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Jin-Young Jang 1 Article
Basic Research
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Glucolipotoxicity Suppressed Autophagy and Insulin Contents in Human Islets, and Attenuation of PERK Activity Enhanced Them in an ATG7-Dependent Manner
Seoil Moon, Ji Yoon Lim, Mirang Lee, Youngmin Han, Hongbeom Kim, Wooil Kwon, Jin-Young Jang, Mi Na Kim, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(2):231-241.   Published online September 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0366
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Background
Administration of pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibitor (PERKi) improved insulin secretion and hyperglycemia in obese diabetic mice. In this study, autophagic balance was studied whether to mediate it.
Methods
Human islets were isolated from living patients without diabetes. PERKi GSK2606414 effects were evaluated in the islets under glucolipotoxicity by palmitate. Islet insulin contents and secretion were measured. Autophagic flux was assessed by microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) conversion, a red fluorescent protein (RFP)-green fluorescent protein (GFP)- LC3 tandem assay, and P62 levels. For mechanical analyses, autophagy was suppressed using 3-methyladenine in mouse islets. Small interfering RNA for an autophagy-related gene autophagy related 7 (Atg7) was transfected to interfere autophagy.
Results
PERKi administration to mice decreased diabetes-induced P62 levels in the islets. Glucolipotoxicity significantly increased PERK phosphorylation by 70% and decreased insulin contents by 50% in human islets, and addition of PERKi (40 to 80 nM) recovered both. PERKi also enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (6-fold). PERKi up-regulated LC3 conversion suppressed by glucolipotoxicity, and down-regulated P62 contents without changes in P62 transcription, indicating enhanced autophagic flux. Increased autophagosome-lysosome fusion by PERKi was visualized in mouse islets, where PERKi enhanced ATG7 bound to LC3. Suppression of Atg7 eliminated PERKi-induced insulin contents and secretion.
Conclusion
This study provided functional changes of human islets with regard to autophagy under glucolipotoxicity, and suggested modulation of autophagy as an anti-diabetic mechanism of PERKi.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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