhibited larger declines in grip strength by 0.85 kg (95% CI, –1.65 to –0.04). However, prediabetes progression was not related to impairments in walking speed or standing balance. Prediabetes regression also did not affect any measures of physical function.
Prediabetes progression accelerates grip strength decline in aging population, while prediabetes regression may not prevent physical function decline due to aging.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Normalized Creatinine-to-Cystatin C Ratio and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Bo Xie, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):476-485.   Published online March 7, 2022
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  • 210 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is recently suggested to be a surrogate marker for sarcopenia. However, little is known about its association with diabetes. This study aimed to fill in this gap based on a large-scale prospective cohort.
A population-based representative sample of 5,055 participants aged ≥45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study was enrolled between 2011 and 2012 and followed at least once during the subsequent surveys at 2013, 2015, or 2018. Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio was calculated and normalized by body weight. Incident diabetes was ascertained by plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-reported history, or use of anti-diabetic drugs. Logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were employed.
During follow-up, 634 participants developed diabetes. The risk of diabetes was gradually and significantly decreased with increased normalized creatinine–cystatin C ratio. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) per 1 standard deviation higher of normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for muscle strength. The risk reduction in diabetes was significantly larger in participants with normal-weight and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio compared with those with overweight/obesity and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio (Pinteraction=0.01). Insulin resistance and inflammation appeared to be key mediators accounting for the observed relationship between normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio and risk of diabetes, with their mediating effect being 93.1% and 22.0%, respectively.
High normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is associated with reduced risk of diabetes in middle-aged and older adults.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Muscle Quality in Relation to Prediabetes Phenotypes: A Population-Based Study With Mediation Analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Xiaoying Zhou, Jinshui Xu, Zilin Sun, Haijian Guo, Tongzhi Wu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(3): e1151.     CrossRef
  • Sex‐specific associations between skeletal muscle mass and incident diabetes: A population‐based cohort study
    Dan Liu, Nan Li, Yiling Zhou, Miye Wang, Peige Song, Changzheng Yuan, Qingyang Shi, Hui Chen, Kaixin Zhou, Huan Wang, Tao Li, Xiong‐Fei Pan, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(3): 820.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Mellitus Should Be Considered While Analysing Sarcopenia-Related Biomarkers
    Justyna Rentflejsz, Zyta Beata Wojszel
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(4): 1107.     CrossRef
  • Associations of muscle mass and strength with new-onset diabetes among middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Xiang-Yang Fang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    Acta Diabetologica.2024; 61(7): 869.     CrossRef
  • Lower serum creatinine to cystatin C ratio associated with increased incidence of frailty in community-dwelling elderly men but not in elderly women
    Shixian Zhou, Peixia Wang, Linlin Sun, Xinxiu Zhao, Caixia Gong, Yichen Yang, Wen Ren, Yunmei Yang, Qin Zhang, JingJin Jiang
    Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The serum creatinine to cystatin C to waist circumference ratios predicts risk for type 2 diabetes: A Chinese cohort study
    Yinfei Chen, Weiheng Wen, Zhiliang Mai, Ming Wang, Hong Chen, Jia Sun
    Journal of Diabetes.2023; 15(10): 808.     CrossRef
  • Associations of sarcopenia with peak expiratory flow among community-dwelling elderly population: based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Jing Chang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    European Geriatric Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Additive impact of diabetes and sarcopenia on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A longitudinal nationwide population-based study
