Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal


Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse > Author index
Minho Shong  (Shong M) 6 Articles
Basic Research
Article image
Mitochondrial Stress and Mitokines: Therapeutic Perspectives for the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases
Benyuan Zhang, Joon Young Chang, Min Hee Lee, Sang-Hyeon Ju, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):1-18.   Published online January 3, 2024
  • 2,767 View
  • 288 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Mitochondrial stress and the dysregulated mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) are linked to various diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Mitokines, signaling molecules released by mitochondrial stress response and UPRmt, are crucial mediators of inter-organ communication and influence systemic metabolic and physiological processes. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mitokines, including their regulation by exercise and lifestyle interventions and their implications for various diseases. The endocrine actions of mitokines related to mitochondrial stress and adaptations are highlighted, specifically the broad functions of fibroblast growth factor 21 and growth differentiation factor 15, as well as their specific actions in regulating inter-tissue communication and metabolic homeostasis. Finally, we discuss the potential of physiological and genetic interventions to reduce the hazards associated with dysregulated mitokine signaling and preserve an equilibrium in mitochondrial stress-induced responses. This review provides valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial regulation of health and disease by exploring mitokine interactions and their regulation, which will facilitate the development of targeted therapies and personalized interventions to improve health outcomes and quality of life.
The Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in Energy Metabolism
Joon Young Chang, Hyun Jung Hong, Seul Gi Kang, Jung Tae Kim, Ben Yuan Zhang, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):363-371.   Published online June 29, 2020
  • 8,676 View
  • 233 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is receiving great interest beyond its role as an aging and disease-related biomarker. Recent discovery of its receptor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor α-like (GFRAL), suggests a central role in appetite regulation. However, there is also considerable evidence that GDF15 may have peripheral activity through an as-of-yet undiscovered mode of action. This raises the question as to whether increased GDF15 induction during pathophysiologic conditions also suppresses appetite. The present review will briefly introduce the discovery of GDF15 and describe the different contexts under which GDF15 is induced, focusing on its induction during mitochondrial dysfunction. We will further discuss the metabolic role of GDF15 under various pathophysiological conditions and conclude with possible therapeutic applications.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Growth differentiation factor-15 is an IFN-γ regulated mediator of infection-induced weight loss and the hepatic FGF21 response
    Jojo Reyes, Yanlin Zhao, Krushang Pandya, George S. Yap
    Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.2024; 116: 24.     CrossRef
  • Biomarkers of disability worsening in inactive primary progressive multiple sclerosis
    Maria-Elizabeth Baeva, Isabelle Tottenham, Marcus Koch, Carlos Camara-Lemarroy
    Journal of Neuroimmunology.2024; 387: 578268.     CrossRef
  • Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates and Individual Ageing
    Natalia Kurhaluk
    Biomolecules.2024; 14(3): 260.     CrossRef
  • A long‐acting GDF15 analog causes robust, sustained weight loss and reduction of food intake in an obese nonhuman primate model
    Songmao Zheng, David Polidori, Yuanping Wang, Brian Geist, Xiefan Lin‐Schmidt, Jennifer L. Furman, Serena Nelson, Andrea R. Nawrocki, Simon A. Hinke
    Clinical and Translational Science.2023; 16(8): 1431.     CrossRef
  • GDF15 enhances body weight and adiposity reduction in obese mice by leveraging the leptin pathway
    Samuel N. Breit, Rakesh Manandhar, Hong-Ping Zhang, Michelle Lee-Ng, David A. Brown, Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai
    Cell Metabolism.2023; 35(8): 1341.     CrossRef
  • Serum growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a biomarker of cardiac manifestations in children with COVID-19
    Sally Raafat Ishak, Mona Mostafa El Ganzoury, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Maha Ahmad Anwar, Amany Moustafa Kamal, Heba Mostafa Hamza, Nehad Ahmed Bakry
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Understanding the molecular basis of anorexia and tissue wasting in cancer cachexia
    Eunbyul Yeom, Kweon Yu
    Experimental & Molecular Medicine.2022; 54(4): 426.     CrossRef
  • Investigating the combination of plasma amyloid-beta and geroscience biomarkers on the incidence of clinically meaningful cognitive decline in older adults
    Wan-Hsuan Lu, Kelly Virecoulon Giudici, John E. Morley, Sophie Guyonnet, Angelo Parini, Geetika Aggarwal, Andrew D. Nguyen, Yan Li, Randall J. Bateman, Bruno Vellas, Philipe de Souto Barreto, Bruno Vellas, Sophie Guyonnet, Isabelle Carrié, Lauréane Brigit
    GeroScience.2022; 44(3): 1489.     CrossRef
  • The Potential Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in COVID-19: A Corollary Subjective Effect or Not?
