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Min Kyong Moon  (Moon MK) 30 Articles
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Article image
2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae Jin Kim, Hyun Min Kim, Jung Hae Ko, Nam Hoon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Jeeyun Ahn, Tae Jung Oh, Soo-Kyung Kim, Jaehyun Kim, Eugene Han, Sang-Man Jin, Won Suk Choi, Min Kyong Moon, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(5):575-594.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0282
  • 6,882 View
  • 852 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In May 2023, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association published the revised clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes. We incorporated the latest clinical research findings through a comprehensive systematic literature review and applied them in a manner suitable for the Korean population. These guidelines are designed for all healthcare providers nationwide, including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators who manage patients with diabetes or individuals at risk of developing diabetes. Based on recent changes in international guidelines and the results of a Korean epidemiological study, the recommended age for diabetes screening has been lowered. In collaboration with the relevant Korean medical societies, recently revised guidelines for managing hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes have been incorporated into this guideline. An abridgment containing practical information on patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mortality in metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study
    Eugene Han, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Sang Hoon Ahn, Yong-ho Lee, Seung Up Kim
    Metabolism.2024; 152: 155789.     CrossRef
  • Letter by In-Kyung Jeong Regarding Article, Trends in Prevalence of Hypertriglyceridemia and Related Factors in Korean Adults: A Serial Cross-Sectional Study
    In-Kyung Jeong
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2024; 13(1): 80.     CrossRef
  • Association between cardiovascular disease risk and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with prediabetes: A retrospective cohort study
    Myung Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 208: 111125.     CrossRef
  • Korea Hypertension Fact Sheet 2023: analysis of nationwide population-based data with a particular focus on hypertension in special populations
    Hyeon Chang Kim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Dasom Son, Minsung Cho, Sojung Shin, Yeeun Seo, Eun-Jin kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Sun Ha Jee, Sungha Park, Hae-Young Lee, Min Ho Shin, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Seung Won Lee, Jong Ku Park, Il Suh, Tae-Yong Lee
    Clinical Hypertension.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Duration, Cholesterol Levels, and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyu Na Lee, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of Adding Apolipoprotein B Testing on the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Korean Adult Population
    Rihwa Choi, Sang Gon Lee, Eun Hee Lee
    Metabolites.2024; 14(3): 169.     CrossRef
  • A self-powered and supercapacitive microneedle continuous glucose monitoring system with a wide range of glucose detection capabilities
    Hye-Jun Kil, Jang Hyeon Kim, Kanghae Lee, Tae-Uk Kang, Ju-Hyun Yoo, Yong-ho Lee, Jin-Woo Park
    Biosensors and Bioelectronics.2024; 257: 116297.     CrossRef
  • Cardiorenal outcomes and mortality after sodium‐glucose cotransporter‐2 inhibitor initiation in type 2 diabetes patients with percutaneous coronary intervention history
    Jin Hwa Kim, Young Sang Lyu, BongSeong Kim, Mee Kyung Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Ki‐Hyun Baek, Ki‐Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(7): 2567.     CrossRef
  • SGLT2i impact on HCC incidence in patients with fatty liver disease and diabetes: a nation-wide cohort study in South Korea
    Hyo Jung Cho, Eunyoung Lee, Soon Sun Kim, Jae Youn Cheong
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The importance of diabetes mellitus in dental practice
    Nina Dimitrijević-Jovanović, Hristina Ugrinović, Radomir Mitić, Nevena Kalezić
    Galenika Medical Journal.2024; 3(9): 80.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of glycemic response of ten local meals commonly consumed from Chad
    Zoufane Guedeungbe, Jean Paul Bayang, Benoît Bargui Koubala
    Journal of Agriculture and Food Research.2024; 17: 101251.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Control and Oral Health Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes: Insights From a Nationwide Korean Survey
    Song-Yi Yu, Sun-Kyung Lee, Bumhee Yang, Hyun Lee, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Dong-Hwa Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of albiglutide, a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    A.B.M. Kamrul-Hasan, Deep Dutta, Lakshmi Nagendra, Saptarshi Bhattacharya, Rajiv Singla, Sanjay Kalra
    Medicine.2024; 103(25): e38568.     CrossRef
  • Longitudinal Analysis of Diabetes Mellitus Risk: Smoking Status and Smoking Cessation
    Da-Eun Sung, Seung-Jae Lee, Mi-Yeon Lee, Eun-Jung Rhee, Ki-Chul Sung
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(13): 3927.     CrossRef
  • Current type 2 diabetes guidelines: Individualized treatment and how to make the most of metformin
    Juliana C. N. Chan, Aimin Yang, Natural Chu, Elaine Chow
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(S3): 55.     CrossRef
  • Management of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Kyung Ae Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 111.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Recommendations for Pharmacological Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
    Junghyun Noh
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 127.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 120.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    Ye Seul Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 135.     CrossRef
  • A 33-Year-Old Man Presented with Abdominal Pain and Vomiting Starting a Day Ago
    Jong Han Choi
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2023; 98(6): 289.     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity Patterns and Management in Inpatients with Endocrine Diseases by Age Groups in South Korea: Nationwide Data
    Sung-Soo Kim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 14(1): 42.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
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Comparison of Operational Definition of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on Data from Korean National Health Insurance Service and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jong Ha Baek, Yong-Moon Park, Kyung Do Han, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Han Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):201-210.   Published online February 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0375
  • 3,884 View
  • 228 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated the validity and reliability of the operational definition of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database.
Methods
