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Kord Valeshabad Ali  (Ali KV) 1 Article
Relationship between Opium Abuse and Severity of Depression in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Sepehrmanesh Zahra, Sarmast Hossein, Kord Valeshabad Ali
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(2):157-162.   Published online April 17, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.2.157
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Opium use in diabetic populations is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between opium use and severity of depression in Iranian diabetic patients.

Methods

In this case-control study, 642 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from those presenting at two outpatient clinics at the Akhavan Hospital in Kashan, Iran; of them, 600 diabetic patients were included in the study and divided into two groups: opium-abusers (150 patients) and non-opium-abusers (450 patients). Clinical and demographic information was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Depression symptomalogy and severity were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and a corresponding diagnosis was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, Text Revision, 2000 (DSM-IV TR) criteria.

Results

The mean depression score was higher in the opium abuse group than in the non-abuser group (29.27±1.44 vs. 18.29±1.31, P<0.001). In general, a significant association was found between opium abuse and depression among patients (odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87 to 7.44; P=0.001). No significant relationship was found between dysthymia and opium abuse (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.192; P=0.155), while MDD was significantly higher in the opium abuser group (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 5.20 to 12.01; P<0.001).

Conclusion

Depression is more frequent in opium-dependent diabetic patients, and its severity is also greater. Given these findings, opium-dependent diabetic patients should be advised about the increased risks of depression and related comorbidities.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of and factors associated with depression among hill tribe individuals aged 30 years and over in Thailand
    Chalitar Chomchoei, Tawatchai Apidechkul, Vivat Keawdounglek, Chanyanut Wongfu, Siriyaporn Khunthason, Niwed Kullawong, Ratipark Tamornpark, Panupong Upala, Fartima Yeemard
    Heliyon.2020; 6(6): e04273.     CrossRef
  • The prevalence of comorbid depression in patients with type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on huge number of observational studies
    Mohammad Khaledi, Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Awat Feizi, Ashraf Aminorroaya
    Acta Diabetologica.2019; 56(6): 631.     CrossRef
  • Psychometrics of the PHQ-9 as a measure of depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure
    Muna H Hammash, Lynne A Hall, Terry A Lennie, Seongkum Heo, Misook L Chung, Kyoung Suk Lee, Debra K Moser
    European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing.2013; 12(5): 446.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal