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Chantal A. Vella 2 Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Associations between Weight-Adjusted Waist Index and Abdominal Fat and Muscle Mass: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Ji Yoon Kim, Jimi Choi, Chantal A. Vella, Michael H. Criqui, Matthew A. Allison, Nam Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):747-755.   Published online March 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0294
  • 6,113 View
  • 264 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 38 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The weight-adjusted waist index (WWI) reflected body compositional changes with aging. This study was to investigate the association of WWI with abdominal fat and muscle mass in a diverse race/ethnic population.
Methods
Computed tomography (CT) data from 1,946 participants for abdominal fat and muscle areas from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (785 Whites, 252 Asians, 406 African American, and 503 Hispanics) were used. Among them, 595 participants underwent repeated CT. The WWI was calculated as waist circumference (cm) divided by the square root of body weight (kg). The associations of WWI with abdominal fat and muscle measures were examined, and longitudinal changes in abdominal composition measures were compared.
Results
In all race/ethnic groups, WWI was positively correlated with total abdominal fat area (TFA), subcutaneous fat area, and visceral fat area, but negatively correlated with total abdominal muscle area (TMA) and abdominal muscle radiodensity (P<0.001 for all). WWI showed a linear increase with aging regardless of race and there were no significant differences in the WWI distribution between Whites, Asians, and African Americans. In longitudinal analyses, over 38.6 months of follow-up, all abdominal fat measures increased but muscle measures decreased, along with increase in WWI. The more the WWI increased, the more the TFA increased and the more the TMA decreased.
Conclusion
WWI showed positive associations with abdominal fat mass and negative associations with abdominal muscle mass, which likely reflects the abdominal compositional changes with aging in a multi-ethnic population.

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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Article image
Computed Tomography-Derived Myosteatosis and Metabolic Disorders
Iva Miljkovic, Chantal A. Vella, Matthew Allison
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):482-491.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0277
  • 6,802 View
  • 247 Download
  • 45 Web of Science
  • 46 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The role of ectopic adipose tissue infiltration into skeletal muscle (i.e., myosteatosis) for metabolic disorders has received considerable and increasing attention in the last 10 years. The purpose of this review was to evaluate and summarize existing studies focusing on computed tomography (CT)-derived measures of myosteatosis and metabolic disorders. There is consistent evidence that CT-derived myosteatosis contributes to dysglycemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammation, and, to some extent, dyslipidemia, independent of general obesity, visceral fat, and other relevant risk factors, suggesting that it may serve as a tool for metabolic risk prediction. Identification of which muscles should be examined, and the standardized CT protocols to be employed, are necessary to enhance the applicability of findings from epidemiologic studies of myosteatosis. Additional and longer longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm a role of myosteatosis in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and examine these associations in a variety of muscles across multiple race/ethnic populations. Given the emerging role of myosteatosis in metabolic health, well-designed intervention studies are needed to investigate relevant lifestyle and pharmaceutical approaches.

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