Adult subjects (≥40 years old) included in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2017 were merged with those from the NHIS health check-up database, producing a cross-sectional dataset. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and agreement of the NHIS criteria for defining T2DM by comparing them with the KNHANES criteria as a standard reference.
Results
In the study population (n=13,006), two algorithms were devised to determine from the NHIS dataset whether the diagnostic claim codes for T2DM were accompanied by prescription codes for anti-diabetic drugs (algorithm 1) or not (algorithm 2). Using these algorithms, the prevalence of T2DM was 14.9% (n=1,942; algorithm 1) and 20.8% (n=2,707; algorithm 2). Good reliability in defining T2DM was observed for both algorithms (Kappa index, 0.73 [algorithm 1], 0.63 [algorithm 2]). However, the accuracy (0.93 vs. 0.89) and specificity (0.96 vs. 0.90) tended to be higher for algorithm 1 than for algorithm 2. The validity (accuracy, ranging from 0.91 to 0.95) and reliability (Kappa index, ranging from 0.68 to 0.78) of defining T2DM by NHIS criteria were independent of age, sex, socioeconomic status, and accompanied hypertension or dyslipidemia.
Conclusion
The operational definition of T2DM based on population-based NHIS claims data, including diagnostic codes and prescription codes, could be a valid tool to identify individuals with T2DM in the Korean population.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young Korean adults
    Junchul Ha, Oak-Kee Hong, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 212: 111584.     CrossRef
  • Gamma‐glutamyl transferase and the risk of all‐cause and disease‐specific mortality in patients with diabetes: A nationwide cohort study
    Goh Eun Chung, Su‐Min Jeong, Su Jong Yu, Jeong‐Ju Yoo, Yuri Cho, Kyu‐na Lee, Dong Wook Shin, Yoon Jun Kim, Jung‐Hwan Yoon, Kyungdo Han, Eun Ju Cho
    Journal of Diabetes.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between exercise habits and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with thyroid cancer: nationwide population-based study
    Jiyun Park, Jin-Hyung Jung, Hyunju Park, Young Shin Song, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Wook Cho, Kyungdo Han, Kyung-Soo Kim
    BMC Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Benzene and Other Volatile Organic Compounds Exposure and Diabetes Mellitus Among Korean Adults: Findings from the Nationwide Biomonitoring Data
    Seong-Uk Baek, Minseo Choi, Yu-Min Lee, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Exposure and Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of Cause-Specific Mortality across Glucose Spectrum in Elderly People: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
    Joonyub Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(5): 525.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
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Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon, on Behalf of Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline, Korean Diabetes Association and Clinical Practice Guideline Committee, Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):1-9.   Published online January 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0448
  • 4,081 View
  • 400 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes is an important treatment target as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the primary treatment goal for dyslipidemia is to control low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), achieving this goal remains suboptimal according to recent studies. It is important to set the target goal for LDL-C control based on an accurate risk assessment for CVD. Here, we summarize the latest evidence on lipid management in patients with diabetes and present a consensus of the Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis on the treatment goals of LDL-C according to the duration of diabetes, presence of CVD, target organ damage, or major cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD, an LDL-C goal of <55 mg/dL and a reduction in LDL-C level by 50% or more from the baseline is recommended. For the primary prevention of CVD in patients with T2DM with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years, major cardiovascular risk factors, or target organ damage, an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is recommended. In patients with T2DM with a duration of diabetes <10 years and no major cardiovascular risk factors, an LDL-C goal of <100 mg/dL is recommended.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations of omega-3 fatty acids vs. fenofibrate with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome: propensity matched cohort study
    Nam Hoon Kim, Ji Yoon Kim, Jimi Choi, Sin Gon Kim
    European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy.2024; 10(2): 118.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Statin Discontinuation in Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2024; 13(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • Role of Fenofibrate Use in Dyslipidemia and Related Comorbidities in the Asian Population: A Narrative Review
    Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Sin Gon Kim, Yu-Cheng Chang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(2): 184.     CrossRef
  • Fenofibrate’s impact on cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes: a nationwide propensity-score matched cohort study
    Sangmo Hong, Kyung-Soo Kim, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dyslipidemia Fact Sheet in South Korea, 2022
    Eun-Sun Jin, Jee-Seon Shim, Sung Eun Kim, Jae Hyun Bae, Shinae Kang, Jong Chul Won, Min-Jeong Shin, Heung Yong Jin, Jenny Moon, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, In-Kyung Jeong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 632.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 120.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae J
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 575.     CrossRef
  • Management of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Kyung Ae Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 111.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    Ye Seul Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 135.     CrossRef
  • Dyslipidemia Fact Sheet in South Korea, 2022
    Eun-Sun Jin, Jee-Seon Shim, Sung Eun Kim, Jae Hyun Bae, Shinae Kang, Jong Chul Won, Min-Jeong Shin, Heung Yong Jin, Jenny Moon, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, In-Kyung Jeong
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2023; 12(3): 237.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
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Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association and Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society of Heart Failure
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):10-26.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0420
  • 5,035 View
  • 432 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. Furthermore, the prognosis of heart failure is worse in patients with diabetes mellitus than in those without it. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper management of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus are important. This review discusses the current criteria for diagnosis and screening tools for heart failure and the currently recommended pharmacological therapies for heart failure. We also highlight the effects of anti-diabetic medications on heart failure.

