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Wan Sub Shim  (Shim WS) 14 Articles
A Case of Insulinoma Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Sung Soo Yoo, Wan Sub Shim, Chul Hyun Kim, Ki Cheol Ha, Seung Min Lye, Eun Joo Kim, So Hun Kim, Seong Bin Hong, Moonsuk Nam, Yong Seong Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(6):517-519.   Published online November 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.6.517
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An insulinoma is an endocrine tumor of the pancreas derived from the beta cells with abnormal insulin secretion. An insulinoma is rare, the incidence being estimated at only four per one million person-years. The association of diabetes mellitus and insulinoma is extraordinarily rare, but we should not overlook an insulinoma as a possible cause of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. A 70-year-old diabetic man who had been treated with oral hypoglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes suffered from night sweating for 10 days. Even after he stopped taking his oral hypoglycemic agents, the night sweating continued. The patient was admitted to evaluate the cause of the recurrent hypoglycemic events. After a 72-hour fasting test and selective arterial calcium stimulation test with venous sampling, he was diagnosed with insulinoma accompanied by type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the course of the study, the patient was also incidentally diagnosed with lung cancer.
A Case of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Associated with Pregnancy.
Hyung Kwon Yu, Moonsuk Nam, Wan Sub Shim, Hyun Jung Chung, Eun Joo Kim, Seong Bin Hong, Yong Seong Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(2):180-183.   Published online March 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.2.180
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency due to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. A novel subtype of type 1B which is rapidly developed without any evidence of autoimmunity has been recently proposed as fulminant type I diabetes. In female patients of child-bearing age, the onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes occurred frequently during pregnancy or after delivery in Japan, however, there was no report about fulminant type 1 diabetes associated with pregnancy in Korea. We report a case of fulminant type 1 diabetes associated with pregnancy. A 28-year-old woman suffering from excessive thirst with vomiting and general weakness after four days from normal spontaneous vaginal delivery presented to our hospital. Laboratory examination revealed a high blood glucose level and evidence of diabetic ketoacidosis, butHbA1c level was normal. These findings suggested a very recent onset of diabetes mellitus. Serum C-peptide level was very low level. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) was weakly positive. After fluid and insulin based management, patient successfully recovered without any serious complication.

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  • Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Developing during Pregnancy in Patient with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Jong Ha Baek, Kyong Young Kim, Soo-Kyoung Kim, Jung Hwa Jung, Jong Ryeol Hahm, Jaehoon Jung
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2017; 92(2): 186.     CrossRef
  • Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes with Robust Recovery in Insulin Secretion in a Pregnant Woman as an Initial Manifestation of Third-Trimester Intrauterine Fetal Death
    Mi-Hae Seo, Hyosang Han, Ji Yun Jeong, Jun-Yong Chang, Sun Young Jung
    Soonchunhyang Medical Science.2017; 23(2): 118.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes during Pregnancy
    Tae-Seon Oh, Heesoo Jung, Hye Rim Kang, Tae Kyun Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Park
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(2): 134.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated with Ischemic Ileitis
    Se-Won Oh, Ju-Ri Park, Yun-Jeong Lee, Hee-Yeong Kim, Ji-A Seo, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung-Mook Choi, Sei-Hyun Baik, Dong-Seop Choi, Sin-Gon Kim
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2009; 24(2): 116.     CrossRef
Development of Two Parallel Diabetes Knowledge Tests.