    Ahmad O. Babalghith, Hayder M. Al-kuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb, Michel De Waard, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Hebatallah M. Saad, Gaber El-Saber Batiha
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(9): 2051.     CrossRef
  • Metformin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hidden treasure
    Hayder M. Al‐kuraishy, Ali I. Al‐Gareeb, Athanasios Alexiou, Marios Papadakis, Eman Hassan Nadwa, Sarah M. Albogami, Mohammed Alorabi, Hebatallah M. Saad, Gaber El‐Saber Batiha
    Journal of Diabetes.2022; 14(12): 806.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Exercise Intervention on Mitochondrial Stress Biomarkers in Metabolic Syndrome Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Jae Seung Chang, Jun Namkung
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(5): 2242.     CrossRef
  • Neurological & psychological aspects of Barth syndrome: Clinical manifestations and potential pathogenic mechanisms
    Melissa Olivar-Villanueva, Mindong Ren, Colin K.L. Phoon
    Mitochondrion.2021; 61: 188.     CrossRef
  • The metabolic role of spermidine in obesity: Evidence from cells to community
    Yanee Choksomngam, Sintip Pattanakuhar, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C. Chattipakorn
    Obesity Research & Clinical Practice.2021; 15(4): 315.     CrossRef
  • The Role of GDF15 as a Myomitokine
    Kornelia Johann, Maximilian Kleinert, Susanne Klaus
    Cells.2021; 10(11): 2990.     CrossRef
Regulation of Systemic Glucose Homeostasis by T Helper Type 2 Cytokines
Yea Eun Kang, Hyun Jin Kim, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):549-559.   Published online October 24, 2019
  • 7,078 View
  • 98 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Obesity results in an inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, leading to the deterioration of tissue protective mechanisms. Although recent studies suggested the importance of type 2 immunity in an anti-inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, the regulatory effects of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines on systemic metabolic regulation are not fully understood. Recently, we identified the roles of the Th2 cytokine (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-13)-induced adipokine, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), in adipose tissue in regulating systemic glucose metabolism via signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation. Moreover, we showed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is required to maintain these macrophage-regulating autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways via Th2 cytokine-induced secretion of GDF15. In this review, we discuss how the type 2 immune response and Th2 cytokines regulate metabolism in adipose tissue. Specifically, we review the systemic regulatory roles of Th2 cytokines in metabolic disease and the role of mitochondria in maintenance of type 2 responses in adipose tissue homeostasis.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Orchestration of the Adipose Tissue Immune Landscape by Adipocytes
    David Bradley, Tuo Deng, Dharti Shantaram, Willa A. Hsueh
    Annual Review of Physiology.2024; 86(1): 199.     CrossRef
  • Growth and differentiation factor-15: A link between inflammaging and cardiovascular disease
    Balázs Bence Nyárády, Loretta Zsuzsa Kiss, Zsolt Bagyura, Béla Merkely, Edit Dósa, Orsolya Láng, László Kőhidai, Éva Pállinger
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2024; 174: 116475.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function in Blood Samples Shows Distinct Patterns in Subjects with Thyroid Carcinoma from Those with Hyperplasia
    Julia Bernal-Tirapo, María Teresa Bayo Jiménez, Pedro Yuste-García, Isabel Cordova, Ana Peñas, Francisco-Javier García-Borda, Cesar Quintela, Ignacio Prieto, Cristina Sánchez-Ramos, Eduardo Ferrero-Herrero, María Monsalve
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(7): 6453.     CrossRef
  • A Supportive Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Insulin-Producing Langerhans Islets with a Specific Emphasis on The Secretome
    Ronit Vogt Sionov, Ronit Ahdut-HaCohen
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(9): 2558.     CrossRef
  • Gdf15 deletion exacerbates acute lung injuries induced by intratracheal inoculation of aerosolized ricin in mice
