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Serum Magnesium Levels Are Negatively Associated with Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Real-World Study
Man-Rong Xu, Ai-Ping Wang, Yu-Jie Wang, Jun-Xi Lu, Li Shen, Lian-Xi Li
Received November 8, 2023  Accepted March 6, 2024  Published online May 29, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0401    [Epub ahead of print]
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Background
There remains controversy over the relationship between serum magnesium levels and obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether there is any association of serum magnesium levels with obesity and abdominal obesity in T2DM.
Methods
This cross-sectional, real-world study was conducted in 8,010 patients with T2DM, which were stratified into quintiles according to serum magnesium levels. The clinical characteristics and the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity were compared across serum magnesium quintiles in T2DM. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship of serum magnesium with obesity and abdominal obesity in T2DM (clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR1800015893).
Results
After adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly declined across magnesium quintiles (obesity: 51.3%, 50.8%, 48.9%, 45.3%, and 43.8%, respectively, P<0.001 for trend; abdominal obesity: 71.5%, 70.5%, 68.2%, 66.4%, and 64.5%, respectively, P=0.001 for trend). After controlling for confounders, there were clearly negative associations of serum magnesium levels and quintiles with obesity and abdominal obesity in T2DM. Moreover, C-reactive protein partly mediates the effect of serum magnesium on obesity and abdominal obesity (P=0.016 and P=0.004, respectively).
Conclusion
The significantly negative relationship between serum magnesium and the risk of obesity and abdominal obesity was observed in T2DM. Furthermore, the independently negative association of serum magnesium with obesity may be explained by its anti-inflammatory functions. Serum magnesium levels may be applied to assess the risk of obesity and abdominal obesity in T2DM.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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