Wan Sub Shim, Seong Bin Hong, Yeon Sil Choi, Yun Jin Choi, Sook Hee Ahn, Kee Young Min, Eun Joo Kim, Ie Byung Park, Moonsuk Nam, Yong Seong Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):476-486.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.476
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  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Knowledge evaluation about diabetes mellitus is necessary to self-manage diabetes effectively. We developed two parallel diabetes knowledge tests to meet a need for reliable knowledge assessment in diabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 75-items (59 items for general knowledge test, 16 items for insulin use subscale) were administered to 102 diabetic patients who visited Inha University Hospital. The items which had the appropriate difficulty (0.25~0.80) and good discrimination index (above 0.25) were selected. However, the items which are thought to be an important item for education were also selected even though they did not meet the criteria of reliability and discrimination index. Two parallel diabetes knowledge tests were developed after matching the selected appropriate items for similar contents. RESULTS: 102 patients fulfilled the tests and their mean age was 54.1 +/- 11.5 years. Mean percentage of correct questionnaires was 60.9 +/- 12.5% for general test and 45.9 +/- 19.5% for insulin use subscale. There were significant differences of scores between patients with high and low education level, between patients with high income per household and low income level per household, between patients with the history of diabetes education and without history of diabetes education, and between the old (> or = 50 yrs) and the young (< 50 yrs) age group. However, there was no significant difference of scores according to diabetes duration and complication or not. The selected two tests had a similar score. And their Cronbach alpha was appropriate (> 0.70) in both tests. CONCLUSIONS: We developed two parallel diabetes knowledge tests. These tests can be used as an important means in evaluating the diabetes knowledge and effect of education in diabetic patients.

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  • Comparative Study of Diabetes Knowledge, Attitudes, Family Support, Self-efficacy, and Self-management Behaviors Between Cancer Survivors With Diabetes and Diabetes Patients Without Cancer
    Eun Jeong Ko, Su Jung Lee
    Cancer Nursing.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Health literacy and diabetes self‐care activities: The mediating effect of knowledge and patient activation
    Su Hyun Kim
    International Journal of Nursing Practice.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors influencing psychological insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients
    Ji Hyeon Yu, Hye Young Kim, Sung Reul Kim, Eun Ko, Heung Yong Jin
    International Journal of Nursing Practice.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A new comprehensive diabetes health literacy scale: Development and psychometric evaluation
    Eun-Hyun Lee, Young Whee Lee, Kwan-Woo Lee, Moonsuk Nam, So Hun Kim
    International Journal of Nursing Studies.2018; 88: 1.     CrossRef
  • Effect of a Simulated Education-based Hypoglycemia Scenario Using a High-fidelity Simulator on Acquisition and Retention of Diabetes Knowledge and Academic Self-efficacy in Nursing Students
    Jiyoung Kim, Narae Heo
    Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2017; 23(3): 319.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Evaluation of OneTouch Diabetes Management Software System in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Jung Min Kim, Hey Jean Lee, Keum Ok Kim, Jong Chul Won, Kyung Soo Ko, Byung Doo Rhee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(2): 129.     CrossRef
  • Relationship Between Duration of Type 2 Diabetes and Self-Reported Participation in Diabetes Education in Korea
    Jongnam Hwang, Jeffrey A. Johnson
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2015; 27(2): NP311.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Diabetes Educational Needs in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
    Seon-Yeong Park, Pok-Ja Oh
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2014; 15(7): 4301.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of the Experience of Diabetes Education on Knowledge, Self-Care Behavior and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Seung Hei Moon, Young Whee Lee, Ok-Kyung Ham, Soo-Hyun Kim
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2014; 20(1): 81.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting Highly Educated Elders' Diabetic Health Leader Attitude
    Kiwol Sung, Jiran Nam, Mijin Yu
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2014; 25(2): 119.     CrossRef
  • Nutrition Knowledge, Dietary Attitude, and Dietary Behavior among Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes
    Na-Yeon Noh, So-Young Nam, Hee-Suk Kang, Ji-Eun Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2013; 18(2): 101.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Diabetes Education Program on Glycemic Control and Self Management for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Ji Hyun Kim, Sang Ah Chang
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 518.     CrossRef
Effects of PPAR-alpha and-gamma Agonists on Fatty Acid Metabolism of Muscle Cells in Hyperlipidemic and Hyperglycemic Conditions.