    Mengyun Deng, Duo Su, Nan Xiao, Zhipeng Zhang, Yifeng Wang, Fuliang Zong, Sha Li, Jinglin Wang, Dongsheng Zhou, Yuee Zhao, Huiying Yang
    Toxicology.2022; 469: 153135.     CrossRef
  • Role of PPAR Receptor and Ligands in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Hematologic Malignancies
    Jian Wu, Min Zhang, Allison Faircloth
    Hemato.2022; 3(3): 422.     CrossRef
  • Macrophage and Adipocyte Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Obesity-Induced Metabolic Diseases
    Liwen Wang, Jie Hu, Haiyan Zhou
    The World Journal of Men's Health.2021; 39(4): 606.     CrossRef
  • Th2 Cytokines Increase the Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in the Liver
    Seul-Gi Kang, Seong-Eun Lee, Min-Jeong Choi, Joon-Young Chang, Jung-Tae Kim, Ben-Yuan Zhang, Yea-Eun Kang, Ju-Hee Lee, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong
    Cells.2021; 10(6): 1298.     CrossRef
  • Growth/Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15): From Biomarker to Novel Targetable Immune Checkpoint
    Jörg Wischhusen, Ignacio Melero, Wolf Herman Fridman
    Frontiers in Immunology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Transcriptional, Epigenetic and Metabolic Programming of Tumor-Associated Macrophages
    Irina Larionova, Elena Kazakova, Marina Patysheva, Julia Kzhyshkowska
    Cancers.2020; 12(6): 1411.     CrossRef
Response: GDF15 Is a Novel Biomarker for Impaired Fasting Glucose (Diabetes Metab J 2014;38:472-9)
Jun Hwa Hong, Bon Jeong Ku, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(1):84-86.   Published online February 16, 2015
  • 3,052 View
  • 28 Download
GDF15 Is a Novel Biomarker for Impaired Fasting Glucose
Jun Hwa Hong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Hye Yoon Park, Kyong-Hye Joung, Ju Hee Lee, Jin Gyu Jung, Koon Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):472-479.   Published online December 15, 2014
  • 5,877 View
  • 80 Download
  • 70 Web of Science
  • 66 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. An elevated serum level of GDF15 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is an inflammatory disease that progresses from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Hence, we aimed to validate the relationship between GDF15 and IFG.


The participants were divided into the following three groups: NGT (n=137), IFG (n=29), and T2DM (n=75). The controls and T2DM outpatients visited the hospital for routine health check-ups. We used fasting blood glucose to detect IFG in nondiabetic patients. We checked the body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein level, metabolic parameters, and fasting serum GDF15 level.


Age, BMI, triglyceride, insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and GDF15 levels were elevated in the IFG and T2DM groups compared to the NGT group. In the correlation analysis between metabolic parameters and GDF15, age and HOMA-IR had a significant positive correlation with GDF15 levels. GDF15 significantly discriminated between IFG and NGT, independent of age, BMI, and HOMA-IR. The serum levels of GDF15 were more elevated in men than in women. As a biomarker for IFG based on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff value of GDF15 was 510 pg/mL in males and 400 pg/mL in females.


GDF15 had a positive correlation with IR independent of age and BMI, and the serum level of GDF15 was increased in the IFG and T2DM groups. GDF15 may be a novel biomarker for detecting IFG in nondiabetic patients.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of a 6-Week Carbohydrate-Reduced High-Protein Diet on Levels of FGF21 and GDF15 in People With Type 2 Diabetes
    Michael M Richter, Mads N Thomsen, Mads J Skytte, Sasha A S Kjeldsen, Amirsalar Samkani, Jan Frystyk, Faidon Magkos, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Thure Krarup, Steen B Haugaard, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen
    Journal of the Endocrine Society.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Serum Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Levels Predict the Incidence of Frailty among Patients with Cardiometabolic Diseases
    Kazuhito Oba, Joji Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Tamura, Yasunori Fujita, Masafumi Ito, Ai Iizuka, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Remi Kodera, Kenji Toyoshima, Yuko Chiba, Masashi Tanaka, Atsushi Araki