Citations

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  • A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label Study to Compare the Effects of Gemigliptin Add-on or Escalation of Metformin Dose on Glycemic Control and Safety in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Metformin and SGLT-2 Inh
    Hae Jin Kim, Jung Hyun Noh, Min Kyong Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko, Eun-Jung Rhee, Kyu Yeon Hur, In-Kyung Jeong, Mark Yorek
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
  • Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Heart Failure, Friend or Foe?
    Dong-Hyuk Cho, Seong-Mi Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(3): 373.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the effects of gemigliptin versus glimepiride on cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin: The gemi‐heart study
    Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon, Jun Hwa Hong, In‐Chang Hwang, Soo Lim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(8): 2181.     CrossRef
  • Optimization of guideline-directed medical treatment for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction
    Minjung Bak, Jin-Oh Choi
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(5): 595.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
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Cardiovascular Outcomes according to Comorbidities and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong, on Behalf of the Committee of Practice Guideline of Korean Lipid and Atheroscelerosis
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):45-58.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0344
  • 3,528 View
  • 279 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There are no clear data to support the cardiovascular (CV) risk categories and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) treatment goals in Korean people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We evaluated the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) according to comorbidities and suggested LDL-C treatment goals in Korean people with T2DM in nationwide cohort data.
Methods
Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, 248,002 people aged 30 to 90 years with T2DM who underwent routine health check-ups during 2009 were included. Subjects with previous CVD were excluded from the study. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke during the follow-up period from 2009 to 2018.
Results
The mean age of the study participants was 59.6±10.9 years, and median follow-up period was 9.3 years. CVD incidence increased in the order of DM duration of 5 years or more (12.04/1,000 person-years), hypertension (HT) (12.27/1,000 personyears), three or more CV risk factors (14.10/1,000 person-years), and chronic kidney disease (18.28/1,000 person-years). The risk of incident CVD increased linearly from an LDL-C level of ≥70 mg/dL in most patients with T2DM. In T2DM patients without HT or with a DM duration of less than 5 years, the CVD incidence increased from LDL-C level of ≥100 mg/dL.
Conclusion
For primary prevention of CVD in Korean adults with T2DM, it can be helpful to lower LDL-C targets when there are chronic kidney disease, HT, a long duration of diabetes mellitus, or three or more CV risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level for Primary Prevention in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Ji Yoon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Lipid Management in Korean People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2023; 12(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    Ye Seul Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 135.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae J
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 575.     CrossRef
  • Management of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Kyung Ae Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 111.     CrossRef
  • Significant Gap Between Guidelines and Practice in the Management of LDL Cholesterol: Insight From the Survey of the Korean Society of Myocardial Infarction
    Sang Yeub Lee, Kyung Hoon Cho, Jang Hoon Lee, Young Joon Hong, Jin yong Hwang, Myung Ho Jeong, Weon Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
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Association between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Korean Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Junghyun Noh, Min Kyong Moon, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong, on Behalf of the Committee of Practice Guideline of Korean Lipid and Atheroscelerosis
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):59-71.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0320
  • 3,278 View
  • 235 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To validate the treatment target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level according to the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk which was recommended by Korean dyslipidemia guideline.
Methods
We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service database which included 3,958,048 people aged 20 to 89 years who underwent regular health screening. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and stroke during the follow-up period from 2009 to 2018.
Results
The risk of CVD increased from LDL-C level of 70 mg/dL in very high-risk and high-risk groups and from 130 mg/dL in moderate-risk and low-risk groups. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of LDL-C ranges 70–99, 100–129, 130–159, 160–189, and ≥190 mg/dL were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–1.33), 1.27 (1.15–1.42), 1.39 (1.23–1.56), 1.69 (1.45–1.96), and 1.84 (1.49– 2.27) in very high-risk group, and 1.07 (1.02–1.13), 1.16 (1.10–1.21), 1.29 (1.22–1.36), 1.45 (1.36–1.55), and 1.73 (1.58–1.90) in high-risk group. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) of LDL-C ranges 130–159, 160–189, and ≥190 mg/dL were 1.15 (1.11–1.20), 1.28 (1.22– 1.34), and 1.45 (1.36–1.54) in moderate-risk group and 1.07 (1.02–1.13), 1.20 (1.13–1.26), and 1.47 (1.37–1.57) in low-risk group.
Conclusion
We confirmed the incidence of CVD was increased in higher LDL-C range. The risk of CVD increased from ≥70 mg/dL of LDL-C in very high-risk and high-risk groups, and from ≥130 mg/dL of LDL-C in moderate-risk and low-risk groups in Korean adults.

Citations

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  • Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Pill Triple Combination of Olmesartan, Amlodipine, and Rosuvastatin in Hypertensive Patients with Low-to-Moderate Cardiovascular Risk: A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label, Active-Control, Phase IV Clinical Trial
    Byung Jin Kim, Kwang Soo Cha, Wook Hyun Cho, Eung Ju Kim, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Moo Hyun Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Jun-Bean Park, Seong-Mi Park, Il Suk Sohn, Kyu Hyung Ryu, In-Ho Chae
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
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Screening for Prediabetes and Diabetes in Korean Nonpregnant Adults: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2022
Kyung Ae Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon, on Behalf of the Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):819-826.   Published online November 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0364
  • 4,865 View
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  • 7 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes screening serves to identify individuals at high-risk for diabetes who have not yet developed symptoms and to diagnose diabetes at an early stage. Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing. Furthermore, obesity and/or abdominal obesity, which are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are progressively increasing, particularly among young adults. Many patients with T2DM are asymptomatic and can accompany various complications at the time of diagnosis, as well as chronic complications develop as the duration of diabetes increases. Thus, proper screening and early diagnosis are essential for diabetes care. Based on reports on the changing epidemiology of diabetes and obesity in Korea, as well as growing evidence from new national cohort studies on diabetes screening, the Korean Diabetes Association has updated its clinical practice recommendations regarding T2DM screening. Diabetes screening is now recommended in adults aged ≥35 years regardless of the presence of risk factors, and in all adults (aged ≥19) with any of the risk factors. Abdominal obesity based on waist circumference (men ≥90 cm, women ≥85 cm) was added to the list of risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Oxidative Balance Score and New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults without Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Health Examinees (KoGES-HEXA) Cohort
    Mid-Eum Moon, Dong Hyuk Jung, Seok-Jae Heo, Byoungjin Park, Yong Jae Lee
    Antioxidants.2024; 13(1): 107.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Once-Daily Sitagliptin as Metformin Add-on in a Korean Population with Type 2 Diabetes
    Byung-Wan Lee, Young Min Cho, Sin Gon Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Soo Lim, Amine Dahaoui, Jin Sook Jeong, Hyo Jin Lim, Jae Myung Yu
    Diabetes Therapy.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Triglyceride-glucose index predicts type 2 diabetes mellitus more effectively than oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity and secretion markers
    Min Jin Lee, Ji Hyun Bae, Ah Reum Khang, Dongwon Yi, Mi Sook Yun, Yang Ho Kang
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 210: 111640.     CrossRef
  • Association of sleep fragmentation with general and abdominal obesity: a population-based longitudinal study
    Yu-xiang Xu, Shan-shan Wang, Yu-hui Wan, Pu-yu Su, Fang-biao Tao, Ying Sun
    International Journal of Obesity.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Oxidative balance score as a useful predictive marker for new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korean adults aged 60 years or older: The Korean Genome and Epidemiologic Study–Health Examination (KoGES-HEXA) cohort
    Mid-Eum Moon, Dong Hyuk Jung, Seok-Jae Heo, Byoungjin Park, Yong Jae Lee
    Experimental Gerontology.2024; 193: 112475.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative muscle strength and risk of diabetes: A prospective cohort study with mediation analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Yan Liang, Wenji Chen, Duolao Wang, Zilin Sun, Bo Xie, Tongzhi Wu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 197: 110562.     CrossRef
  • Revisiting the Diabetes Crisis in Korea: Call for Urgent Action
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    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 575.     CrossRef
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Drug/Regimen
Article image
Real-World Prescription Patterns and Barriers Related to the Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors among Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease
Jong Ha Baek, Ye Seul Yang, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyung Do Han, Jae Hyeon Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Jong Han Choi, Kyu Yeon Hur, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):701-712.   Published online June 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0002
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate prescription trends and clinical factors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) use according to the presence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or heart failure (HF) in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Prescription patterns of SGLT2i use between 2015 and 2019 were determined using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database of claims.
Results
Of all patients with T2DM (n=4,736,493), the annual prescription rate of SGLT2i increased every year in patients with ASCVD (from 2.2% to 10.7%) or HF (from 2.0% to 11.1%). After the first hospitalization for ASCVD (n=518,572), 13.7% (n=71,259) of patients initiated SGLT2i with a median of 10.6 months. After hospitalization for HF (n=372,853), 11.2% (n=41,717) of patients initiated SGLT2i after a median of 8.8 months. In multivariate regression for hospitalization, older age (per 10 years, odds ratio [OR], 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.57), lower household income (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.95), rural residents (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.97), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) users (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.84) were associated with lesser initiation of SGLT2i in ASCVD. Additionally, female gender (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) was associated with lesser initiation of SGLT2i in HF.
Conclusion
The prescription rate of SGLT2i increased gradually up to 2019 but was suboptimal in patients with ASCVD or HF. After the first hospitalization for ASCVD or HF, older age, female gender, low household income, rural residents, and DPP-4i users were less likely to initiate SGLT2i.