Yong jik Lee, Zheng Shan Zhao, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Wan Sub Shim, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):324-335.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.324
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Studies for the regulation of fatty acid metabolism are deficient relatively in skeletal muscle and heart. The investigations in pathological conditions for malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) and for the relation of MCD and PPAR-alpha.-gamma agonists are insufficient in particular. METHODS: In the current study, fully differentiated H9c2 muscle cells were exposed to pathological conditions such as hyperlipidemic (0.1 mM Palmitate) and hyperglycemic (16.5 mM Glucose) condition with 5 uM PPAR-gamma agonist (rosiglitazone) and 10 uM PPAR-alpha agonist (WY14,643) and then experiments such as MCD activity assay, MCD real-time RT-PCR, MCD reporter gene assay, MCD Western blotting, PPAR-alpha Western blotting, and palmitate oxidation test were carried out. RESULTS: Only PPAR-alpha agonist increased MCD activity. In the result of real-time RT-PCR, both PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma agonists elevated MCD mRNA expression in hyperlipidemic condition. MCD protein expression was decreased in hyperlipidemic condition, however, increased in rosiglitazone, or WY14,643 treated conditions. Rosiglitazone, and WY14,643 treated groups showed incresed MCD protein expression in hyperglycemic condition. Hyperlipidemic control group and PPAR-alpha.-gamma agonists treated groups presented about 3.8 times more increased palmitate oxidation level than normolipidemic control group in hyperlipidemic condition. PPAR-alpha agonist treated group showed 49% more increased palmitate oxidation rate than hyperlipidemic control group in primary cultured rat skeletal muscle cells. The amount of palmitate oxidation from differentiated H9c2 muscle cells that had overexpressed PPAR-alpha structural genes was more increased than control group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that PPAR-alpha agonist ameliorates the defects induced by hyperlipidemic condition through the regulation of MCD. In summary, a closely reciprocal relation among PPAR-alpha agonist, MCD, and fatty acid oxidation existed distinctly in hyperlipidemic condition, but not in hyperglycemic condition.

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  • Beneficial effect of Combination with Korean Red Ginseng and Morus alba in metabolic syndrome
    Yun Jung Lee, Hye Yoom Kim, Jung Joo Yoon, So Min Lee, You Mee Ahn, Joung Hyun Kho, Min Chul Kho, Ho Sub Lee, Kyung Min Choi, Dae Gill Kang
    The Korea Journal of Herbology.2012; 27(6): 99.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Mixed Extract from Lycium chinense, Cordyceps militaris, and Acanthopanax senticosus on Glucose-Regulating Enzymes of HepG2 in Hyperglycemic Conditions
    Dae-Jung Kim, Jeong-Mi Kim, Tae-Hyuk Kim, Jong-Mi Baek, Hyun-Sook Kim, Myeon Choe
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(9): 1257.     CrossRef
Long-term Effect of Pioglitazone Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Jae Hoon Moon, Hye Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Wan Sub Shim, Eun Seuk Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):264-276.   Published online July 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.4.264
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones have been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long term serial effect of pioglitazone on anthropometrics and metabolic parameters in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: One hundred thirteen type 2 diabetes patients (male, 67; female, 46; mean age, 49.1+/-10.8 years) were evaluated before and after 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of treatment with pioglitazone (Actos(TM), 15 mg/day). Anthropometric parameters and metabolic variables were measured. RESULTS: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were increased in 3 months after pioglitazone treatment (body weight, 68.8+/-12.2 vs 69.8+/-11.9 kg, P < 0.01) without further increase. In women, body weight and BMI tended to increase more (body weight change after 3 months, 0.6+/-1.7 kg vs 1.6+/-1.7 kg, P < 0.01) and longer (3 months vs 6 months) than in men. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were decreased in 3 months after pioglitazone treatment (FPG, 7.97+/-2.29 vs 6.94+/-2.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01; HbA1c, 7.7+/-1.5 vs 7.0+/-1.1%, P < 0.01). Hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone was prominent in women than in men (FPG change after 12 months, -1.80+/-2.54 vs -0.09+/-1.72 mmol/L, P < 0.001; HbA1c change after 12 months, -0.9+/-1.3 vs -0.4+/-1.1%, P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased after 3 months of pioglitazone treatment (1.16+/-0.24 vs 1.31+/-0.28 mmol/L, P < 0.01) without return until the end of this study. Serum triglycerides level decreased at 3 months (basal vs 3 months, 2.29+/-1.86 vs 1.88+/-1.21 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and 6 months (basal vs 6 months, 2.29+/-1.86 vs 1.97+/-1.40 mmol/L, P < 0.05) of pioglitazone treatment, but returned to basal level at 12 months. Liver enzyme, especially serum alanine transferase level decreased after 3 months of pioglitazone treatment (30.8+/-23.7 vs 24.5+/-18.5 IU/L, P < 0.01) without return until the end of this study. Hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone was associated with basal BMI, fat contents and serum leptin level. CONCLUSION: Korean type 2 diabetes patients with pioglitazone use showed favorable metabolic effect for glycemic control, lipid metabolism and liverfunction, but pioglitazone induced body weight increase may be limited.