    Gerontology.2024; 70(5): 517.     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15 and malnutrition in older adults
    Nazanin Rostami, Blanca Fabre-Estremera, Antonio Buño-Soto, José R Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Rosario Ortolá
    The Journal of nutrition, health and aging.2024; 28(6): 100230.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the relation between subclinical systolic dysfunction defined by four-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in patients with acromegaly
    Busra Firlatan, Ugur Nadir Karakulak, Vedat Hekimsoy, Burcin Gonul Iremli, Incilay Lay, Deniz Yuce, Selcuk Dagdelen, Giray Kabakci, Tomris Erbas
    Hormones.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nausea, vomiting and conflict in pregnancy
    Bernard J Crespi
    Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.2024; 12(1): 75.     CrossRef
  • Correlations between growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) serum levels and gene polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Qiumei Liu, Lidong Qin, Yujian Liang, Min Xu, Junling Zhang, Xiaoting Mo, Xu Tang, Yufu Lu, Xuexiu Wang, Jiejing Cao, Chuwu Huang, Jiahui Rong, Kaisheng Teng, Linhai Zhao, Songju Wu, Lei Luo, Qinyi Guan, TianTian Zhang, Wenjia Jin, Jian Qin, Jiansheng Cai
    Heliyon.2024; 10(12): e33044.     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15 is not modified after weight loss induced by liraglutide in South Asians and Europids with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Carlijn A. Hoekx, Maaike E. Straat, Maurice B. Bizino, Huub J. van Eyk, Hildebrandus J. Lamb, Johannes W. A. Smit, Ingrid M. Jazet, Saskia C. A. de Jager, Mariëtte R. Boon, Borja Martinez‐Tellez
    Experimental Physiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exploration of meteorin-like peptide (metrnl) predictors in type 2 diabetic patients: the potential role of irisin, and other biochemical parameters
    Yaser Khajebishak, Amir Hossein Faghfouri, Ali Soleimani, Sadra Madani, Laleh Payahoo
    Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation.2023; 44(2): 127.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between meteorin-like peptide (Metrnl) serum levels and inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress biomarkers and body composition parameters in type 2 diabetes patients
    Yaser Khajebishak, Sadra Madani, Amir Hossein Faghfouri, Ali Soleimani, Sara Ilaei, Said Peyrovi, Laleh Payahoo
    Nutrition & Food Science.2023; 53(5): 861.     CrossRef
  • Effects of acute exercise and exercise training on plasma GDF15 concentrations and associations with appetite and cardiometabolic health in individuals with overweight or obesity – A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
    Jonas Salling Quist, Anders Bue Klein, Kristine Færch, Kristine Beaulieu, Mads Rosenkilde, Anne Sofie Gram, Anders Sjödin, Signe Torekov, Bente Stallknecht, Christoffer Clemmensen, Martin Bæk Blond
    Appetite.2023; 182: 106423.     CrossRef
  • Significant increase of serum extracellular vesicle-packaged growth differentiation factor 15 in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study
    Wen Zhao, Xinwei Li, Xinxin Li, Lu Peng, Yu Li, Yunhui Du, Jianxun He, Yanwen Qin, Huina Zhang
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between growth differentiation factor 15 levels and gestational diabetes mellitus: A combined analysis
    Yi-Cheng Lu, Song-Liang Liu, Yu-Shan Zhang, Fei Liang, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Yue Xiao, Jing Wang, Cong Ding, Sudipta Banerjee, Jie-Yun Yin, Qiu-Ping Ma
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Metformin triggers a kidney GDF15-dependent area postrema axis to regulate food intake and body weight
    Song-Yang Zhang, Kyla Bruce, Zahra Danaei, Rosa J.W. Li, Daniel R. Barros, Rachel Kuah, Yu-Mi Lim, Laura H. Mariani, David Z. Cherney, Jennifer F.M. Chiu, Heather N. Reich, Tony K.T. Lam
    Cell Metabolism.2023; 35(5): 875.     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in endocrinology
    Pedro Iglesias, Ramona A. Silvestre, Juan J. Díez
    Endocrine.2023; 81(3): 419.     CrossRef
  • Identification of biomarkers for glycaemic deterioration in type 2 diabetes
