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Joon Ho Moon  (Moon JH) 6 Articles
Guideline/Fact Sheet
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2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae Jin Kim, Hyun Min Kim, Jung Hae Ko, Nam Hoon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Jeeyun Ahn, Tae Jung Oh, Soo-Kyung Kim, Jaehyun Kim, Eugene Han, Sang-Man Jin, Won Suk Choi, Min Kyong Moon, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(5):575-594.   Published online September 26, 2023
  • 6,765 View
  • 837 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In May 2023, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association published the revised clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes. We incorporated the latest clinical research findings through a comprehensive systematic literature review and applied them in a manner suitable for the Korean population. These guidelines are designed for all healthcare providers nationwide, including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators who manage patients with diabetes or individuals at risk of developing diabetes. Based on recent changes in international guidelines and the results of a Korean epidemiological study, the recommended age for diabetes screening has been lowered. In collaboration with the relevant Korean medical societies, recently revised guidelines for managing hypertension and dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes have been incorporated into this guideline. An abridgment containing practical information on patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mortality in metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease: A nationwide population-based cohort study
    Eugene Han, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Sang Hoon Ahn, Yong-ho Lee, Seung Up Kim
    Metabolism.2024; 152: 155789.     CrossRef
  • Letter by In-Kyung Jeong Regarding Article, Trends in Prevalence of Hypertriglyceridemia and Related Factors in Korean Adults: A Serial Cross-Sectional Study
    In-Kyung Jeong
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2024; 13(1): 80.     CrossRef
  • Association between cardiovascular disease risk and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with prediabetes: A retrospective cohort study
    Myung Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 208: 111125.     CrossRef
  • Korea Hypertension Fact Sheet 2023: analysis of nationwide population-based data with a particular focus on hypertension in special populations
    Hyeon Chang Kim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Dasom Son, Minsung Cho, Sojung Shin, Yeeun Seo, Eun-Jin kim, Song Vogue Ahn, Sun Ha Jee, Sungha Park, Hae-Young Lee, Min Ho Shin, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Seung Won Lee, Jong Ku Park, Il Suh, Tae-Yong Lee
    Clinical Hypertension.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Duration, Cholesterol Levels, and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyu Na Lee, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of Adding Apolipoprotein B Testing on the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Korean Adult Population
    Rihwa Choi, Sang Gon Lee, Eun Hee Lee
    Metabolites.2024; 14(3): 169.     CrossRef
  • A self-powered and supercapacitive microneedle continuous glucose monitoring system with a wide range of glucose detection capabilities
    Hye-Jun Kil, Jang Hyeon Kim, Kanghae Lee, Tae-Uk Kang, Ju-Hyun Yoo, Yong-ho Lee, Jin-Woo Park
    Biosensors and Bioelectronics.2024; 257: 116297.     CrossRef
  • Cardiorenal outcomes and mortality after sodium‐glucose cotransporter‐2 inhibitor initiation in type 2 diabetes patients with percutaneous coronary intervention history
    Jin Hwa Kim, Young Sang Lyu, BongSeong Kim, Mee Kyung Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Ki‐Hyun Baek, Ki‐Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(7): 2567.     CrossRef
  • SGLT2i impact on HCC incidence in patients with fatty liver disease and diabetes: a nation-wide cohort study in South Korea
    Hyo Jung Cho, Eunyoung Lee, Soon Sun Kim, Jae Youn Cheong
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The importance of diabetes mellitus in dental practice
    Nina Dimitrijević-Jovanović, Hristina Ugrinović, Radomir Mitić, Nevena Kalezić
    Galenika Medical Journal.2024; 3(9): 80.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of glycemic response of ten local meals commonly consumed from Chad
    Zoufane Guedeungbe, Jean Paul Bayang, Benoît Bargui Koubala
    Journal of Agriculture and Food Research.2024; 17: 101251.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Control and Oral Health Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes: Insights From a Nationwide Korean Survey
    Song-Yi Yu, Sun-Kyung Lee, Bumhee Yang, Hyun Lee, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Dong-Hwa Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of albiglutide, a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    A.B.M. Kamrul-Hasan, Deep Dutta, Lakshmi Nagendra, Saptarshi Bhattacharya, Rajiv Singla, Sanjay Kalra
    Medicine.2024; 103(25): e38568.     CrossRef
  • Longitudinal Analysis of Diabetes Mellitus Risk: Smoking Status and Smoking Cessation
    Da-Eun Sung, Seung-Jae Lee, Mi-Yeon Lee, Eun-Jung Rhee, Ki-Chul Sung
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(13): 3927.     CrossRef
  • Current type 2 diabetes guidelines: Individualized treatment and how to make the most of metformin
    Juliana C. N. Chan, Aimin Yang, Natural Chu, Elaine Chow
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Management of Dyslipidemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Kyung Ae Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 111.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Recommendations for Pharmacological Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
    Junghyun Noh
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 127.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 120.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes: Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    Ye Seul Yang
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 135.     CrossRef
  • A 33-Year-Old Man Presented with Abdominal Pain and Vomiting Starting a Day Ago
    Jong Han Choi
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2023; 98(6): 289.     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity Patterns and Management in Inpatients with Endocrine Diseases by Age Groups in South Korea: Nationwide Data
    Sung-Soo Kim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 14(1): 42.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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The Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to Changes in Obesity Status in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study of Korea
Joon Ho Moon, Yeonhoon Jang, Tae Jung Oh, Se Young Jung
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(4):514-522.   Published online April 25, 2023
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  • 143 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Although obesity is a well-known risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), there is scant data on discriminating the contribution of previous obesity and recent weight gain on developing T2DM.
We analyzed the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort data from 2002 to 2015 where Korean residents underwent biennial health checkups. Participants were classified into four groups according to their obesity status (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) before and after turning 50 years old: maintaining normal (MN), becoming obese (BO), becoming normal (BN), and maintaining obese (MO). Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the risk of T2DM factoring in the covariates age, sex, BMI, presence of impaired fasting glucose or hypertension, family history of diabetes, and smoking status.
A total of 118,438 participants (mean age, 52.5±1.1 years; men, 45.2%) were prospectively evaluated for incident T2DM. A total of 7,339 (6.2%) participants were diagnosed with T2DM during a follow-up period of 4.8±2.6 years. Incidence rates of T2DM per 1,000 person-year were 9.20 in MN, 14.81 in BO, 14.42 in BN, 21.38 in MO. After factoring in covariates, participants in the groups BN (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.27) and MO (aHR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.24) were at increased risk of developing T2DM compared to MN, whereas BO (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.17) was not.
Having been obese before 50 years old increased the risk of developing T2DM in the future, but becoming obese after 50 did not. Therefore, it is important to maintain normal weight from early adulthood to prevent future metabolic perturbations.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Higher Muscle Mass Protects Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from Progression to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yujin Shin, Joon Ho Moon, Tae Jung Oh, Chang Ho Ahn, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):890-900.   Published online April 28, 2022
  • 5,252 View
  • 231 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
We evaluated whether postpartum muscle mass affects the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
A total of 305 women with GDM (mean age, 34.9 years) was prospectively evaluated for incident prediabetes and T2DM from 2 months after delivery and annually thereafter. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis at the initial postpartum visit, and ASM, either divided by body mass index (BMI) or squared height, and the absolute ASM were used as muscle mass indices. The risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM was assessed according to tertiles of these indices using a logistic regression model.
After a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years, the highest ASM/BMI tertile group had a 61% lower risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM compared to the lowest tertile group, and this remained significant after we adjusted for covariates (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.92; P=0.032). Equivalent findings were observed in normal weight women (BMI <23 kg/m2), but this association was not significant for overweight women (BMI ≥23 kg/m2). Absolute ASM or ASM/height2 was not associated with the risk of postpartum T2DM.
A higher muscle mass, as defined by the ASM/BMI index, was associated with a lower risk of postpartum prediabetes and T2DM in Korean women with GDM.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • More appendicular lean mass relative to body mass index is associated with lower incident diabetes in middle-aged adults in the CARDIA study
    Melanie S. Haines, Aaron Leong, Bianca C. Porneala, Victor W. Zhong, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, Karen K. Miller, James B. Meigs, Mercedes R. Carnethon
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2023; 33(1): 105.     CrossRef
  • The Association of the Triglyceride and Muscle to Fat Ratio During Early Pregnancy with the Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Fang Wang, Yuan-Yuan Bao, Kang Yu
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3187.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of body composition in early pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus under different body weights before pregnancy
    Li Xintong, Xu Dongmei, Zhang Li, Cao Ruimin, Hao Yide, Cui Lingling, Chen Tingting, Guo Yingying, Li Jiaxin
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Approaches and Maternal-Offspring Complications
Joon Ho Moon, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):3-14.   Published online January 27, 2022
  • 17,247 View
  • 982 Download
  • 72 Web of Science
  • 74 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication during pregnancy and is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring and maternal complications. For GDM screening and diagnosis, a two-step approach (1-hour 50 g glucose challenge test followed by 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) has been widely used. After the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study implemented a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in all pregnant women, a one-step approach was recommended as an option for the diagnosis of GDM after 2010. The one-step approach has more than doubled the incidence of GDM, but its clinical benefit in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes remains controversial. Long-term complications of mothers with GDM include type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, and complications of their offspring include childhood obesity and glucose intolerance. The diagnostic criteria of GDM should properly classify women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term complications. The present review summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the one-step and two-step approaches for the diagnosis of GDM based on recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We also describe the long-term maternal and offspring complications of GDM.