    Eyun Song, Soon Young Hwang, Min Jeong Park, Ahreum Jang, Kyeong Jin Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A. Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi
    Metabolism.2023; 148: 155678.     CrossRef
Improving Patients' Adherence to Physical Activity in Diabetes Mellitus: A Review
Shan-hu Qiu, Zi-lin Sun, Xue Cai, Lili Liu, Bingquan Yang
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(1):1-5.   Published online February 17, 2012
  • 4,655 View
  • 56 Download
  • 46 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Regular physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay T2DM and its complications, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, mortality, and quality of life. However, most people with T2DM are not active and show poor adherence. This paper reviews the possible barriers to PA and strategies to improve the adherence to PA. Based on the currently available literature, it is concluded that self-efficacy and social support from family, friends, and health care providers play the important role in adoption and maintenance of regular PA. Here we also highlight some new modern and innovative interventions that facilitate exercise participation and improve the adherence.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Factors associated with diabetes mellitus among adults: Findings from the Indonesian Family Life Survey-5
    Mohammed Alfaqeeh, Sofa D. Alfian, Rizky Abdulah
    Endocrine and Metabolic Science.2024; 14: 100161.     CrossRef
  • Barriers and Enablers for Physical Activity Engagement Among Individuals From India With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mixed-Method Study
    Prabhath Matpady, Arun G. Maiya, Pallavi P. Saraswat, Chythra R. Rao, Mamatha Shivananda Pai, Shekarappa D. Anupama, Jeevan K. Shetty, Shashikiran Umakanth
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health.2024; 21(5): 519.     CrossRef
  • Adherence to medication, dietary and physical activity recommendations: Findings from a multicenter cross‐sectional study among adults with diabetes in rural South Africa
    Eyitayo O. Owolabi, Anthony Idowu Ajayi
    Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cardiorespiratory Exertion While Exergaming in Healthy Adults
    Hee-Jin Kim, Eun-Ah Jo, Yoon-Ju Lee, Jung-Jun Park
    Exercise Science.2024; 33(2): 160.     CrossRef
  • Effect of physical activity promotion program on adherence to physical exercise among patients with type II diabetes in North Shoa Zone Amhara region: a quasi-experimental study
    Akine Eshete, Sadat Mohammed, Sisay Shine, Yosef Eshetie, Yibeltal Assefa, Nigussie Tadesse
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A framework for incorporating physical activity in treatment: Competencies, guidelines, and implications for family therapists
    Josh R. Novak, Faith K. Ellis
    Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.2022; 48(2): 523.     CrossRef
  • New insights into the role and therapeutic potential of HSP70 in diabetes
    Amanda Almeida de Oliveira, Valentina Ochoa Mendoza, Swasti Rastogi, Kenia Pedrosa Nunes
    Pharmacological Research.2022; 178: 106173.     CrossRef
  • The bidirectional relationship between AMPK pathway activation and myokine secretion in skeletal muscle: How it affects energy metabolism
    Mahdi Ahsan, Léa Garneau, Céline Aguer
    Frontiers in Physiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of a Community-Based Structured Physical Activity Program for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes
    Aishee B. Mukherji, Di Lu, FeiFei Qin, Haley Hedlin, Neil M. Johannsen, Sukyung Chung, Yukari Kobayashi, Francois Haddad, Cynthia Lamendola, Marina Basina, Ruth Talamoa, Jonathan Myers, Latha Palaniappan
    JAMA Network Open.2022; 5(12): e2247858.     CrossRef
  • A correlational study to assess the level of perception and exercise barriers among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    ML Sarika, Srijita Chakraborty, Payel Panda
    International Journal of Diabetes and Technology.2022; 1(2): 63.     CrossRef
  • Recreational training improves cardiovascular adaptations, metabolic profile and mental health of elderly women with type-2 diabetes mellitus
    Andrea Sanches, Vinicius Guzzoni, Vania C. dos R. Miranda, Laís Bonagurio Peressim, Suellen Rocha, Patrícia Oliveira de Lima, Fernanda Klein Marcondes, Ana Paula Tanno, Tatiana Sousa Cunha
    Health Care for Women International.2021; 42(11): 1279.     CrossRef
  • Serum fetuin‐A and Ser312 phosphorylated fetuin‐A responses and markers of insulin sensitivity after a single bout of moderate intensity exercise
    Guang Ren, Robert L. Bowers, Teayoun Kim, Alonzo J. Mahurin, Peter W. Grandjean, Suresh T. Mathews
    Physiological Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Konstantina Dipla, Andreas Zafeiridis, Gesthimani Mintziori, Afroditi K. Boutou, Dimitrios G. Goulis, Anthony C. Hackney