    Roderick C. Slieker, Louise A. Donnelly, Elina Akalestou, Livia Lopez-Noriega, Rana Melhem, Ayşim Güneş, Frederic Abou Azar, Alexander Efanov, Eleni Georgiadou, Hermine Muniangi-Muhitu, Mahsa Sheikh, Giuseppe N. Giordano, Mikael Åkerlund, Emma Ahlqvist, A
    Nature Communications.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Metabolic syndrome and Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in older adults
    Adrián Carballo-Casla, Esther García-Esquinas, Antonio Buño-Soto, Ellen A. Struijk, Esther López-García, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Rosario Ortolá
    GeroScience.2022; 44(2): 867.     CrossRef
  • Associations between GDF15 Levels and Pre-Diabetes in Non-Obese Subjects
    Hao-Chang Hung, Hung-Tsung Wu, Ching-Han Lin, Hsuan-Wen Chou, Horng-Yih Ou, Chih-Jen Chang
    Journal of Investigative Medicine.2022; 70(1): 79.     CrossRef
  • Growth Differentiation Factor-15 as a Biomarker of Obese Pre-diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indian Subjects: A Case-control Study
    Dipayan Roy, Purvi Purohit, Anupama Modi, Manoj Khokhar, Ravindra Kumar Gayaprasad Shukla, Ramkaran Chaudhary, Shrimanjunath Sankanagoudar, Praveen Sharma
    Current Diabetes Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Protects SH-SY5Y Cells From Rotenone-Induced Toxicity by Suppressing Mitochondrial Apoptosis
    Peizheng Li, Hongbo Lv, Bohan Zhang, Ruonan Duan, Xiufang Zhang, Pengfei Lin, Chengyuan Song, Yiming Liu
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • GDF-15 as a Therapeutic Target of Diabetic Complications Increases the Risk of Gallstone Disease: Mendelian Randomization and Polygenic Risk Score Analysis
    Lili Yu, Yajing Zhou, Lijuan Wang, Xuan Zhou, Jing Sun, Jiarui Xiao, Xiaolin Xu, Susanna C. Larsson, Shuai Yuan, Xue Li
    Frontiers in Genetics.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex-specific modulation of circulating growth differentiation factor-15 in patients with type 2 diabetes and/or obesity
    Mohamed Asrih, Flore Sinturel, Richard Dubos, Idris Guessous, Zoltan Pataky, Charna Dibner, François R Jornayvaz, Karim Gariani
    Endocrine Connections.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Raised circulating soluble growth differentiation factor 15 is negatively associated with testosterone level in hypogonadic men with type 2 diabetes
    Yufeng Mei, Yongnan Lyu, Juan Le, Di Li, Hang Liu, Zhiming Zhao, Yan Li
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • NCAM1 and GDF15 are biomarkers of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in patients and mice
    Matthew J Jennings, Alexia Kagiava, Leen Vendredy, Emily L Spaulding, Marina Stavrou, Denisa Hathazi, Anika Grüneboom, Vicky De Winter, Burkhard Gess, Ulrike Schara, Oksana Pogoryelova, Hanns Lochmüller, Christoph H Borchers, Andreas Roos, Robert W Burges
    Brain.2022; 145(11): 3999.     CrossRef
  • Metformin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hidden treasure
    Hayder M. Al‐kuraishy, Ali I. Al‐Gareeb, Athanasios Alexiou, Marios Papadakis, Eman Hassan Nadwa, Sarah M. Albogami, Mohammed Alorabi, Hebatallah M. Saad, Gaber El‐Saber Batiha
    Journal of Diabetes.2022; 14(12): 806.     CrossRef
  • GDF15 is an exercise-induced hepatokine regulated by glucagon and insulin in humans
    Peter Plomgaard, Jakob S. Hansen, Logan K. Townsend, Anders Gudiksen, Niels H. Secher, Jens O. Clemmesen, Rene K. Støving, Jens P. Goetze, David C. Wright, Henriette Pilegaard
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A study of serum growth differentiation factor 15 in Indian women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus in the third trimester of pregnancy and its association with pro-inflammatory markers and glucose metabolism
    Sudipta Banerjee, Rana Bhattacharjee, Amitabh Sur, Pieu Adhikary, Subhankar Chowdhury
    Diabetology International.2021; 12(3): 254.     CrossRef
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15 is a Cancer Cell-Induced Mitokine That Primes Thyroid Cancer Cells for Invasiveness
    Yea Eun Kang, Jin Man Kim, Mi Ae Lim, Seong Eun Lee, Shinae Yi, Jung Tae Kim, Chan Oh, Lihua Liu, Yanli Jin, Seung-Nam Jung, Ho-Ryun Won, Jae Won Chang, Jeong Ho Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Hyun Yong Koh, Sangmi Jun, Sun Wook Cho, Minho Shong, Bon Seok Koo
    Thyroid.2021; 31(5): 772.     CrossRef
  • The GDF15-GFRAL Pathway in Health and Metabolic Disease: Friend or Foe?