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    Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia.2024; 34(3): 536.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2024; 15(7): 914.     CrossRef
  • Triglyceride-glucose index in early pregnancy predicts the risk of gestational diabetes: a prospective cohort study
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    S Sindhu, S Uma Mageshwari
    Journal of Diabetology.2024; 15(1): 86.     CrossRef
  • The Implication of Diabetes-Specialized Nurses in Aiming for the Better Treatment and Management of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Brief Narrative Review
    Yefang Zhu, Hongmei Zhang, Ying Xi, Hongli Zhu, Yan Lu, Xue Luo, Zhangui Tang, Hong Lei
    Diabetes Therapy.2024; 15(5): 917.     CrossRef
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    Xiaoyan Wang, Ying Lan, Na Li, Jinfeng Gao, Dejiao Meng, Shuchuan Miao
    Heliyon.2024; 10(7): e29000.     CrossRef
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    Qiulian Liang, Ming Li, Gongchen Huang, Ruiqi Li, Linyuan Qin, Ping Zhong, Xuekun Xing, Xiangyuan Yu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Qian Liu, Juan Gui, Lianzhi Wu
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    Yuandong Li, Chao Liang, Cui Wu, Zheng Nan
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    Dongmei Cai, Su Yan
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    Xia Xu, Feipeng Huang, Yanni Guo, Lianghui Zheng, Jianying Yan
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Luca Giannella, Camilla Grelloni, Dayana Quintili, Alessia Fiorelli, Ramona Montironi, Sonila Alia, Giovanni Delli Carpini, Jacopo Di Giuseppe, Arianna Vignini, Andrea Ciavattini
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    Bingbing Guo, Jingjing Pei, Yin Xu, Yajie Wang, Xinye Jiang
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  • Prediction model for gestational diabetes mellitus using the XG Boost machine learning algorithm
    Xiaoqi Hu, Xiaolin Hu, Ya Yu, Jia Wang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sanjay Gupte, Gayatri Venkataraman, Aarti S. Shah, Shalaka Jamenis, Chandrakant Rao, Shweta M. Jangam, Kaveri M. Adki, Onkar C. Swami
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    S. A. Pletneva, E. V. Enkova, O. V. Khoperskaya, S. V. Shamarin, V. V. Enkova
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    Zhen Yang, Sisi Hu, Wei Tong, Zhihao Xu, Xiaoliu Huang, Weiye Wang
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    Li-Rong He, Li Yu, Yong Guo
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  • Root causes of long-term complications of gestational diabetes mellitus: Metabolic disturbances of the host and gut microbiota
    Mingjin Tao, Gaochen Lu, Sheng Zhang, Pan Li
    Clinica Chimica Acta.2023; 548: 117490.     CrossRef
  • Analysis on Related Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Subsequent Pregnancies in Multiparous Women with No History of GDM
    文静 张
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Article image
Maternal Hyperglycemia during Pregnancy Increases Adiposity of Offspring
Hye Rim Chung, Joon Ho Moon, Jung Sub Lim, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Joon-Seok Hong, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):730-738.   Published online February 22, 2021
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined.
The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI).
BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values.
Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.


