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Hyun Lyung Jung  (Jung HL) 1 Article
Effects of Endurance Exercise and High-Fat Diet on Insulin Resistance and Ceramide Contents of Skeletal Muscle in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Hyun Lyung Jung, Ho Youl Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(4):244-252.   Published online August 31, 2010
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We evaluated the effects of endurance exercise and a high-fat diet on insulin resistance and ceramide contents of skeletal muscle in Sprague-Dawley rats.


We randomly divided 32 rats into four groups: control (CON, n = 8), high fat diet (HF, n = 8), exercise (Ex, 24 m/min for 2 hours, 5 days/wk, n = 8), HF/Ex (n = 8). After 4-week treatments, plasma lipid profiles, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. The triglycerides (TG), ceramide, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) contents were measured in the skeletal muscle. The rate of glucose transport was determined under submaximal insulin concentration during the muscle incubation.


Free fatty acid levels were significantly higher in CON and HF than Ex (P = 0.032). Plasma glucose levels in HF were significantly higher than the two Ex groups (P = 0.002), and insulin levels were significantly higher in HF than in other three groups (P = 0.021). Muscular TG concentrations were significantly higher in HF than CON and Ex and also in HF/Ex than Ex, respectively (P = 0.005). Hepatic TG concentrations were significantly higher in HF than other three groups but Ex was significantly lower than HF/Ex (P = 0.000). Muscular ceramide content in HF was significantly greater than that in either Ex or HF/Ex (P = 0.031). GLUT-4 levels in CON and HF were significantly lower than those in Ex and HF/Ex (P = 0.009, P = 0.003). The glucose transport rate in submaximal insulin concentration was lower in CON than in either Ex or HF/Ex (P = 0.043), but not different from HF.


This study suggests that high fat diet for 4 weeks selectively impairs insulin resistance, but not glucose transport rate, GLUT-4 and ceramide content in skeletal muscle per se. However, endurance exercise markedly affects the content of ceramide and insulin resistance in muscle.


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