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Yeon Ah Sung  (Sung YA) 23 Articles
Insulin Resistance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):1-6.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and now recognized as an important metabolic and reproductive disorder. The majority of women with PCOS have insulin resistance and this is regarded to have a central etiological role in PCOS. Insulin resistance and concomitant hyperinsulinemia modifies reproductive function by driving androgen production, suppression of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and disruption of insulin signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Insulin resistance, together with defects in insulin secretion, confers markedly increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. There are post-binding defects in insulin receptor signaling, with selective resistance to insulin's metabolic actions and preserved other actions. Genetic and environmental abnormalities interact to produce peripheral insulin resistance in PCOS. The numerous in vivo and in vitro data supporting the central role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of PCOS have led a new therapy for PCOS with insulin-sensitizing agents.

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  • Epidemiology and Diagnostic Criteria of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Hyejin Lee, Yeon-Ah Sung
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2015; 16(3): 189.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Apelin and Insulin Resistance in Patients with PCOS and Therapeutic Effect of Drospirenone-Ethinylestradiol Plus Metformin
    Xianchang Sun, Xingguo Wu, Yan Zhou, Xinyan Yu, Wenjuan Zhang
    Medical Science Monitor.2015; 21: 2547.     CrossRef
  • Hyperandrogenism in Women: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Yeon-Ah Sung
    Hanyang Medical Reviews.2012; 32(4): 197.     CrossRef
  • Adiponectin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Hyun-Young Shin, Duk-Chul Lee, Ji-Won Lee
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2011; 32(4): 243.     CrossRef
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Korean Women: Clinical Characteristics and Diagnostic Criteria
    Yeon-Ah Sung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(3): 203.     CrossRef
Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) Polymorphism in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Jee Young Oh, Hyejin Lee, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung, Hye Won Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(6):480-487.   Published online November 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.6.480
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease affecting 5~10% of women with reproductive age. Familial aggregation suggests the evidence supporting a genetic basis for PCOS. The mode of inheritance of PCOS is not yet clear, however, probably polygenic and might be related to insulin resistance. Polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma gene is a susceptible gene for the development of obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined the frequency and genetic effect of PPAR-gamma polymorphism on insulin resistance or hyperandrogenemia in Korean women with PCOS. METHODS: One-hundred twenty five Korean women with PCOS were evaluated for their metabolic and reproductive hormonal status. PPAR-gamma polymorphism was analyzed. RESULTS: Genetic frequency of PPAR-gamma was not significantly different between women with PCOS (n = 125) and those with regular menstrual cycles (n = 344). PCOS with Pro12Ala polymorphism had significantly higher levels of waist circumference and subcutaneous fat area compared with those with Pro12Pro genotype. They also had tendency of higher levels of fasting glucose concentration, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat area. After BMI adjustment, this polymorphism was related to lower fasting insulin and higher insulin sensitivity index, and higher sex hormone binding globulin and lower free testosterone levels. CONCLUSION: Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-gamma gene might be associated with obesity. However, after BMI adjustment, it may have favorable effect on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia. Because this study has limitations to conclude the genetic causality, further study is needed to support these findings.
The Appropriate Distance and Duration of Walking for Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Tae Seo Sohn, Jung Min Lee, Sang Ah Chang, Kyung Ah Han, Hyun Shik Son, Hyo Jeong Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Yeon Ah Sung, Kyung Wan Min, Sei Hyun Baik, Jae Myeong Yu, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(2):157-162.   Published online March 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.2.157
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
For decades, exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes managements, along with diet and medication. Many studies have shown that regular physical activity improves quality of life, reduces the risk of mortality from all causes, and is particularly advantageous in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, high-quality evidence and basic data on the importance of exercise and physical fitness in Korean diabetic patients were lacking until recent years. METHOD: This study included 240 diabetic patients (122 men, 118 women) recruited from 6 diabetic centers in Korea. To measure step length and walking velocity at normal walking speed, we made the patient walk 12 meter at normal speed. The patients wore the pedometer for 7 days and we got the equation between the walking steps per day and calorie expenditure for 7 days. From the equation, we calculated appropriate steps, distance and duration of walking in type 2 diabetic patients as exercise program RESULTS: In men, the walking velocity was 4.4 +/- 0.6 km/h and step length was 67.6 +/- 7.3 cm at normal walking speed. In women, the walking velocity was 4.0 +/- 0.6 km/h and step length was 58.4 +/- 5.5 cm at normal walking speed. The equation between kcal per week and steps per day was that kcal/week = (steps/day) x 0.268 + 64.074 (R2 = 0.854, P < 0.01) in men and kcal/week in women = (steps/day) x 0.256 - 39.005 (R2 = 0.890, P < 0.01). The steps/day, walking distance and walking duration which correspond to 700 kcal/week was 2,373 steps/day, 21.9 minutes and 1,604 meter in men, and 2,887 steps/day, 25.3 minutes and 1,690 meter in women at normal walking speed. CONCLUSION: To exert at least 700 kcal/week with exercise, it is recommended that type 2 diabetic patients walk at least 25 minutes/day or 1,700 meter/day or 2,500 steps/day in men and 30 minutes/day or 1,800 meter/day or 3,000 steps/day in women at normal walking speed.

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  • Effects of Tai Chi Exercise on Glucose Control, Neuropathy Scores, Balance, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy
    Sukhee Ahn, Rhayun Song
    The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.2012; 18(12): 1172.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • Group Classification on Management Behavior of Diabetic Mellitus
    Sung-Hong Kang, Soon-Ho Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2011; 12(2): 765.     CrossRef
  • Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Dietary Intake Control in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Boo-Kyung Koo, Ji-Yeon Jung, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Ah Han, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(2): 155.     CrossRef
Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes in Korea.
Sang Ah Chang, Jung Min Lee, Tae Seo Sohn, Hyun Shik Son, Sung Woo Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Jae Myung Yu, Yeon Ah Sung, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Wan Min, Kyung Ah Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):83-88.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.83
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Walking is a popular, convenient and relatively safe form of exercise. However, there is few objective data for walking exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate pedometer-determined physical activity defined as steps/day in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it could be the basic data for programming walking exercise in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants with type 2 diabetes who visited in 6 university hospitals on February, 2006 in Seoul and Kyung-gi area were recruited. The participants were asked their ambulatory activity with the given pedometer and calorimeter for 1 week. Total 240 (Male 122, Female 118) subjects who walked above 1000 steps/day were analyzed. We also collected their biochemical data from the medical records. RESULTS: Participants took 8532 +/- 4130 steps for day (step/day) and energy expenditure were 320 +/- 161 Cal/day. Steps/day was not significantly different between male and female, but energy expenditure was higher in male than female ( P < 0.05). Steps/day was significantly lower in obese patients than non-obese patients (P < 0.001). BMI (r = -0.325, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = -0.287, P < 0.001), triglyceride (r = 0.164, P < 0.018) showed significant inverse correlation with steps/day, but BUN (r = 0.165, P = 0.019) and HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.164, P = 0.018) were positive correlated with steps/day significantly. BMI (r = -0.14, P < 0.032) and cholesterol (r = -0.139, P < 0.041) showed significantly inverse correlation with energy expenditure and BUN (r = 0.187, P = 0.008) and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.145, P < 0.037) positively correlated with energy expenditure. Pedometer-determined steps/day was positively associated with energy expenditure (r2 = 0.824, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed the objective quantification of physical activity measured by simple and inexpensive pedometers. It could be used to recommend walking exercise since the practitioners can estimate steps/day for required energy expenditure.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Hyejin Lee, Jee Young Oh, Youngsun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung, Hyewon Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):285-291.   Published online July 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.4.285
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia. Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of the MS and whether the insulin resistance or hyperandrogenemia is related to the MS in young Korean women with PCOS. METHODS: 143 women with PCOS (mean age 26+/-5 years) were studied to evaluate the prevalence of MS by modified Adult Treatment Panel III. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS in women with PCOS was 11.9%, 2.8-fold higher than age matched women in Korean urban population. The most frequent component of MS was low HDL cholesterol (39.4%), and the least frequent one was high fasting serum glucose levels (6.7%). The frequency of MS was 40.7% in obese PCOS (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2, n = 38), 10.0% in overweight PCOS (BMI 23~24.9 kg/m2, n = 13), and 0% in lean PCOS (BMI < 23 kg/m2, n = 92). The frequency of MS was 26.1% in insulin resistant PCOS (insulin mediated glucose uptake, IMGU < lowest 10th percentile of lean controls, n = 65), whereas no one had MS in insulin sensitive PCOS (IMGU > or = lowest 10th percentile of lean controls, n = 78). CONCLUSION: MS is frequent in young women with PCOS, and obesity and insulin resistance might be essential for the development of MS in this study group.

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  • Relationship between flavonoids intake and metabolic syndrome in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    Ji Soo Oh, Mi Jin Ahn, Chan Jung Han, Hyesook Kim, Oran Kwon, Hye Won Chung, Namsoo Chang
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2014; 47(3): 176.     CrossRef
  • Inappropriate gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome: The relationship with clinical, hormonal and metabolic characteristics
    A Ra Shim, Yu Im Hwang, Kyung Jin Lim, Young Mi Choi, Young Eun Jeon, Seok Kyo Seo, Si Hyun Cho, Young Sik Choi, Byung Seok Lee
    Korean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.2011; 54(11): 659.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    Hyejin Lee, Yeon-ah Sung
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2007; 22(4): 252.     CrossRef
Usefulness of Insulin Sensitivity Indexes derived from Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Hyo Jeong Kim, Eun Kyung Byun, Jee Young Oh, Yeon Ah Sung, Hye Won Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):277-284.   Published online July 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.4.277
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance is prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and it makes them to have high risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Evaluation of insulin sensitivity would be important to predict their risks. Although the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique is the gold standard for measuring insulin sensitivity, it is too hard to practice in large epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study is to verify the validity of various insulin sensitivity indexes from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women with PCOS. METHODS: We performed euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (target glucose; 90 mg/dL, insulin ;~1 mU/kg.min) to obtain insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (M-value) in 62 non-diabetic women with PCOS (BMI < 23 kg/m2; n = 37, BMI > or = 23 kg/m2; n = 25). Homeostasis model assessment [HOMA(IR)], quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), glucose to insulin ratio (G/I ratio), whole body insulin sensitivity index [ISI(COMP)], metabolic clearance rate of glucose [MCR(est)-OGTT(1,2)], and insulin sensitivity indexes [ISI(est)-OGTT(1,2)] were calculated from plasma glucose and insulin levels from standard 75-g OGTT. The correlations of various insulin sensitivity indexes from OGTT with M-value were evaluated. RESULTS: In lean women with PCOS (BMI < 23 kg/m2, n = 37), ISI(COMP) (r = 0.36, P < 0.05), MCRest-OGTT1 (r = 0.49, P < 0.01), ISI(est)-OGTT(1) (r = 0.50, P < 0.01), MCR(est)-OGTT(2) (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and ISI(est)-OGTT(2) (r = 0.40, P < 0.05) were significantly correlated with M-value. In overweight and obese women with PCOS (BMI > or = 23 kg/m2, n = 25), HOMA(IR) (r = -0.40, P < 0.05), QUICKI (r = 0.40, P < 0.05), MCR(est)-OGTT(1) (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), ISI(est)-OGTT(1) (r = 0.63, P < 0.001), MCR(est)-OGTT(2) (r = 0.58, P < 0.01) and ISI(est)-OGTT(2) (r = 0.42, P < 0.05) showed significant correlations with M-value. CONCLUSION: MCR(est)-OGTT(1) and ISI(est)-OGTT(1) were the most reliable and easily accessible insulin sensitivity indexes obtained from OGTT for measuring of insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS regardless of obesity.