    Samuel N. Breit, David A. Brown, Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai
    Annual Review of Physiology.2021; 83(1): 127.     CrossRef
  • Associations of GDF-15 and GDF-15/adiponectin ratio with odds of type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population
    Xiaoying Wu, Wenting Xuan, Lili You, Hong Lian, Feng Li, Xiaoyun Zhang, Qingyu Chen, Kan Sun, Chaogang Chen, Mingtong Xu, Yan Li, Li Yan, Xiuwei Zhang, Meng Ren
    Endocrine.2021; 72(2): 423.     CrossRef
  • Decreased serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels after lifestyle intervention in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Xingxing He, Jiaorong Su, Xiaojing Ma, Jingyi Lu, Yufei Wang, Jun Yin, Yuqian Bao, Gang Hu, Jian Zhou
    Obesity Medicine.2021; 24: 100345.     CrossRef
  • The anti-diabetic effects of NAG-1/GDF15 on HFD/STZ-induced mice
    Pattawika Lertpatipanpong, Jaehak Lee, Ilju Kim, Thomas Eling, Seung Yeon Oh, Je Kyung Seong, Seung Joon Baek
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Regulation of Circulating Hepatokines by Fructose Ingestion in Humans
    Michael M Richter, Peter Plomgaard
    Journal of the Endocrine Society.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • GDF15: emerging biology and therapeutic applications for obesity and cardiometabolic disease
    Dongdong Wang, Emily A. Day, Logan K. Townsend, Djordje Djordjevic, Sebastian Beck Jørgensen, Gregory R. Steinberg
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology.2021; 17(10): 592.     CrossRef
  • High Fat, High Sugar Diet and DJOS Bariatric Surgery Influence Plasma Levels of Fetuin-B, Growth Differentiation Factor-15, and Pentraxin 3 in Diet-Induced Obese Sprague–Dawley Rats
    Jakub Poloczek, Monika Tarnawska, Elżbieta Chełmecka, Piotr Łaszczyca, Janusz Gumprecht, Dominika Stygar
    Nutrients.2021; 13(10): 3632.     CrossRef
  • Serum growth differentiation factor 15 level is associated with muscle strength and lower extremity function in older patients with cardiometabolic disease
    Kazuhito Oba, Joji Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Tamura, Yasunori Fujita, Masafumi Ito, Ai Iizuka, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Remi Kodera, Ayumi Toba, Kenji Toyoshima, Yuko Chiba, Seijiro Mori, Masashi Tanaka, Hideki Ito, Kazumasa Harada, Atsushi Araki
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International.2020; 20(10): 980.     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a potential biomarker of both diabetic kidney disease and future cardiovascular events in cohorts of individuals with type 2 diabetes: a proteomics approach
    Axel C. Carlsson, Christoph Nowak, Lars Lind, Carl Johan Östgren, Fredrik H. Nyström, Johan Sundström, Juan Jesus Carrero, Ulf Riserus, Erik Ingelsson, Tove Fall, Johan Ärnlöv
    Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences.2020; 125(1): 37.     CrossRef
  • Elevated Plasma Growth and Differentiation Factor 15 Is Associated With Slower Gait Speed and Lower Physical Performance in Healthy Community-Dwelling Adults
    Richard D Semba, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Toshiko Tanaka, Angelique Biancotto, Pingbo Zhang, Michelle Shardell, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci, Anne Newman
    The Journals of Gerontology: Series A.2020; 75(1): 175.     CrossRef
  • Circulating Cardiac Biomarkers in Diabetes Mellitus: A New Dawn for Risk Stratification—A Narrative Review
    Alexander E. Berezin, Alexander A. Berezin
    Diabetes Therapy.2020; 11(6): 1271.     CrossRef
  • Deterioration of Sleep Quality According to Glycemic Status
    Myung Haeng Hur, Mi-Kyoung Lee, Kayeon Seong, Jun Hwa Hong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(5): 679.     CrossRef
  • Effects of plant and animal high protein diets on immune-inflammatory biomarkers: A 6-week intervention trial
    Mariya Markova, Liselot Koelman, Silke Hornemann, Olga Pivovarova, Stephanie Sucher, Juergen Machann, Natalia Rudovich, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F.H. Pfeiffer, Krasimira Aleksandrova
    Clinical Nutrition.2020; 39(3): 862.     CrossRef
  • Effect of sleeve gastrectomy on plasma growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) in human
    Ponnie Robertlee Dolo, Libin Yao, Peng Peng Liu, Jason Widjaja, Song Meng, Chao Li, Xiaocheng Zhu
    The American Journal of Surgery.2020; 220(3): 725.     CrossRef
  • Prognostication of clinical outcomes in diabetes mellitus: Emerging role of cardiac biomarkers
    Alexander E. Berezin
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2019; 13(2): 995.     CrossRef
  • Effect of bariatric surgery on plasma GDF15 in humans
    Maximilian Kleinert, Kirstine N. Bojsen-Møller, Nils B. Jørgensen, Maria S. Svane, Christoffer Martinussen, Bente Kiens, Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski, Sten Madsbad, Erik A. Richter, Christoffer Clemmensen
    American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 316(4): E615.     CrossRef
  • Regulation of Systemic Glucose Homeostasis by T Helper Type 2 Cytokines
    Yea Eun Kang, Hyun Jin Kim, Minho Shong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 549.     CrossRef
  • GDF15 reflects beta cell function in obese patients independently of the grade of impairment of glucose metabolism
    M.H. Schernthaner-Reiter, B.K. Itariu, M. Krebs, M. Promintzer-Schifferl, T.M. Stulnig, A. Tura, C.H. Anderwald, M. Clodi, B. Ludvik, G. Pacini, A. Luger, G. Vila
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2019; 29(4): 334.     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15: A novel biomarker with high clinical potential
    Stéphanie Desmedt, Valérie Desmedt, Leen De Vos, Joris R. Delanghe, Reinhart Speeckaert, Marijn M. Speeckaert
    Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences.2019; 56(5): 333.     CrossRef
  • Hepatokines—a novel group of exercise factors
    Cora Weigert, Miriam Hoene, Peter Plomgaard
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.2019; 471(3): 383.     CrossRef
  • Association between MIC-1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A Combined Analysis
    Jianan Lu, Yue Zhang, Xingxuan Dong, Jiawen Lu, Chen Zhang, Jieyu Liu, Qingzhou Yu, Haoyue Teng, Qingkui Yao, Jieyun Yin, Liqiang Qin
    Disease Markers.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • The mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitohormesis: a perspective on metabolic diseases
    Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Minho Shong
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology.2018; 61(3): R91.     CrossRef
  • Towards frailty biomarkers: Candidates from genes and pathways regulated in aging and age-related diseases
    Ana Luisa Cardoso, Adelaide Fernandes, Juan Antonio Aguilar-Pimentel, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Joana Ribeiro Guedes, Maria Alexandra Brito, Saida Ortolano, Giovambattista Pani, Sophia Athanasopoulou, Efstathios S. Gonos, Markus Schosserer, Johannes Grilla
    Ageing Research Reviews.2018; 47: 214.     CrossRef
  • Serum Meteorin-like protein levels decreased in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
    Ju Hee Lee, Yea Eun Kang, Ji Min Kim, Sorim Choung, Kyong Hye Joung, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2018; 135: 7.     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15 predicts advanced fibrosis in biopsy‐proven non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Bo Kyung Koo, Sung Hee Um, Dong Soo Seo, Sae Kyung Joo, Jeong Mo Bae, Jeong Hwan Park, Mee Soo Chang, Jung Ho Kim, Jieun Lee, Won‐Il Jeong, Won Kim
    Liver International.2018; 38(4): 695.     CrossRef
  • Serum Growth Differentiation Factor 15 in Parkinson Disease
    Xiaomei Yao, Dong Wang, Lei Zhang, Lingling Wang, Zhenxiang Zhao, Si Chen, Xiaotang Wang, Tao Yue, Yiming Liu
    Neurodegenerative Diseases.2017; 17(6): 251.     CrossRef
  • GDF15 deficiency exacerbates chronic alcohol- and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury
    Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Growth differentiation factor 15 as a predictor of adverse renal outcomes in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy
    Ki R. Na, Yoo H. Kim, Hyo K. Chung, Min‐Kyung Yeo, Young R. Ham, Jin Y. Jeong, Koon S. Kim, Kang W. Lee, Dae E. Choi
    Internal Medicine Journal.2017; 47(12): 1393.     CrossRef
  • GDF15 contributes to radiation-induced senescence through the ROS-mediated p16 pathway in human endothelial cells
    Hyejin Park, Chun-Ho Kim, Jae-Hoon Jeong, Myungjin Park, Kwang Seok Kim
    Oncotarget.2016; 7(9): 9634.     CrossRef
  • GDF-15 and Hepcidin Levels in Nonanemic Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance
    Mehmet Muhittin Yalcin, Alev Eroglu Altinova, Mujde Akturk, Ozlem Gulbahar, Emre Arslan, Damla Ors Sendogan, Ilhan Yetkin, Fusun Balos Toruner
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2016; 2016: 1.     CrossRef
  • Cardiac‐Secreted Factors as Peripheral Metabolic Regulators and Potential Disease Biomarkers
    Colleen M. Dewey, Kathryn M. Spitler, Jessica M. Ponce, Duane D. Hall, Chad E. Grueter
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Determinants of growth differentiation factor 15 in patients with stable and acute coronary artery disease. A prospective observational study
    Serdar Farhan, Matthias K. Freynhofer, Ivan Brozovic, Veronika Bruno, Birgit Vogel, Ioannis Tentzeris, Sabina Baumgartner-Parzer, Kurt Huber, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of Atorvastatin on Growth Differentiation Factor-15 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Dyslipidemia
    Ji Min Kim, Min Kyung Back, Hyon-Seung Yi, Kyong Hye Joung, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • Association between Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Young Shin, Ji Min Kim, Yea Eun Kang, Min Kyeong Kim, Kyong Hye Joung, Ju Hee Lee, Koon Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku, Minho Shong
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2016; 31(9): 1413.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Transcriptome Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Fasting Glucose
    Ying Cui, Wen Chen, Jinfeng Chi, Lei Wang
    Medical Science Monitor.2016; 22: 4699.     CrossRef
  • Letter: GDF15 Is a Novel Biomarker for Impaired Fasting Glucose (Diabetes Metab J2014;38:472-9)
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(1): 82.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between hepcidin and GDF15 in anemic patients with type 2 diabetes without overt renal impairment
    Jun Hwa Hong, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Byong-Keol Min, Kang Seo Park, Kayeon Seong, In Kyu Lee, Jung Guk Kim
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2015; 109(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Response: GDF15 Is a Novel Biomarker for Impaired Fasting Glucose (Diabetes Metab J2014;38:472-9)
    Jun Hwa Hong, Bon Jeong Ku, Minho Shong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(1): 84.     CrossRef
  • Is GDF15 a Novel Biomarker to Predict the Development of Prediabetes or Diabetes?