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  • Therapeutic Effect of Quadruple Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Insulin Limitations
    Won Sang Yoo, Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Hyun Kyung Chung
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(2): 117.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Visceral & Subcutaneous Fat and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):207-216.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.207
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Visceral obesity is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Small dense (sd) LDL is closely associated with CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentration. METHODS: 264 type 2 diabetic patients underwent ultrasonography to estimate visceral & subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentrations were measured. RESULTS: BMI, total cholesterol, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in male than those in lowest tertile. BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in female than those in lowest tertile. But sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were not different among three groups based on the tertile of subcutaneous fat length in male and female. Visceral fat length was correlated with sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, but negatively with percentage of large buoyant LDL-C and HDL-C after adjustment of age, sex and BMI. Subcutaneous fat length was not correlated with sd LDL-C and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C. CONCLUSION: The association between visceral fat length and sd LDL-C could be a factor that explains the association between visceral obesity and CVD.
The long term effects of rosiglitazone on serum lipid concentration and body weight.
Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(1):17-24.   Published online January 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.1.17
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Although rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, is known to have beneficial effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, it has adverse effects on the increment of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and body weight in some studies. Such adverse effects of rosiglitazone on the serum lipid profiles and body weight seem to be attributed to the fact that most studies with rosiglitazone are limited to a short period of follow up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of rosiglitazone on the serum lipid levels and body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated fasting serum glucose, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, HDL-C and body weight at baseline and every three months after rosiglitazone usage (4mg/d) in 202 type 2 diabetic patients. RESULTS: TC levels had increased maximally at 3 months and thereafter decreased, but were significantly higher at 18 months than those at baseline. LDL-C levels from the first 3 months to 12 months were significantly higher than those at baseline, but after 15 months, LDL-C concentration was not significantly different from the basal LDL-C concentration. HDL-C levels had increased after first 3 months and the increment of HDL-C concentration were maintained. The increment of HDL-C was more prominent in patients with low basal HDL-C concentration than in patients with high basal HDL-C concentration. Body weight from 3 months to 18 months were higher than that at baseline, but after 3 months, body weight did not increase furthermore significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse effects on lipid concentration and body weight of rosiglitazone may attenuate after long term usage of rosiglitazone.
Clinical Characteristics of Non-obese, Adult-onset Diabetes Requiring Insulin Treatment.
Se Eun Park, Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Eun Seok Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):557-565.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical characteristics of non-obese, adult-onset diabetes requiring insulin treatment and to compare the different characteristics of the three groups categorized according to diabetes classification. METHODS: Total 128 diabetic patients who were non-obese (BMI < 25kg/m2) and had been diagnosed with diabetes after 20 years old, requiring insulin treatment were enrolled in the study. We divided the patients into three groups : 56 patients with type 1, 37 with unclassifiable, and 35 with type 2 diabetes. The type of diabetes was assigned by comparing serum C-peptide concentration and clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: Type 2 and unclassifiable diabetes had no differences in BMI, the interval to use insulin, daily insulin dose, the level of HDL cholesterol and the positive rate for GAD Ab, but type 1 diabetes didn't. However, type 1 diabetes and unclassifiable group was lower prevalence of microvascular complications than type 2 diabetes (retinopathy 38.2, 52.8, 84.8 % ; nephropathy 37.7, 36.7, 74.2 % ; neuropathy 36.7, 36.7, 72.7 %, P<0.05). The prevalence of macrovascular complications was higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes (11.1, 29.4, 72.7 %, respectively, all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics were similar between unclassifiable and type 2 diabetes, but the prevalence of microvascular complication in unclassifiable group had no significant difference compared with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of macrovascular complications was significantly higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes.