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  • Insulin resistance in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a comparison between euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and surrogate indexes
    Flavia Tosi, Enzo Bonora, Paolo Moghetti
    Human Reproduction.2017; 32(12): 2515.     CrossRef
Insulin Resistance in Normal Weight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Eun Kyung Byun, Hye Jin Lee, Jee Young Oh, Young Sun Hong, Hye Won Chung, Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(4):315-323.   Published online August 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance is considered a regular component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, several studies have failed to confirm insulin resistance in non-obese women with PCOS. The aim of the study was to identify whether insulin resistance is present in normal weight women with PCOS and the factors associated with insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Twenty-two normal weight (body mass index, BMI < 25 kg/m2) women with PCOS, and 16 age and BMI comparable control women with regular menstrual cycles were examined during their early follicular phase. The levels of serum hormones and lipids were measured. The visceral fat area was assessed by computed tomography at umbilical level. The standard 75g oral glucose tolerance test was performed to determine the glucose tolerance status. The insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (target glucose 90 mg/dL, insulin~1 mu/kg/min). RESULTS: The levels of free testosterone (1.9+/-0.6 pg/mL vs. 0.8+/-0.3 pg/mL, p<0.001), androstenedione (14.5+/-3.7 nmol/L vs. 8.8+/-1.3 nmol/L, p<0.001), LH (10.7+/-4.5 IU/L vs 4.6+/-4.8 IU/L, p<0.001) and FSH (5.8+/-1.7 IU/L vs. 4.2+/-2.4 IU/L, p<0.05) of the women with PCOS were significantly higher than those of the control subjects. The fasting plasma glucose (4.92+/-0.31 mmol/L vs. 4.42+/-0.61 mmol/L, p<0.01) and post glucose load plasma insulin (233.2+/-119.5pmol/L vs. 109.0+/-46.4 pmol/L, p<001) levels of women with PCOS were significantly higher than those of the control subjects. The glucose disposal rate (M value) was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared to the controls (5.3+/-1.2 mg/kg min vs. 6.7+/-1.6 mg/kg min, p<0.05), even after adjusting for age and BMI. There was no significant correlation of the M value with the anthropometric and a metabolic indices, and a multiple regression analysis of the M value showed no significant variables. CONCLUSION: Our non-obese women with PCOS showed significant insulin resistance compared to their age and BMI comparable control subjects, and-their insulin resistance may be an intrinsic defect not associated with other features, such as hyperandrogenemia or body fat distribution patterns.
Association of High Intracellular Calcium Levels with Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Jee Young Oh, Hye Jin Lee, Young Sun Hong, Hye Won Chung, Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(2):101-110.   Published online April 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance is an intrinsic defect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and elevated levels of cytosolic free calcium in insulin target cells may cause insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the relationship between intracellular calcium and insulin resistance in PCOS has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the levels of intracelluar calcium are changed and if they have any association with insulin resistance in women with PCOS. METHODS: The intracellular calcium levels in the platelets and the insulin sensitivity were measured by fluorescent spectrophotometry and the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, respectively, in 16 women with PCOS and 6 normal cycling women. A 2h, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed to determine the glucose tolerance. RESULTS: The insulin sensitivity measured by the glucose disposal rate(the M-value), was significantly lower in women with PCOS(4.6+/-1.5mg/kg/min vs. 7.0+/-1.3mg/kg/min, p<0.01), but the intracellular calcium levels were significantly higher in women with PCOS compared to the controls(122.7+/-36.7 vs 59.1+/-29.3mmol/L, p<0.01). When the women with PCOS were divided into the overweight or obese(n=9, BMI ?23kg/m2) and lean(n=7, BMI<23kg/m2) groups, both groups had significantly lower M values compared to the control subjects(3.9+/-1.3, 5.5+/-1.2 vs. 7.0+/-1.3mumg/kg/min, p<0.001), and these levels between the overweight/obese and lean PCOS groups showed a significant difference(p<0.001). The overweight/ obese and lean women with PCOS had significantly higher levels of intracellular calcium compared to the control subjects(131.3+/-39.6, 111.7+/-31.8 vs. 59.1+/-29.3nmol/L, p<0.01), but these levels did not differ significantly between the overweight/obese and lean women with PCOS. The intracellular calcium levels showed a significant positive correlation with age, and a negative correlation with the M value(r=-0.55, p<0.05). The BMI-adjusted partial correlation showed marginal significance between elevated levels of intracellular calcium and insulin sensitivity (r=-0.47, p=0.07). CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS showed both insulin resistance and increased levels of intracellular calcium compared to the control subjects. Increased levels of intracellular calcium were associated with insulin resistance in women with PCOS.
