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Keiko Maeda  (Maeda K) 1 Article
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Reducing Carbohydrate from Individual Sources Has Differential Effects on Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients on Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Diets
Hajime Haimoto, Shiho Watanabe, Keiko Maeda, Takashi Murase, Kenji Wakai
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):390-403.   Published online July 21, 2020
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We evaluated decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) achieved by reducing carbohydrate from various sources in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.


We followed up 138 male and 107 female outpatients on a moderate low-carbohydrate diet without diabetic medication for 6 months. Changes in carbohydrate sources (Δcarbohydrate) were assessed from 3-day dietary records at baseline and 6 months, and associations with changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) were examined with Spearman's correlation coefficients (rs) and multiple regression analysis.


ΔHbA1c was −1.5%±1.6% in men and −0.9%±1.3% in women, while Δtotal carbohydrate was −115.3±103.7 g/day in men and −63.6±71.1 g/day in women. Positive associations with ΔHbA1c were found for Δtotal carbohydrate (rs=0.584), Δcarbohydrate from soft drinks (0.368), confectionery (0.361), rice (0.325), bread (0.221), Chinese soup noodles (0.199) in men, and Δtotal carbohydrate (0.547) and Δcarbohydrate from rice (0.376) and confectionery (0.195) in women. Reducing carbohydrate sources by 50 g achieved decreases in HbA1c of 0.43% for total carbohydrate, 1.33% for soft drinks, 0.88% for confectionery, 0.63% for bread, 0.82% for Chinese soup noodles and 0.34% for rice in men and 0.45% for total carbohydrate, 0.67% for confectionery and 0.34% for rice in women, although mean reductions in carbohydrate from these sources were much smaller than that from rice.


Decreases in HbA1c achieved by reducing carbohydrate from soft drinks, confectionery, bread and Chinese soup noodles were 2- to 4-fold greater than that for rice. Our results will enable patients to decrease HbA1c efficiently (UMIN000009866).


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Exploring diet associations with Covid-19 and other diseases: a Network Analysis–based approach
    Rashmeet Toor, Inderveer Chana
    Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing.2022; 60(4): 991.     CrossRef
  • Comprehensive Understanding for Application in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of the Consensus Statement on Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets by Korean Diabetes Association, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and Korean Society of Hyperte
    Jong Han Choi, Jee-Hyun Kang, Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 377.     CrossRef
  • Associations of Dietary Salt and Its Sources with Hemoglobin A1c in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Not Taking Anti-Diabetic Medications: Analysis Based on 6-Month Intervention with a Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Diet
    Hajime Haimoto, Takashi Murase, Shiho Watanabe, Keiko Maeda, Kenji Wakai
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2021; Volume 14: 4569.     CrossRef

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