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  • Real-World Treatment Patterns according to Clinical Practice Guidelines in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Established Cardiovascular Disease in Korea: Multicenter, Retrospective, Observational Study
    Ye Seul Yang, Nam Hoon Kim, Jong Ha Baek, Seung-Hyun Ko, Jang Won Son, Seung-Hwan Lee, Sang Youl Rhee, Soo-Kyung Kim, Tae Seo Sohn, Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Chong Hwa Kim, Keeho Song, Eun-Jung Rhee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2024; 48(2): 279.     CrossRef
  • Hospital Readmissions for Fluid Overload among Individuals with Diabetes and Diabetic Kidney Disease: Risk Factors and Multivariable Prediction Models
    Jiashen Cai, Dorothy Huang, Hanis Binte Abdul Kadir, Zhihua Huang, Li Choo Ng, Andrew Ang, Ngiap Chuan Tan, Yong Mong Bee, Wei Yi Tay, Chieh Suai Tan, Cynthia C. Lim
    Nephron.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Prescribing patterns of SGLT-2 inhibitors for patients with heart failure: A two-center analysis
    Teja Chakrala, Roshni O. Prakash, Justin Kim, Hanzhi Gao, Umar Ghaffar, Jaymin Patel, Alex Parker, Bhagwan Dass
    American Heart Journal Plus: Cardiology Research and Practice.2023; 28: 100286.     CrossRef
  • Risk of developing chronic kidney disease in young-onset Type 2 diabetes in Korea
    Joonyub Lee, Seung-Hwan Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Jae Hyoung Cho, Kyungdo Han, Yeoree Yang
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  • Comparison of SGLT2 inhibitors with DPP-4 inhibitors combined with metformin in patients with acute myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus
    Young Sang Lyu, Seok Oh, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Myung Ho Jeong
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness and safety of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in Asian populations
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Severe hypoglycemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: is it preventable?
    Seung-Hyun Ko
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2022; 4(3): 106.     CrossRef
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    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(5): 759.     CrossRef
Complications
Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Undiagnosed Diabetic Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Han Na Jang, Min Kyong Moon, Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(4):620-629.   Published online February 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0099
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We investigated the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with undiagnosed diabetes through a nationwide survey, compared to those with known diabetes.
Methods
Among the participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) from 2017 to 2018, individuals aged ≥40 years with diabetes and fundus exam results were enrolled. Sampling weights were applied to represent the entire Korean population. Newly detected diabetes patients through KNHANES were classified under “undiagnosed diabetes.”
Results
Among a total of 9,108 participants aged ≥40 years, 951 were selected for analysis. Of them, 31.3% (standard error, ±2.0%) were classified under “undiagnosed diabetes.” The prevalence of DR in patients with known and undiagnosed diabetes was 24.5%±2.0% and 10.7%±2.2%, respectively (P<0.001). The DR prevalence increased with rising glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with known and undiagnosed diabetes (P for trend=0.001 in both). Among those with undiagnosed diabetes, the prevalence of DR was 6.9%±2.1%, 8.0%±3.4%, 5.6%±5.7%, 16.7%±9.4%, and 42.6%±14.8% for HbA1c levels of <7.0%, 7.0%–7.9%, 8.0%–8.9%, 9.0%–9.9%, and ≥10.0% respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or obesity according to the presence or absence of DR.
Conclusion
About one-third of patients with diabetes were unaware of their diabetes, and 10% of them have already developed DR. Considering increasing the prevalence of DR according to HbA1c level was found in patients with undiagnosed diabetes like those with known diabetes, screening and early detection of diabetes and DR are important.

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  • Risk factors of peripheral occlusive arterial disease in patients with diabetic retinopathy due to type 2 diabetes
    Milos Maksimovic
    Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo.2024; 152(1-2): 50.     CrossRef
  • Gene Expression Analysis in T2DM and Its Associated Microvascular Diabetic Complications: Focus on Risk Factor and RAAS Pathway
    Laxmipriya Jena, Prabhsimran Kaur, Tashvinder Singh, Kangan Sharma, Sushil Kotru, Anjana Munshi
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    Jonghwa Jin, Hyein Woo, Youngeun Jang, Won-Ki Lee, Jung-Guk Kim, In-Kyu Lee, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Article image
Current Status of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Achievement in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea Compared with Recent Guidelines
Soo Jin Yun, In-Kyung Jeong, Jin-Hye Cha, Juneyoung Lee, Ho Chan Cho, Sung Hee Choi, SungWan Chun, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Ho-Cheol Kang, Sang Soo Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Gwanpyo Koh, Su Kyoung Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Cheol-Young Park, Sungrae Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):464-475.   Published online March 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0088
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to up-to-date Korean Diabetes Association (KDA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS), and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study collected electronic medical record data from patients with T2DM (≥20 years) managed by endocrinologists from 15 hospitals in Korea (January to December 2019). Patients were categorized according to guidelines to assess LDL-C target achievement. KDA (2019): Very High-I (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [ASCVD]) <70 mg/dL; Very High-II (target organ damage [TOD], or cardiovascular risk factors [CVRFs]) <70 mg/dL; high (others) <100 mg/dL. ESC/EAS (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD): <55 mg/dL; Very High-II (TOD or ≥3-CVRF) <55 mg/dL; high (diabetes ≥10 years without TOD plus any CVRF) <70 mg/dL; moderate (diabetes <10 years without CVRF) <100 mg/dL. ADA (2019): Very High-I (ASCVD); Very High-II (age ≥40+ TOD, or any CVRF), for high intensity statin or statin combined with ezetimibe.
Results
Among 2,000 T2DM patients (mean age 62.6 years; male 55.9%; mean glycosylated hemoglobin 7.2%) ASCVD prevalence was 24.7%. Of 1,455 (72.8%) patients treated with statins, 73.9% received monotherapy. According to KDA guidelines, LDL-C target achievement rates were 55.2% in Very High-I and 34.9% in Very High-II patients. With ESC/EAS guidelines, target attainment rates were 26.6% in Very High-I, 15.7% in Very High-II, and 25.9% in high risk patients. Based on ADA guidelines, most patients (78.9%) were very-high risk; however, only 15.5% received high-intensity statin or combination therapy.
Conclusion
According to current dyslipidemia management guidelines, LDL-C goal achievement remains suboptimal in Korean patients with T2DM.

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    Do Kyeong Song, Young Sun Hong, Yeon-Ah Sung, Hyejin Lee, Hidetaka Hamasaki
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Guideline/Fact Sheet
Article image
2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Kyu Yeon Hur, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Jong Ha Baek, Junghyun Noh, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Ye Seul Yang, Jang Won Son, Jong Han Choi, Kee Ho Song, Nam Hoon Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jin Wha Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Dae Jung Kim, SungWan Chun, Eun-Jung Rhee, Hyun Min Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Donghyun Jee, Jae Hyun Kim, Won Seok Choi, Eun-Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hyun Ko, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):461-481.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0156
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

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Guideline/Fact Sheet
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Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor for Renal Function Preservation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Nephrology Consensus Statement
Tae Jung Oh, Ju-Young Moon, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung Hyun Ko, Hyun Jung Kim, Taehee Kim, Dong Won Lee, Min Kyong Moon, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline, Korean Diabetes Association and Committee of the Cooperative Studies, Korean Society of Nephrology
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(4):489-497.   Published online August 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0172
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   

Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, prevention of renal dysfunction is an important treatment goal in the management of diabetes. The data of landmark cardiovascular outcome trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor showed profound reno-protective effects. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology reviewed clinical trials and performed meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the preservation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We limited the data of SGLT2 inhibitors which can be prescribed in Korea. Both eGFR value and its change from the baseline were significantly more preserved in the SGLT2 inhibitor treatment group compared to the control group after 156 weeks. However, some known adverse events were increased in SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, such as genital infection, diabetic ketoacidosis, and volume depletion. We recommend the long-term use SGLT2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for attenuation of renal function decline. However, we cannot generalize our recommendation due to lack of long-term clinical trials testing reno-protective effects of every SGLT2 inhibitor in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This recommendation can be revised and updated after publication of several large-scale renal outcome trials.

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    Ye Seul Yang, Nam Hoon Kim, Jong Ha Baek, Seung-Hyun Ko, Jang Won Son, Seung-Hwan Lee, Sang Youl Rhee, Soo-Kyung Kim, Tae Seo Sohn, Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Chong Hwa Kim, Keeho Song, Eun-Jung Rhee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur
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    Nam Hoon Kim, Nan Hee Kim
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    Jong Ha Baek, Ye Seul Yang, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyung Do Han, Jae Hyeon Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Jong Han Choi, Kyu Yeon Hur
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(5): 701.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Validation of Risk Prediction Models for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in a Prospective Korean Community-Based Cohort
Jae Hyun Bae, Min Kyong Moon, Sohee Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Nam Han Cho, Moon-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):458-469.   Published online January 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0061
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM).

Methods

In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM.

Results

The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men.

Conclusion

In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.

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Response: Effects of Dapagliflozin on Endothelial Function, Renal Injury Markers, and Glycemic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2019:43:711–7)
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(6):913-914.   Published online December 26, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0149
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PDFPubReader   
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Real-World Clinical Practice
A Ram Hong, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):590-606.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0134
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in Korean patients who had inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in real-world clinical practice.

Methods

We included 410 patients who started SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin or dapagliflozin) as add-on therapy or switch therapy between February 2015 and June 2017. The primary efficacy endpoint was a change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 12. The secondary endpoints were patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% and changes in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profiles, body weight, and blood pressure (BP).

Results

The mean HbA1c at baseline was 8.5% (8.6% in the add-on group and 8.4% in the switch group). At week 12, the mean adjusted HbA1c decreased by −0.68% in the overall patients (P<0.001), by −0.94% in the add-on group, and by −0.42% in the switch group. Significant reductions in FPG were also observed both in the add-on group and switch group (−30.3 and −19.8 mg/dL, respectively). Serum triglyceride (−16.5 mg/dL), body weight (−2.1 kg), systolic BP (−4.7 mm Hg), and diastolic BP (−1.3 mm Hg) were significantly improved in the overall patients. Approximately 18.3% of the patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% at week 12. A low incidence of hypoglycemia and genital tract infection was observed (6.3% and 2.2%, respectively).