Association between Hyperleptinemia and Metabolic Syndrome in an Urban Korean Community.
Jee Young Oh, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):313-322.   Published online August 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To determine whether hyperleptinemia is a principal component of metabolic syndrome in a Korean population using factor analysis. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome was defined by the NCEP-ATP III guideline. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and plasma samples for leptin and lipid profiles were collected from 199 men and 426 women who had no history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or of taking lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, or antihyperglycemic medications. RESULTS: Leptin level was correlated with overall and central obesity, blood pressure, and glucose or insulin levels in men and women aged 30 to 83. Before and after adjustment for BMI, leptin level was significantly and positively correlated, in women only, with insulin and with insulin resistance, as assessed by a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) (Ps<0.0001). Factor analysis identified the following four factors from among the metabolic syndrome variables; an obesity/hyperinsulinemia factor, a glucose intolerance factor, a hypertension factor, and a dyslipidemia factor in men. Leptin was clustered as an obesity/ hyperinsulinemia and a dyslipidemia factor in men. In women, four different groups were found: an obesity/hypertension factor, a glucose intolerance factor, an obesity/dyslipidemia factor, and an obesity/hyperinsulinemia factor. Leptin was clustered as an obesity/hyperinsulinemia factor in women. CONCLUSION: Our research suggests that leptin level is associated with metabolic syndrome in relation to obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Moreover, obesity, as opposed to hyperinsulinemia, is related to hypertension or dyslipidemia in women only, and this gender differences may reflect different roles of central adiposity on metabolic abnormalities.
The Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes in Mokdong, Seoul.
Jee Young Oh, Hye Jin Lee, Eun Soon Hong, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung, Sun Hee Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(1):73-83.   Published online February 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes has recently become a major public health problem due to the socioeconomic changes in Korea. Epidemiological data for diabetes are needed to establish disease control and health improvement programs in the community. Considering the tendency for larger concentrations of the population in the urban areas of Korea, epidemiological studies in these areas are essential. This this was performed to determine the epidemiologic characteristics, prevalence, and incidence of diabetes in Korean urban communities. METHODS: The target cohort of this study was randomly selected from 20,222 residents living in the Mokdong apartment areas one, two, five and six, Yangcheon-Gu, Seoul. Of the 20,222 residents, 1,011 were residents, of which 766 (male 264, female 502) subjects participated and 372 subjects without diabetes at baseline examination followed up for 2 years. At the baseline and follow-up examination, all subjects underwent a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist to hip ratio, pulse rate, blood pressure, and subcutaneous skin fold thickness) were performed. RESULTS: There was an 8.5% prevalence of diabetes and 7.8% with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes IGR were 8.4% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes or IGR increased with increasing age. The prevalence of diabetes was associated with aging, family history of diabetes, and high levels of waist to hip ratio. The age-adjusted annual incidence rate of diabetes for subjects over 40 years of age at the baseline was 1.3%. The risk factors for the development of incident diabetes, from a multiple logistic regression analysis, were the waist to hip ratio and the 2-hour postload serum glucose concentrations. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes in the Mokdong apartment area was slightly higher than in Yonchon, Jungup, or Beijing. The annual incidence of diabetes was lower than that found in the studies in Yonchon or in Pima Indian, but higher than those of Caucasians or American Hispanics.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, Body Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance in Premenopausal Women.
Young Sook Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Jee Young Oh, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(1):63-72.   Published online February 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Low levels of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), an indirect index of androgenicity, have been reported to be associated with obesity, especially central obesity. In women, increased androgenicity is related to hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have suggested that the relationship between SHBG and insulin resistance was mediated by the change in total or visceral adiposity, and that ethnical differences in the relationship between sex hormone and body fat distribution might exist. METHODS: We examined the associations of SHBG to the body fat distribution and insulin resistance in Korean premenopausal women. The fasting serum level of SHBG was measured by RIA, and the insulin sensitivity by the minimal model derived sensitivity index (SI), using the insulin modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. The amount of body fat, and its distribution, were assessed by anthropometric measurement, bioelectric impedance analyses, and computed tomography at the level of the umbilicus. RESULTS: 1. SHBG was significantly inversely correlated with the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral fat area, and fasting insulin levels, and was significantly positively correlated to the SI. 2. SHBG was significantly lower in premenopausal women with an impaired glucose tolerance, compared to those with a normal glucose tolerance, and significantly lower in those with hypertension (systolic BP> or =140 mmHg or diastolic BP> or =90 mmHg), compared to those with normal blood pressure. SHBG was also significantly lower in persons with central obesity(waist circumference > or = 80 cm) compared to those without. 3. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the SI was significantly associated with SHBG, after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL- cholesterol, and percentage body fat, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for visceral fat area. 4. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the fasting plasma insulin, BMI and percentage body fat were significant independent factors associated with SHBG. CONCLUSION: Increased androgenicity as assessed by decreased serum SHBG concentrations, is strongly associated with an unfavorable body fat distribution, hypertension, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance.