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Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing Allows Better Prediction of Diabetes in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Tae Jung Oh, Yeong Gi Kim, Sunyoung Kang, Joon Ho Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Kyong Soo Park, Hak C. Jang, Joon-Seok Hong, Nam H. Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(3):342-349.   Published online December 7, 2018
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

We aimed to identify the postpartum metabolic factors that were associated with the development of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In addition, we examined the role of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the prediction of future diabetes.


We conducted a prospective study of 179 subjects who previously had GDM but did not have diabetes at 2 months postpartum. The initial postpartum examination including a 75-g OGTT and the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed 12 months after delivery, and annual follow-up visits were made thereafter.


The insulinogenic index (IGI30) obtained from the OGTT was significantly correlated with the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) obtained from the FSIVGTT. The disposition indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT were also significantly correlated. Women who progressed to diabetes had a lower insulin secretory capacity including IGI30, AIRg, and disposition indices obtained from the FSIVGTT and OGTT compared with those who did not. However, the insulin sensitivity indices obtained from the OGTT and FSIVGTT did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the 2-hour glucose and disposition index obtained from the FSIVGTT were significant postpartum metabolic risk factors for the development of diabetes.


We identified a crucial role of β-cell dysfunction in the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM. The 2-hour glucose result from the OGTT is an independent predictor of future diabetes. Therefore, the OGTT is crucial for better prediction of future diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM.


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