Conclusion

SGLT2 inhibitors can be a suitable option as either add-on or switch therapy for Korean patients with inadequately controlled T2DM.

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Effects of Dapagliflozin on Endothelial Function, Renal Injury Markers, and Glycemic Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):711-717.   Published online March 20, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0208
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The study aimed to evaluate the effects of dapagliflozin and metformin on vascular endothelial function and renal injury markers.

Methods

This prospective, randomized, open-label, crossover study included drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who were randomized to receive 8 weeks of initial treatment using metformin or dapagliflozin and crossed over for another 8 weeks of treatment after a 1-week washout period. Systemic endothelial function was evaluated via the reactive hyperemic index (RHI).

Results

The 22 participants included 10 males (45.5%) and had a median age of 58 years. The RHI values were not significantly changed during both 8-week treatment periods and there was no significant difference between the treatments. Relative to the metformin group, 8 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment produced significantly higher median N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase levels (10.0 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 6.8 to 12.1 ng/mL] vs. 5.6 ng/mL [IQR, 3.8 to 8.0 ng/mL], P=0.013). Only the dapagliflozin group exhibited improved homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and body weight, while serum ketone and β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased.

Conclusion

Dapagliflozin treatment did not affect systemic endothelial function or renal injury markers except N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase.

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Clinical Care/Education
Article image
2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Bo-Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Junghyun Noh, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seok-O Park, Kyu Yeon Hur, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Kang-Woo Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Eun-Jung Rhee, SungWan Chun, Sung Hoon Yu, Dae Jung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):398-406.   Published online August 20, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0137
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.

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Epidemiology
Concern about the Safety of Bisphenol A Substitutes
Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):46-48.   Published online February 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0027
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Clinical Care/Education
Improvement of Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus under Insulin Treatment by Reimbursement for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose
Young Shin Song, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Kichul Shin, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(1):28-42.   Published online September 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.1.28
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

In Korea, the costs associated with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) under insulin treatment have been reimbursed since November 2015. We investigated whether this new reimbursement program for SMBG has improved the glycemic control in the beneficiaries of this policy.

Methods

Among all adult T2DM patients with ≥3 months of reimbursement (n=854), subjects without any changes in anti-hyperglycemic agents during the study period were selected. The improvement of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was defined as an absolute reduction in HbA1c ≥0.6% or an HbA1c level at follow-up <7%.

Results

HbA1c levels significantly decreased from 8.5%±1.3% to 8.2%±1.2% during the follow-up (P<0.001) in all the study subjects (n=409). Among them, 35.5% (n=145) showed a significant improvement in HbA1c. Subjects covered under the Medical Aid system showed a higher prevalence of improvement in HbA1c than those with medical insurance (52.2% vs. 33.3%, respectively, P=0.012). In the improvement group, the baseline HbA1c (P<0.001), fasting C-peptide (P=0.016), and daily dose of insulin/body weight (P=0.024) showed significant negative correlations with the degree of HbA1c change. Multivariate analysis showed that subjects in the Medical Aid system were about 2.5-fold more likely to improve in HbA1c compared to those with medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.459; 95% confidence interval, 1.138 to 5.314; P=0.022).

Conclusion

The reimbursement for SMBG resulted in a significant improvement in HbA1c in T2DM subjects using insulin, which was more prominent in subjects with poor glucose control at baseline or covered under the Medical Aid system.

Citations

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Article image
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
Hyun Jin Kim, Seok O Park, Seung-Hyun Ko, Sang Youl Rhee, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(6):423-429.   Published online December 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.6.423
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) were recommended as a monotherapy or combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents or basal insulin in the position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association 2017 for pharmacological therapy. Many randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews report that GLP-1RAs have considerable glucose-lowering effect and lead to weight reduction and low risk of hypoglycemia when used as a monotherapy or combination therapy. The cardiovascular safety of GLP-1RAs has been assessed in several randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews. The results of cardiovascular outcome trials of long-acting GLP-1RAs (liraglutide, semaglutide) demonstrated cardiovascular benefits in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The GLP-1RA may be a choice of therapy when weight control and avoidance of hypoglycemia are important, and patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease might also favor choosing GLP-1RA.

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
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Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):337-348.   Published online October 17, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.337
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In 2017, the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The KDA regularly updates its Clinical Practice Guidelines, but since the last update in 2015, many results from clinical trials have been introduced, and domestic data from studies performed in Korean patients with T2DM have been published. Recently, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations. Additionally, new data from clinical trials using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and thiazolidinediones in Korean patients with T2DM were added. Following a systematic review and assessment of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the use of antihyperglycemic agents and revised the treatment algorithm for Korean adult patients with T2DM.

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Article image
Combination Therapy of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Min Kyong Moon, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Seung-Hyun Ko, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Nan-Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):357-366.   Published online October 24, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.357
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) recently updated the Clinical Practice Guidelines on antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), general recommendations were not changed from those of the 2015 KDA guidelines. The Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines of the KDA has extensively reviewed and discussed the results of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of effectiveness and safety of OHAs and many clinical trials on Korean patients with T2DM for the update of guidelines. All OHAs were effective when added to metformin or metformin and sulfonylurea, although the effects of each agent on body weight and hypoglycemia were different. Therefore, selection of a second agent as a metformin add-on therapy or third agent as a metformin and sulfonylurea add-on therapy should be based on the patient's clinical characteristics and the efficacy, side effects, mechanism of action, risk of hypoglycemia, effect on body weight, patient preference, and combined comorbidity. In this review, we address the results of meta-analyses and systematic reviews, comparing the effectiveness and safety among OHAs. It will help to choose the appropriate drug for an individual patient with T2DM.