The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):548-556.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and with characteristic dyslipidemia which is composed of high level of triglyceride, low level of HDL-C and increased small dense LDL (sd-LDL). Recently a simple method was established for the quantification of sd-LDL-C using heparin-magnesium precipitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the sd-LDL-C and the number of components of MS in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 287 type 2 diabetic patients, who did not use the medication which can affect the concentration of lipid such as statin, fibrate, thiazolidinediones and corticosteroid, were enrolled. The NCEP-ATP III criteria of MS were used except obesity. RESULTS: Although LDL-C concentrations were not changed according to the number of components of MS, absolute level and percentage of sd-LDL-C were increased. Although LDL-C concentrations were not different between presence and absence of MS, in the case of MS, absolute level and percentage of sd-LDL-C were higher than not in the case of MS. Sd-LDL-C concentration was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and percentage of sd-LDL-C, and negatively with HDL-C. The percentage of sd-LDL-C was positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglyceride and sd-LDL-C, and negatively with HDL-C. CONCLUSION: The sd-LDL-C may a factor that explains the higher risk of CVD in diabetic patients with the MS.
The Association of Family History of Diabetes and Obesity in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Seung Jin Han, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):540-547.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis, and obesity is also known as a important risk factor for development of diabetes. The relative effects of obesity and family history of diabetes (FHx) to develop diabetes have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze the relative role of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in the newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients according to the presence of FHx and obesity. METHOD: We evaluated the presence of FHx, fasting and postprandial glucose, C-peptide and insulin in 219 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without the history of drug therapy from Jan. 2003 to Oct. 2004. RESULT: The mean age of patients was 54.7+/-10.2(yr) and the mean BMI was 25.5+/-3.0 kg/m2. The patients with FHx develop diabetes earlier than them without FHx. BMI, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fasting C-peptide and HOMAIR value were not different between groups. But postprandial C-peptide, fasting insulin, postprandial insulin and HOMAbeta-cell value were significantly lower in patient with FHx than in them without FHx. Interestingly, obese (BMI > or = 25kg/m2) patients with FHx developed diabetes earlier than nonobese (BMI <25kg/m2) patients with FHx. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays an important role in the determination of the earlier onset of diabetes in patients with FHx. Intentional prevention of obesity may be an important means to prevent, at least delay, the onset of diabetes in the subjects with FHx.
The Association Between White Blood Cell Count and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Shin Ae Kang, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):460-468.   Published online September 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and inflammation is also closely associated with cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell count, which is a marker of systemic inflammation, has been found to correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the WBC count in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 606 patients (males 318, females 288, BMI 25.6+/-3.2 kg/m2 and duration of diabetes 4.8+/-5.9year) were enrolled. The WBC and differential counts, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS: According to the quartiles of the WBC count, the number of components of metabolic syndrome and percentage of patients with metabolic syndrome were increased in the highest WBC count quartile. The WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts increased with increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome, but not that of the basophil count. The WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without. The WBC count was found to be positively correlated with the waist circumference(gamma=0.090), systolic blood pressure(gamma=0.090), diastolic blood pressure(gamma=0.104), triglyceride(gamma=0.252), insulin(gamma=0.168) and HOMAIR(gamma=0.170), but negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(gamma= -0.167)(P<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Chronic inflammation, as indicated by a higher than normal WBC count, may increased with the increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome.