Impaired Insulin Secretion in Normoglycemic Offspring of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Eun Kyung Byun, Young Sun Hong, Jee Young Oh, Yeon Ah Sung, Yeon Jin Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(1):39-48.   Published online February 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Although it is well known that insulin secretory defects and insulin resistance are major pathogenetic factors of type 2 diabetes, their relative importance still remains controversial in various ethnic groups. Increased levels of proinsulin, and the proinsulin/insulin (PI/I) ratio, are considered markers of pancreatic dysfunction, and predictors for the development of type 2 diabetes. To reveal which pathogenetic abnormality is most prominent in Koreans with type 2 diabetes, we measured the insulin sensitivity and secretory capacity in the normal glucose tolerant offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-two offspring, with normal glucose tolerance (mean age 40.4+/-6.5 BMI 23.4+/-2.7 kg/m2), of type 2 diabetes parents, were compared with and 20, age and BMI-matched control subjects, with on family history of diabetes. We measured the serum levels of proinsulin (PI), specific insulin (I), and C-peptide(C) and calculated the PI/I and C/I ratios, as parameters of hepatic insulin clearance. The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was measured by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) using the MINMOD program, as a marker of insulin sensitivity. The acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), AIRg by product, SI and the area under the insulin curve (AUCinsulin) were measured by IVGTT, and used as a marker of the insulin secretory capacity. We also evaluated the association between the proinsulin and insulin secretory capacities. RESULTS: Offspring of the type 2 diabetic patients had significantly lower AIRg SI and AUCinsulin (p<0.05), and tended to have lower AIRg (p=0.06), than the control subjects. However, there was no significant difference in the SI between the two groups. However, with the proinsulin, and the insulin, PI/I and C/I ratios, not significant differences were found between the offspring and the control subjects, and the PI/I ratio was not correlated with AIRg, AIRg x SI or SI. CONCLUSION: Insulin secretory defect could be a more prominent factor in the development of type 2 diabetes in Koreans, with no change in the proinsulin secretion.
Sex Hormone and Action of Insulin.
Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(4):229-237.   Published online August 1, 2002
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No abstract available.
The Changes in Insulin Secretion and GTPase Activity after the Exposure to High Glucose in Rat Pancreatic Islets.
Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(5):515-523.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by defective glucose- induced and glucose-potentiated insulin secretion. Chronic elevation of glucose levels are considered to be a cause of impaired insulin secretion. It has been suggested that such defects in insulin secretion can be related to the alteration in stimulus-secretion coupling. Recent studies have provided evidences for the existence of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein), and the regulatory role of G protein and GTPase activity in stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic islets. This study was performed to determine whether the exposure to high glucose concentration alters GTPase activity with decreased insulin secretion in pancreatic islets isolated from normal rats. METHODS: Pancreatic islets isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in high (20 mM) and low (5 mM) glucose concentration for 48 hours. After incubation, glucose (20 mM) induced insulin secretion was measured. Then subcellular fractions of islets by homogenization and differential centrifugation were obtained and glucose induced inhibition of GTPase activities in each fraction was measured. RESULTS: 1) After 48 hour exposure to 5 mM and 20 mM glucose, insulin secretion in response to 20 mM glucose were 134.4+/-16.8 fmol/10 islets/hr and 90.0+/-10.2 fmol/10 islets/hr, respectively. After the exposure to high glucose, glucose-induced insulin secretion significantly decreased (p<0.05). 2) In each subcellular fraction, there was no significant difference between the islets exposed to 5 mM and 20 mM glucose in the degree of inhibition of GTPase activities by high glucose. CONCLUSION: The exposure to high glucose for 48 hours decreased insulin secretion without any significant differences in the degree of inhibition of GTPase activities. This results suggest that impaired insulin secretion by high glucose is not associated with the change in GTPase activity.
Mechanism of the lnsulin Secretory Defect by Chronically Elevated Glucose Leveis in Pancreatic lslets: Depletion of lnsulin Content due to Hyperstimulation by Glucose.
Yeon Ah Sung, Young Sun Hong
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):1-9.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity, although the exact relationship between these two derangements during the development of the disease has not been fully established. Hyperglycemia per se impairs insulin secretion in pancreatic B-cell and the mechanism of impaired insulin by chronic hyperglycemia could be the clue to clarify pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and possibly identify the treatments. This study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of impairment of glucose induced insulin secretion by chronic hyperglycemia in pancreatic islets. METHODS: Pancreatic islets were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. After incubation of islets in high glucose (20mM) and low glucose (5mM) media for 10 days, glucose (16.7 mM) induced insulin secretion and insulin and DNA content in the islets were measured. Then subcellular distribution of low molecular and heterotrimeric G-proteins were assessed by ADP-ribosylation and radiolabeled GTP binding. RESULTS: 1) Glucose-induced insulin secretion of the islets cultured for 10 days in high glucose media was significantly lower when compared with that in islets cultured in low glucose media (p<0,05) 2) Subcellular distributions of low and heterotrimeric G-protein was not different in the islets cultured in low glucose when compared to those cultured in high glucose. 3) lnsulin content was significantly lower in the islets cultured in high glucose media compared with that in islets cultured in low glucose media (p<0.05) 4) DNA content was not significantly different between the islets cultured in low and high glucose media, and insulin content to DNA ratio was significantly lower in the islets cultured in high glucose media compared with that in islets cultured in low glucose media (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Impaired insulin secretion to glucose in pancreatic islets exposed to high glucose is caused by depletion of insulin stores affer hyperstimulation.