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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Article image
Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):349-356.   Published online October 19, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.349
  • 6,000 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In order to improve the quality of life and to prevent chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, intensive lifestyle modification and proper medication are needed from the early stage of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When using the first medication for diabetic patients, the appropriate treatment should be selected considering the clinical characteristics of the patient, efficacy of the drug, side effects, and cost. In general, the use of metformin as the first treatment for oral hypoglycemic monotherapy is recommended because of its excellent blood glucose-lowering effect, relatively low side effects, long-term proven safety, low risk of hypoglycemia, and low weight gain. If metformin is difficult to use as a first-line treatment, other appropriate medications should be selected in view of the clinical situation. If the goal of achieving glycemic control is not achieved by monotherapy, a combination therapy with different mechanisms of action should be initiated promptly.

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    Sang Youl Rhee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(1): 15.     CrossRef
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Article image
Insulin Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2017
Byung-Wan Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):367-373.   Published online October 24, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.5.367
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) has regularly updated its Clinical Practice Guidelines. In 2017, the KDA published a position statement on the use of antihyperglycemic agents for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Growing evidence from new multinational clinical trials using novel and traditional insulin analogues has also been accumulated. Following global trends, many results of clinical trials, especially concerning the clinical efficacy and safety of insulin therapy, have been published about Korean patients with T2DM. After a systematic search of recent evidence, the KDA updated and modified its clinical practice recommendations regarding the initiation, choice, and intensification of insulin and created an insulin treatment algorithm for the first time to guide physicians caring for adult Korean patients with T2DM.

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  • Real-World Outcomes of Individualized Targeted Therapy with Insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL in Insulin-Naïve Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes: TOBE Study
    Eun-Gyoung Hong, Kyung-Wan Min, Jung Soo Lim, Kyu-Jeung Ahn, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae-Myung Yu, Hye Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Won Kim, Dong Han Kim, Hak Chul Jang
    Advances in Therapy.2024; 41(5): 1967.     CrossRef
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    Soham Bhattacharya, Neha Gupta, Adéla Flekalová, Salomé Gordillo-Alarcón, Viviana Espinel-Jara, Eloy Fernández-Cusimamani
    Plants.2024; 13(11): 1436.     CrossRef
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    Youngsook Kim, Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Juyoung Shin, Hyunah Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Churlmin Kim, Whan-Seok Choi
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2021; 42(4): 269.     CrossRef
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    Atthayaporn Choomai, Apichai Wattanapisit, Orathai Tiangtam
    Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 59(2): 151.     CrossRef
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    Han Na Jang, Ye Seul Yang, Seong Ok Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Hye Seung Jung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 34(4): 382.     CrossRef
  • Capacity and confidence building for general practitioners on optimum insulin use
    Sanjay Kalra, Prasun Deb, KalyanK Gangopadhyay, Sunil Gupta, Abhay Ahluwalia
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2019; 8(10): 3096.     CrossRef
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    Eun Chong Shin
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(2): 101.     CrossRef
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    Byung-Wan Lee
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    Doo-Man Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2017; 60(12): 992.     CrossRef
Response: Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:23-30)
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):152-153.   Published online April 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.152
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PDFPubReader   

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  • Letter: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2019;43:582–9)
    Tae Seo Sohn
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 909.     CrossRef
Clinical Care/Education
Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(1):23-30.   Published online December 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.1.23
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There has been evidences of ethnic differences in the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effect of statin. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of moderate-intensity statins in the treatment of dyslipidemia among Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

We analyzed a retrospective cohort that consisted of Korean patients with T2DM aged 40 to 75 years who had been prescribed any of the moderate-intensity statins (atorvastatin 10 or 20 mg, rosuvastatin 5 or 10 mg, pitavastatin 2 mg, or pravastatin 40 mg). Among them, only patients with baseline lipid profiles before starting statin treatment were selected, and changes in their lipid profiles before and 6 months after statin therapy were analyzed.

Results

Following the first 6 months of therapy, the overall LDL-C reduction was −47.4% (interquartile range, −56.6% to −34.1%). In total, 92.1% of the participants achieved an LDL-C level of <100 mg/dL, 38.3% had a 30% to 50% reduction in their LDL-C levels, and 42.3% had a reduction in their LDL-C levels greater than 50%. The response rates of each drug for achieving a LDL-C level <100 mg/dL were 81.7%, 93.1%, 95.0%, 95.0%, 96.5%, and 91.7% for treatment with atorvastatin doses of 10 or 20 mg, rosuvastatin 5 or 10 mg, pitavastatin 2 mg, and pravastatin 40 mg, respectively.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the use of moderate-intensity statins reduced LDL-C levels less than 100 mg/dL in most of the Korean patients studied with T2DM. The efficacies of those statins were higher than expected in about 42% of Korean patients with T2DM.

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    Xiao-hong Zhou, Li-yun Cai, Wei-Hua Lai, Xue Bai, Yi-bin Liu, Qian Zhu, Guo-dong He, Ji-Yan Chen, Min Huang, Zhi-ling Zhou, Shi-long Zhong
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    Jaecheol Moon, Soyeon Yoo, Gwanpyo Koh, Kyung-Wan Min, Hyun Ho Shin
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2020; 9(1): 162.     CrossRef
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    Jung Wook Lim, Han Saem Jeong, Soon Jun Hong, Hyo Jeong Kim, Young Chan Kim, Bong Gyun Kang, Su Min Jeon, Jae Young Cho, Seung Hoon Lee, Hyung Joon Joo, Jae Hyoung Park, Cheol Woong Yu
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    Kang‐Ho Choi, Woo‐Keun Seo, Man‐Seok Park, Joon‐Tae Kim, Jong‐Won Chung, Oh Young Bang, Gyeong‐Moon Kim, Tae‐Jin Song, Bum Joon Kim, Sung Hyuk Heo, Jin‐Man Jung, Kyung‐Mi Oh, Chi Kyung Kim, Sungwook Yu, Kwang‐Yeol Park, Jeong‐Min Kim, Jong‐Ho Park, Jay Ch
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    Mahn-Won Park, Gyung-Min Park, Seungbong Han, Yujin Yang, Yong-Giun Kim, Jae-Hyung Roh, Hyun Woo Park, Jon Suh, Young-Rak Cho, Ki-Bum Won, Soe Hee Ann, Shin-Jae Kim, Dae-Won Kim, Sung Ho Her, Sang-Gon Lee, George C.M. Siontis
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  • Letter: Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:23-30)
    Jae-Han Jeon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(2): 150.     CrossRef
  • Response: Efficacy of Moderate Intensity Statins in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:23-30)
    Sung Hye Kong, Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(2): 152.     CrossRef
Epidemiology
Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population
Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(3):175-181.   Published online May 24, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.3.175
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes.