    Kyu Yeon Hur
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(6): 437.     CrossRef
Bone Mineral Density in Prediabetic Men
Ju Hee Lee, Yun Hyeong Lee, Kyoung Hye Jung, Min Kyeong Kim, Hye Won Jang, Tae Kyun Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Young Suk Jo, Minho Shong, Tae Yong Lee, Bon Jeong Ku
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(5):294-302.   Published online October 31, 2010
  • 4,596 View
  • 30 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

There are many studies regarding the effects of insulin on bone metabolism and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the setting of diabetes. The effect of prediabetes on BMD is not known.


A total of 802 men participated in the Korea Rural Genomic Cohort Study (in Geumsan County). According to the results of an oral glucose tolerance test, subjects were classified into normal, prediabetic, and diabetic categories. One hundred twenty-four subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were excluded, leaving 678 subjects for the study inclusion. BMD was estimated with a quantitative ultrasonometer.


The average BMD T scores of normal and prediabetic subjects were -1.34 ± 1.42 and -1.33 ± 1.30, respectively; there was no significant difference in the BMD T scores between these groups. The BMD T score was inversely associated with age and positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and HbA1c. On multiple linear regression analysis, low density lipoprotein cholesterol was the only statistically significant variable for prediabetes (β = 0.007, P = 0.005). On the stepwise regression analysis, age (β = -0.026, P < 0.001), the body mass index (β = 0.079, P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.004, P = 0.016) were significant variables for prediabetes.


There was no significant difference in the BMD T score between the normal and prediabetic subjects. Further studies are needed regarding the association of fracture risk and changes in BMD with the development of overt diabetes.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • More Rapid Bone Mineral Density Loss in Older Men With Diabetes: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study
    Flavia Tramontana, Nicola Napoli, Stephanie Litwack-Harrison, Douglas C Bauer, Eric S Orwoll, Jane A Cauley, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Ann V Schwartz
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prediabetes and skeletal health
    Catherine Lindsay, Albert Shieh
    Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity.2023; 30(4): 200.     CrossRef
  • Serum levels of sclerostin in prediabetes and its correlation with bone mineral density
    Ajay Chauhan, Manoj Kumar Bhakhar, Parul Goyal
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2023; 12(11): 2702.     CrossRef
  • The risk of hip fractures in individuals over 50 years old with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes – A longitudinal nationwide population-based study
    Ho Youn Park, Kyoungdo Han, Youngwoo Kim, Yoon Hwan Kim, Yoo Joon Sur
    Bone.2021; 142: 115691.     CrossRef
  • Bone health in diabetes and prediabetes
    Silvia Costantini, Caterina Conte
    World Journal of Diabetes.2019; 10(8): 421.     CrossRef
  • Bone mineral density in obese children with prediabetes
    Ala ÜSTYOL, Mehmet Emre ATABEK
    Ege Tıp Dergisi.2018; 57(2): 94.     CrossRef
  • The Prevalence of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis Among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetic Patients Using Quantitative Ultrasound Densitometer
    Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer, Mohanad Naji Sahib, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
    The Open Rheumatology Journal.2018; 12(1): 50.     CrossRef
  • An association between bone mineral density and anabolic hormones in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes
    Michał Rabijewski, Lucyna Papierska, Paweł Piątkiewicz
    The Aging Male.2017; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Amplification of transcutaneous and percutaneous bone-conduction devices with a test-band in an induced model of conductive hearing loss
    Marn Joon Park, Jae Ryung Lee, Chan Joo Yang, Myung Hoon Yoo, In Suk Jin, Chi Ho Choi, Hong Ju Park
    International Journal of Audiology.2016; 55(11): 653.     CrossRef
  • Osteoporosis in Men with Diabetes Mellitus
    Claire Issa, Mira S. Zantout, Sami T. Azar
    Journal of Osteoporosis.2011; 2011: 1.     CrossRef
  • Response: Bone Mineral Density in Prediabetic Men (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:294-302)
    Ju Hee Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 386.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Bone Mineral Density in Prediabetic Men (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:294-302)
    Chul-Hee Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 384.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Close layer