    Endocrines.2021; 2(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • Feasibility of a home-based foot–ankle exercise programme for musculoskeletal dysfunctions in people with diabetes: randomised controlled FOotCAre (FOCA) Trial II
    Érica Q. Silva, Danilo P. Santos, Raquel I. Beteli, Renan L. Monteiro, Jane S. S. P. Ferreira, Ronaldo H. Cruvinel-Junior, Asha Donini, Jady L. Verissímo, Eneida Y. Suda, Isabel C. N. Sacco
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Active Video Game Program for People with Type 2 Diabetes- a Pilot Study
    Han-Hung Huang, Brianna Gathright, Rachel Holik, Hannah Iverson, Emily Saville, Drew A. Curtis
    Applied Sciences.2021; 11(22): 11046.     CrossRef
  • Feasibility and safety of a walking football program in middle-aged and older men with type 2 diabetes
    Ana Barbosa, João Brito, Júlio Costa, Pedro Figueiredo, André Seabra, Romeu Mendes
    Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.2020; 63(6): 786.     CrossRef
  • Adherence to Medication, Diet and Physical Activity and the Associated Factors Amongst Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Alireza Mirahmadizadeh, Haniyeh Khorshidsavar, Mozhgan Seif, Mohammad Hossein Sharifi
    Diabetes Therapy.2020; 11(2): 479.     CrossRef
  • Malay Version of Exercise Self-Efficacy: A Confirmatory Analysis among Malaysians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Aizuddin Hidrus, Yee Cheng Kueh, Bachok Norsa’adah, Garry Kuan
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(3): 922.     CrossRef
  • Motivation and Barriers to Maintaining Lifestyle Changes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (The U-TURN Trial): A Longitudinal Qualitative Study
    Sabrina K. Schmidt, Liv Hemmestad, Christopher S. MacDonald, Henning Langberg, Laura S. Valentiner
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(20): 7454.     CrossRef
  • Understanding patients’ experience living with diabetes type 2 and effective disease management: a qualitative study following a mobile health intervention in Bangladesh
    F. Yasmin, L. Ali, B. Banu, F. B. Rasul, R. Sauerborn, A. Souares
    BMC Health Services Research.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Feasibility of procedures for a randomised pilot study of reduced exertion, high-intensity interval training (REHIT) with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia patients
    Matthew Haines
    Pilot and Feasibility Studies.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nutritional Strategies to Combat Type 2 Diabetes in Aging Adults: The Importance of Protein
    Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Michaela C. Devries
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A systematic review of adherence to diabetes self‐care behaviours: Evidence from low‐ and middle‐income countries
    Victor Mogre, Natalie A. Johnson, Flora Tzelepis, Jonathan E. Shaw, Christine Paul
    Journal of Advanced Nursing.2019; 75(12): 3374.     CrossRef
  • Type 2 diabetes and physical activity: barriers and enablers to diabetes control in Eastern India
    Pati Sanghamitra, Lobo Eunice, Pati Sandipana, Desaraju Shayma, Mahapatra Pranab
    Primary Health Care Research & Development.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential Utility of Self-Report Measures of Affect to Optimise Exercise Adherence in People with Type 2 Diabetes
    Emily R. Cox, Shelley Elizabeth Keating, Jeff S. Coombes, Nicola W. Burton
    Current Diabetes Reviews.2019; 15(4): 302.     CrossRef
  • Mechanisms Involved in Glycemic Control Promoted by Exercise in Diabetics
    Eric Francelino Andrade, Víviam de Oliveira Silva, Débora Ribeiro Orlando, Luciano José Pereira
    Current Diabetes Reviews.2019; 15(2): 105.     CrossRef
  • Equity of a government subsidised exercise referral scheme: A population study
    Melinda Craike, Glen Wiesner, Joanne Enticott, Jason A. Bennie, Stuart J.H. Biddle
    Social Science & Medicine.2018; 216: 20.     CrossRef
  • Relating Activity and Participation Levels to Glycemic Control, Emergency Department Use, and Hospitalizations in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes
    Matt P. Malcolm, Karen E. Atler, Arlene A. Schmid, Tara C. Klinedinst, Laura A. Grimm, Tasha P. Marchant, David R. Marchant
    Clinical Diabetes.2018; 36(3): 232.     CrossRef
  • How can clinical practices pragmatically increase physical activity for patients with type 2 diabetes? A systematic review
    Kelsey A. Luoma, Ian M. Leavitt, Joel C. Marrs, Andrea L. Nederveld, Judith G. Regensteiner, Andrea L. Dunn, Russell E. Glasgow, Amy G. Huebschmann
    Translational Behavioral Medicine.2017; 7(4): 751.     CrossRef
  • Interleukin-6 increases the expression and activity of insulin-degrading enzyme