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    Bo Kyung Koo, Seoil Moon, Min Kyong Moon
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  • Letter: Projection of Diabetes Prevalence in Korean Adults for the Year 2030 Using Risk Factors Identified from National Data (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:90–6)
    Bo Kyung Koo
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Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010
Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(2):137-146.   Published online March 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.2.137
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea.

Methods

We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale.

Results

In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women.

Conclusion

Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors.

Citations

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  • Muscle strength, an independent determinant of glycemic control in older adults with long-standing type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study
    Bo Kyung Koo, Seoil Moon, Min Kyong Moon
    BMC Geriatrics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Obesity Fact Sheet in Korea, 2019: Prevalence of Obesity and Abdominal Obesity from 2009 to 2018 and Social Factors
    Ga Eun Nam, Yang-Hyun Kim, Kyungdo Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Eun-Jung Rhee, Seong-Su Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan-Woo Lee, Won-Young Lee
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2020; 29(2): 124.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Projection of Diabetes Prevalence in Korean Adults for the Year 2030 Using Risk Factors Identified from National Data (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:90–6)
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(2): 242.     CrossRef
  • Lower Leg Fat Depots Are Associated with Albuminuria Independently of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008 to 2011)
    Eugene Han, Nan Hee Cho, Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Soon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(4): 461.     CrossRef
  • The Differential Association between Muscle Strength and Diabetes Mellitus According to the Presence or Absence of Obesity
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2019; 28(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Association of hearing impairment with insulin resistance, β–cell dysfunction and impaired fasting glucose before onset of diabetes
    M. Seo, Y.‐S. Lee, S.‐S. Moon
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    Mats Martinell, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Jan Stålhammar, Petter Storm, Leif Groop, Carin Gustavsson
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2016; 30(8): 1456.     CrossRef
  • Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population
    Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(3): 175.     CrossRef
  • Relative and combined effects of socioeconomic status and diabetes on mortality
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Subjective Assessment of Diabetes Self-Care Correlates with Perceived Glycemic Control but not with Actual Glycemic Control
Jung Hun Ohn, Ju Hee Lee, Eun Shil Hong, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(1):31-36.   Published online February 16, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.1.31
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated whether patients' perceived glycemic control and self-reported diabetes self-care correlated with their actual glycemic control.

Methods

A survey was administered among patients with diabetes mellitus at an outpatient clinic with structured self-report questionnaires regarding perceived glycemic control and diabetes self-management. Actual glycemic control was defined as a change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) since the last clinic visit.

Results

Patients who perceived their glycemic control as "improved" actually showed a mild but significant decrease in the mean A1C (-0.1%, P=0.02), and those who perceived glycemic control as "aggravated" had a significant increase in the mean FPG (10.5 mg/dL or 0.59 mmol/L, P=0.04) compared to the "stationary" group. However, one-half of patients falsely predicted their actual glycemic control status. Subjective assessment of diabetes self-care efforts, such as adherence to a diet regimen or physical activity, correlated positively with perceived glycemic control but showed no association with actual glycemic control.

Conclusion

Patients should be encouraged to assess and monitor diabetes self-care more objectively to motivate behavioral modifications and improve their actual glycemic control.

Citations

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  • Social Networking Services-Based Communicative Care for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
    Hun-Sung Kim, Yoo Jeong, Sun Baik, So Yang, Tong Kim, Hyunah Kim, Hyunyong Lee, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Cho, In-Young Choi, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Applied Clinical Informatics.2016; 07(03): 899.     CrossRef
Assessment of Diabetic Polyneuropathy and Autonomic Neuropathy Using Current Perception Threshold in Korean Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Bo Kyung Koo, Jung Hun Ohn, Soo-Heon Kwak, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(4):285-293.   Published online August 20, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.4.285
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The current perception threshold (CPT) could be quantified by stimulating Aβ and C fibers at 2,000 and 5 Hz, respectively. C fibers play a role in the autonomic nervous system and are involved in temperature and pain sensation. We evaluated the usefulness of CPT for diagnosing distal polyneuropathy (DPN) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in diabetic patients.

Methods

The CPT was measured in the index finger (C7 level) and in the third toe (L5 level) in diabetic patients aged 30 to 69 years. We assessed DPN according to the neuropathy total symptom score-6 (NTSS-6) and 10-g monofilament pressure sensation. Subjects with a NTSS-6 >6 or with abnormal 10-g monofilament sensation were defined to have DPN. CAN was evaluated by spectral analysis of heart rate variability and by Ewing's traditional tests.

Results

The subjects with DPN had significantly higher CPT at all of the frequencies than the subjects without DPN (P<0.05). Abnormal 10-g monofilament sensation and NTSS-6 >6 could be most precisely predicted by CPT at 2,000 and 5 Hz, respectively. However, only 6.5% and 19.6% of subjects with DPN had an abnormal CPT at 2,000 Hz at the C7 and L5 levels. Although CPT at 5 Hz showed a negative correlation with the power of low and high frequency in the spectral analysis (P<0.05), only 16.7% of subjects with CAN exhibited an abnormal CPT at the same frequency.

Conclusion

Although the CPT is significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms or signs corresponding to the nerve fiber stimulated, it provides little additional information compared with conventional evaluations.

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  • New Perspective in Diabetic Neuropathy: From the Periphery to the Brain, a Call for Early Detection, and Precision Medicine
    Heng Yang, Gordon Sloan, Yingchun Ye, Shuo Wang, Bihan Duan, Solomon Tesfaye, Ling Gao
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    Joong Hyun Park, Jong Chul Won
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    Elizabeth A. Bettini, Ki Moore, Yunfei Wang, Pamela S. Hinds, Julia C. Finkel
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