Relation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Gene Polymorphism to Insulin Sensitivity and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Female Nondiabetic Offspring of NIDDM Patients.
Jee Young Oh, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung, Yeon Jin Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(6):831-842.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism has been known to related to atherosclerotic heart disease such as acute myocardial infarction or left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetic nephropathy or retinopathy, as well as, insulin sensitivity. However, an exact relationship between ACE gene polymorphism and aforementioned diseases have not been fully established. It has been suggested that NIDDM and atherosclerosis may have common pathogenesis since some of NIDDM patients already have atherosclerotic changes at the time of the initial diagnosis. Futhermore, offspring of NIDDM patients are considered as a high risk group for both NIDDM and atherosclerosis, and these two disorders are known to be affected by some common genetic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we planned to investigate, by analyzing female offspring of NIDDM patients (offspring), the relationship of ACE gene polymorphism to insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Fifty-three female offspring of patients with NIDDM were participated in this study, and twenty age-BMI matched normal glucose tolerant subjects without a family history of diabetes were selected as the controls. Based on 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, subjects were divided into normal glucose tolerance (n=42) or impaired glucose tolerance (n=ll). We assessed the patterns of body fat distribution by anthropometric measurement, bioelectric impedence analysis and computed tomogram; insulin sensitivity by minimal model analysis using insulin modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; carotid intima-medial thickness by ultrasonography. We investigated the alleles of the ACE gene by PCR. RESULT: 1. ACE genotypes in offspring were distributed as follows; 39.6% for II, 32.0% for ID, 28.4% for DD 55.7% for I al#lele, 44.3% for D allele. This distribution was not significantly different from those in controls (35.0% for II, 55.0% for ID, 10.0% for DD, 62.5% for I allele, and 37.5% for D allele). 2. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum lipid concentrations among three genotypes. However, in the subjects with ID genotype, VSR was significantly increased compared to the subjects with DD genotype (p<0.05). In the subjects with ID genotype, percent body fat, visceral fat area, CIMT were increased, and SI and SG were decreased in comparison to II and DD subjects, although the differences between the two groups did not reached the statistical significance. 3. When the subjects were divided into quartiles of CIMT, the frequency of ID genotype of ACE showed the tendency of increment from the lowest to the highest quartile of CIMT. 4. Multiple regression analysis showed that ACE genotypes was significantly associated with visceral obesity, carotid intima-medial thickening and insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: ACE genotypes was not significantly associated with visceral obesity, carotid intima- medial thickening and insulin sensitivity. However, to explore the true associations of ACE gene polymorphism with insulin resistance and ather-osclerosis, we further suggest and recommend prospective studies.
Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and Body Fat Distribution Patterns in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.
Jin Hwa Lee, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung, Yeon Jin Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):647-660.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM) is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity, and often preceded by impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). To determine the relative importance of impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance in development of type 2 DM, we evaluated body fat distribution patterns, insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with IGT. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with IGT and age and weight matched twenty-four control subjects, were recruited from urban diabetes incidence cohort. Fasting serum glucose and insulin were measured. Body fat distribution pattern was assessed by waist to hip ratio (WHR), percent body fat and fat mass measured by bioelectrical impedence analyzer, and visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) at the level of umbilicus using the computed tomography. Using insulin modified intravenous glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity was measured as minimal model derived sensitivity index (S(I)), and insulin secretion was measured as acute insulin response to glucose (AIR(g)) and beta-cell disposition index (AlR(g) X Sr). RESULT: l) In the patients with IGT, AIR(g)X S(I)(p<0.01) and area under the curve of insulin (AUC(I))(p<0.01) were significantly decreased compared with control subjects and age was greater than control subjects without statistical significance (p=0.17). 2) In the patients with IGT, body fat distribution patterns, indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity were not different according to the presence of family history of DM. AIR, and S(I) were negatively correlated in control subjects (r=-0.38, p=0.08) and the patients with IGT without family history of DM (r=-0.37, p=0.10), but not in the patients with IGT with family history of DM. 3) In the patients with IGT, indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity were not different according to body mass index (BMI). In both obese (BMI>=25 kg/m ) and non-obese (BMI<25 kg/m) patients with IGT, AIR(g)(p<0.05) and AIR(g) X S(I) were significantly decreased compared with control subjects (p<0.01). 4) In control subjects, age (p<0.05) and body fat mass (p<0.05) were significantly associated with AIR(g) X S(I) by multiple regression analysis. In the patients with IGT, body fat mass was significantly associated with AIR(g)(p<0.01) and AUC(I)(p<0.01), and BMI(p<0.01) was significantly associated with S(I). CONCLUSION: In patients with IGT, impaired insulin secretion was more prominent than decreased insulin sensitivity as compared with control subjects regardless of obesity and the presence of family history.
Regulation of Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Activity in Normal Rat Pancreatic Islet Secretory Granule by Arachidonic Acid and its Metabolites.
Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(2):120-130.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Arachidonic acid (AA) generated by the activation of phospholipase A2. and 12hydroxyeicasateraenoic acid (12-HEIE), a lipoxygenase metabolite of AA stimulates glucose induced insulin secretion in pancreatic islets, whereas prostaglandin E. (PGE2), a cyclooxygenase metabolite of AA, inhibits it. This effect of PGE2 is largely reversible by pertussis toxin, suggesting a possible involvement of Gi or Go-like proteins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein) activity by AA and its metabolites (12-HETE and PGE2) in the secretory granule of normal rat pancreatic islets. METHODS: After isolation and subcellular fractionation of pancreatic islets from male Sprague Dawley rats, measurements of GTPase activity using [y-P32]GTP hydrolysis and GTP binding by [y-S35] GTPvS in secretory granules were performed. RESULTS: l. AA inhibited a high affinity low Km and a low affinity high Km GTPase activity in the normal rat islet secretory granule in a concentration dependent manner. Half maximal inhibition was demonstrable at 90 pM AA concentration known to stimulate both phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion. 2. PGE2 stimulated a high affinity low Km and a low affinity high Km GTPase activity in the normal rat islet secretory granule in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was more prominent in the high affinity low Km GTPase. Half maximal stimulation was demonstrable at 0.8uM PGE2, a concentration known to inhibit both phases of glucose-induced insulin secretion from pure beta cell lines and pancreatic islets. 3. PGE2 as well as other inhibitors of insulin secretion (such as epinephrine or clonidine) also stimulated high and low Km GTPase activity and these effects on low Km GTPase were recovered by pertussis pretreatment. Of the five prostaglandins (PGF2, PGA2, PGD2, and PGB2), only PGE2. stiniulated GTPase activity significantly (p<0.05). 4. 12-HETE had no effecl on GTPase activity. 5. AA increased GTP binding significantly(p< 0.05), but 12-HETE and PGE, had no measurable effects on GTP binding. CONCLUSION: In secretory granules of normal rat pancreatic islet cells, AA might have their stimulatory effect on insulin secretion via inhibition of GTPase activity and increased GTP binding, whereas PGE might represent their action via stimulation of low Km GTPase activity.
A Case of Diabetic Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism Associated with Muscular Symptoms Due to Hyperkalemia.
Jee Young Oh, Yeon Ah Sung, Sang Woon Lee, Joon Sim
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):568-573.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Diabetic hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism is clinically defined syndrome which is characterized by hyperkalemic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and nephropathy. The major cause of hyporeninemia in diabetes mellitus is the impairement of activation from glycated prorenin to renin. Hyperkalemia is major disorder of this syndrome which is almostly chroniclly developed but acutely developed in case of diabetic patients because of hyperglycemia and hyperkalemic symptoms are usually absent or mild. We experienced a case of diabetic hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronis complicated with acute severe hyperkalemia, myalgia and muscle weakness. The patient complained severe pain and muscle weakness of posterior neck and both lower extremities, serum potassium concentration was 8.5 mEq/L, serum muscle enzymes were very high and electrocardio gram showed ventricular premature beat and generalized T wave inversion. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concen trations were below normal limits and not stimulated by furosemide administration. After the conservative management of hyperkalemia and g]ycemic control with insulin, serum potassium leve1 and muscle enzymes were normalized.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetic Men by Self-Reported Questionnaires.
Jin Hwa Lee, Jee Young Oh, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung, Woo Sik Chung, Eun Young Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):538-545.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Erectile dysfunction is the consistent inability to achieve or sustain an erection of suffieient rigidity for sexual intercourse. Erectile dysfunction is an important cause of decreased quality of life in diabetic men. The prevalence of ereciile dysfunction has been reported to be three times higher in diabetic men than nondiabetics. Erectile dysfunction in diabetic men has been associated with increased age, poor glycemic control, smoling, alcohol intake, depression, and microvascular diabetic complication. Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in diabetic men and to assess risk factors re]ated to erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: From l53 diabetic men visiting Ewha Womans University Hospital from March, 1997 to March, 1998, we analyzed the self-reported questionnaires. Three questions about erection and one question about overall sexual satisfaetion were given and the answer to each question was categorized into 5 degrees according to the severity of sexua] dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction was diagnosed when any answer for erection showed a degree lower than 4. We obtained the history of smoking, alcohol and hypertension, and measured the current weight and height. Fasting glucose, HBA 1c and lipid profile were me measured. We also evaluated for the presence of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. RESULTS: 1) The self-reported prevalence of erectile dysfunction in diabetic men was 75.5 % in this study. 2) In the patients with erectile dysfunction, age, duration of diabetes mellitus, HbAlc, and systolic blood pressure were significantly higher, and BMI and triglyceride significantly lower than in the patients without erectile dysfunction. 3) The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was increased with aging and increasing duration of diabetes mellitus, HBA. was significantly positively related and BMI was inversely related to erectile dysfunction. 4) Age and HbA 1c were independently and positively related to erectile dysfunction by multiple logistic regression. 5) The erectile dysfunction was significantly associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and retinopathy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-reported erectile dysfunction in diabetic men was 75.5 % in this study, and it was significantly related to aging and the degree of the glycemic control.
Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, Body Fat Distribution Pattern and Insulin Resistance in Women.