    Mirian A. Kurauti, José M. Costa-Júnior, Sandra M. Ferreira, Gustavo J. Santos, Carlos H. G. Sponton, Everardo M. Carneiro, Guilherme D. Telles, Mara P. T. Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia R. Cavaglieri, Luiz F. Rezende, Antonio C. Boschero
    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Face-to-Face and Telephone-Based Family-Oriented Education on Self-Care Behavior and Patient Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Masumeh Hemmati Maslakpak, Somaieh Razmara, Zahra Niazkhani
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2017; 2017: 1.     CrossRef
  • Beliefs about Genetically Targeted Care in African Americans
    Chanita Hughes Halbert, Jasmine A. McDonald, Gayenell Magwood, Melanie Jefferson
    Journal of the National Medical Association.2017; 109(2): 98.     CrossRef
  • Mobile Exergaming for Health—Effects of a serious game application for smartphones on physical activity and exercise adherence in type 2 diabetes mellitus—study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
    Christoph Höchsmann, Steffen P. Walz, Juliane Schäfer, Jussi Holopainen, Henner Hanssen, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
    Trials.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Regulation of glucose dynamics by noninvasive peripheral electrical stimulation in normal and insulin-resistant rats
    Merav Catalogna, Sigal Fishman, Zamir Halpern, Shani Ben-Shlomo, Uri Nevo, Eshel Ben-Jacob
    Metabolism.2016; 65(6): 863.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in Overweight Individuals
    Christoph Höchsmann, Michael Schüpbach, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
    Sports Medicine.2016; 46(6): 845.     CrossRef
  • Recruitment of older adults with type 2 diabetes into a community-based exercise and nutrition randomised controlled trial
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    Trials.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sense of mastery as mediator buffering psychological distress among people with diabetes
    Karin Elisabeth Bennetter, Jocelyne Clench–Aas, Ruth Kjærsti Raanaas
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2016; 30(5): 839.     CrossRef
  • Cardiorespiratory Exertion While Playing Video Game Exercises in Elderly Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes
    Christoph Höchsmann, Nicole Zürcher, Andrea Stamm, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
    Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine.2016; 26(4): 326.     CrossRef
  • A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Factors and Behaviors That Affect Glycemic Control Following a Structured Education Program
    Dympna Casey, Mary Clare O’Hara, Ben Meehan, Molly Byrne, Sean F. Dinneen, Kathy Murphy
    Journal of Mixed Methods Research.2016; 10(2): 182.     CrossRef
  • Psychometric Properties of the Perceived Therapeutic Efficacy Scale for Adhering to a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet
    Yaguang Zheng, Lauren Terhorst, Jina Choo, Lora E. Burke
    Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.2014; 29(3): 257.     CrossRef
  • Change in Physical Activity after a Diabetes Diagnosis
    Kristin L. Schneider, Christopher Andrews, Kathleen M. Hovey, Rebecca A. Seguin, Todd Manini, Michael J. LaMonte, Karen L. Margolis, Molly E. Waring, Yi Ning, Stacy Sims, Yunsheng Ma, Judith Ockene, Marcia L. Stefanick, Sherry L. Pagoto
    Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.2014; 46(1): 84.     CrossRef
  • Factors influencing self‐management in patients with type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review protocol
    Annamaria Bagnasco, Patrizia Di Giacomo, Roberta Da Rin Della Mora, Gianluca Catania, Carlo Turci, Gennaro Rocco, Loredana Sasso
    Journal of Advanced Nursing.2014; 70(1): 187.     CrossRef
  • Abnehmen beginnt im Kopf, nicht im Bauch
    Christine Graf, Nina Ferrari, Stefanie Eiser
    MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin.2013; 155(S1): 91.     CrossRef
  • Moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise behaviour according to the Transtheoretical Model: associations with smoking and BMI among Austrian adults
    Franziska Großschädl, Sylvia Titze, Nathalie Burkert, Willibald J. Stronegger
    Wiener klinische Wochenschrift.2013; 125(9-10): 270.     CrossRef
  • Acute Exercise Induces FGF21 Expression in Mice and in Healthy Humans
    Kook Hwan Kim, Seong Hun Kim, Young-Ki Min, Hun-Mo Yang, Jeong-Beom Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Cedric Moro
    PLoS ONE.2013; 8(5): e63517.     CrossRef
  • Exercise for diabetic neuropathy: A toe in the therapeutic door
    A. Gordon Smith, Robin Marcus
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2012; 26(5): 361.     CrossRef

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