Young Sun Hong, Jee Young Oh, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung, Yeon Jin Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):328-337.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) has been known to be associated with obesity, central fat accumulation and insulin resistance and thought to be a indirect marker for androgenicity in women. The relationships between circulating dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA). dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate(DHEA-S) levels and body fat accumulation are still controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study to eva]uate the relationships between serum levels of SHBG, DHEA-S, body fat distribution pattern and insulin sensitivity in women. METHODS: We tested 57 women(age 30~65yr; BMI 18.5~32.8kg/m, 45 premenopausal on the 5~10 day of the menstrual cycle, 12 postmenopausal who were not using hormone replacement therapy) with varying degree of glucose tolerance(32 normal glucose tolerance(NGT), 17 impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) and 8 newly diagnosed diabetes). lnsulin sensitivity was measured as minimal model derived sensitivity index(S) using insulin modified IV glucose tolerance test and fasting serum levels of SHBG and DHEA-S were measured by RIA. Body fat distribution pattern was assessed by waist to hip ratio(WHR),% body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance analyzer, subcutaneous fat area(SFA), visceral fat area(VFA) and VFA to SFA ratio(VSR) at the level of umbilicus using the computed tomography. RESULTS: 1) Measured SHBG and DHEA-S levels were not significantly different among subjects with NGT, IGT and diabetes. 2) SHBG was inversely associated with age, BMI, WHR, diastolic blood pressure, VFA, SFA, VSR,% body fat, fasting insulin and positively associated with S, whereas DHEA-S did not show any significant correlation with above variables except diastolic blood pressure. 3) SHBG level was significantly lower(p<0.05) and DHEA-S level was insignificantly lower (p=0.05) in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women but the significance disappeared after adjustment for age, BMI, WHR and% body fat. 4) BMI was independently and negatively related to S, WHR and fasting insulin to SHBG by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that SHBG was independently associated with central obesity and fasting hyperinsulinemia. However, S was independently associated with BMI only. It suggested that hyperinsulinemia in insulin resistance might cause the decreased level of SHBG even thaugh the directionality of the association was uncertain because of a cross-sectional nature of this study.
A Study on the Patterns of Clinical Characteristics according to Body Weight and Weight Changes in Korean NIDDM Patients.
Young Sun Hong, Hee Jin Kim, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(1):65-73.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is known that Korean NIDDM patients are mainly non-obese and have experienced weight loss frequently during the course of the disease. However, there have been few studies about the patterns of treatment and complications according to the weight changes, Our purpose was to determine the characreristics of diabetes in Korea by examining the differences in the clinical features according to the current weight and the weight changes. METHODS: From 308 Korean NIDDM patients. We obtained the data about the weight at the time of maximal obesity and diagnosis of diabetes and measured the current weight and height. We also evaluared the presence of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, We designated the patients with BMI 21kg/m and less as the lean group, the patients with BMI 21 to <26kg/m as the middle-range group and the patients with 26kg/m and over as the obese group. RESULTS: At the time of maximal weight, 61.4% of the patients were obese, but 40.3% were obese at diagnosis and only 33.8% were obese at recruitment. In the lean group, C-peptide was low and the frequency of insulin therapy was high. Although there was no statistical significance, diabetic complications were more frequent in the lean group. The percentage of the patients who lost weight (loss of 10% trom the maximal weight) was 65.9% in the lean group, 42.3% in the middle-range group and 32.7% in the obese group. The prevalence of retinopathy and neuropathy were higher in the group with weight loss, although not significantly. CONCLUSION: Of 308 NIDDM patients, 42.2% experienced weight loss before and after the diagnosis and only 33.8% were obese at recruitment. In the lean group, insulin secretory capacity was low and the frequency of insulin therapy was high. Our study showed that the lean group and the patients who have lost weight tended to have higher prevalence of the complications. The mass prospective study about the clinical characteristics according to weight changes in Korean NIDDM patients would be needed.
Significance of Serum Anticardiolipin Antibody in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Hee Jin Kim, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung, Nan Ho Kyung
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(1):39-48.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The antiphospholipid antibodies have been characteristically found in the patients with autoimmune diseases. Some previous studies revealed that antiphospholipid antibodies are increased in the sera of patients with diabetes and correlate with the extent of neuropathy and measurements of amiphospholipid antibodies may constitute a marker for ongoing damage to nerves. We measured serum anticardiolipin antibodies(IgG, IgM) to assess the prevalence and significance of anticardiolipin antibodies in NIDDM patients. METHOD: Ninety NIDDM patients were screened for lgG/IgM isotypes of anticardiolipin antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with 30 control subjects. RESULTS: 1) The titers and positivities of IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were significantly higher in the sera of NIDDM patients than those of control subjects(P<0.05). 2) In NIDDM patients with IgG anticardiolipin antibody, the titer of serum c-peptide was significantly lower(P<0.05) and the body mass index tended to be lower(P=0.08). 3) There were no significant differences of positivities of IgG anticardiolipin antibodies according to the state of chronic diabetic complications and the mode of treatment(P>0.05). 4) In the patients with NIDDM, no significant association was found between the titers of IgG anticardiolipin antibodies and age, diabetic duration, fasting blood glucose, HbAlc, total cholesterol and triglyceride. CONCLUSION: The titers and positivities of IgG anticardiolipin antibodies were elevated in NIDDM. In the NIDDM patients with IgG anticardiolipin antibody, the serum titers of c-peptide were significantly lower and the body mass index tended to be lower. It seems that serum IgG anticardiolipin antibodies might have autoimmune relationship with slowly progressive IDDM, but further prospective mass studies will be requird.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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