Clinical Meaning of Postprandial Insulin Secretory Function in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Se Eun Park, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):367-377.   Published online July 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Impaired pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postprandial insulin deficiency is closely related with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and insulin responses to meals, but most studies examining postprandial beta-cell responsiveness have been limited by the small number of type 2 diabetic patients examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting and postprandial insulin secretions in relation to the duration of diabetes, BMI and glycemic control in a large number of patients with variable disease durations. METHODS: We evaluated the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, BMI, postprandial 2 hour glucose, insulin and C-peptide in 1,170(male 662, female 508, age 54.6+/-1.6 years, duration of diabetes 5.2+/-6.3 years, BMI 25.4+/-3.3kg/m(2)) type 2 diabetic patients. The delta C-peptide, delta insulin, fasting(M0) and postprandial(M1) pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness were also calculated. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their duration of diabetes, BMI, and fasting and postprandial C-peptide levels. After adjusting for age, sex and BMI, the correlation of diabetes and HbA1c were correlated parameters. RESULTS: In the group of patients whose duration of diabetes was longer than 10 years, the BMI, fasting, postprandial and delta C-peptide, and M0 and M1 were significantly lower, but age, fasting and postprandial glucose, as well as HbA1c were significantly higher than those in the other groups. There were no significant differences in the fasting and postprandial glucose and HbA1c according to their fasting C-peptide tertiles. However, in the group of patients with the highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the fasting and postprandial glucose and HbA1c were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The duration of diabetes, after adjustment of age, sex and BMI, was negatively correlated with the fasting, postprandial and delta C-peptide, M0 and M1, but was positively correlated with the fasting and postprandial 2 hour glucose and HbA1c. The HbA1c after adjustment of age, sex and BMI, was positively correlated with duration of diabetes, and fasting and postprandial glucose, but was negatively correlated with fasting postprandial and delta C-peptide, M0 and M1. CONCLUSION: Although the fasting and postprandial insulin secretions were decreased with duration of diabetes, the decrease in the postprandial insulin secretion was more prominent. The postprandial pancreatic responsiveness may be a more important factor in predicting glycemic control in Korean type 2 diabetic patients than the fasting pancreatic responsiveness.
Analysis of the Relative Importance of Insulin Resistance and Insulin Secretion Defect by Homeostasis Model Assessment in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):206-214.   Published online May 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, the relative importance of insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has not been well characterized in any study that has included a large number of subjects. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of insulin sensitivity and the function of the beta cell in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We applied the HOMA model to 1,162 type 2 diabetic patients (654 males and, 508 females) who did not use insulin and we assessed HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell & its relation to the other parameters. RESULTS: The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 2.29(range: 0.31~37.17) and the HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 32.17(range: 1.04~1310.79). The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 2.15(range: 0.31~16.6) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 2.47(range: 0.36~37.17). The HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 30.1(range: 1.04~462.34) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 35.42(range: 2.60~1310.79). The HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell were significantly higher in females than males. There was no significant correlation between HOMAIR and age, and the duration of diabetes, but there was significant correlation between HOMAIR and BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. There was no significant correlation between age and HOMAbetacell. However, there was significant correlation between HOMAbetacell and BMI, the duration of diabetes, the fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. The longer the duration of diabetes, the more the HOMAbetacell was decreased but there was no change of HOMAIR with respect to the duration of diabetes. As expected, the subjects with a lower HOMAIR and a higher HOMAbetacell had the best glycemic control. Those with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell had the worst glycemic control although they had taken larger amount of oral hypoglycemic agents. Interestingly, the patients with a lower HOMAIR and higher HOMAbetacell had better glycemic control than those patients with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell. CONCLUSION: Both insulin secretion and insulin resistance are important in glycemic control but it seems that insulin secretion is a more important factor in glycemic control than insulin resistance in the Korean type 2 diabetic patients
Efficacy of Serum Leptin Level as an Indicator to Predict the Clinical Response of Rosiglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jae Hyuk Lee, Soo Kyung Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Han Seok Choi, Ji Young Jung, Wan Sub Shim, Hyun Joo Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(5):420-432.   Published online October 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Leptin is a protein secreted by adipocytes that regulates food intake by acting on the hypothalamus and is correlated with body fat mass. Insulin resistance is also correlated with body fat mass and obesity. Rosiglitazone (RSG) is known as a highly selective and potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). It improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue. This study was performed to evaluate the antidiabetic and insulin sensitizing effects of RSG combination therapy and the efficacy of serum leptin level as an indicator to predict the clinical response of RSG in type 2 diabetic patients with oral agents such as metformin and/or sulfonylurea. METHODS: The study subjects were 140 type 2 diabetic patients (90 male, 50 female) who received a 12-week course of daily 4 mg RSG, in addition to the previous medications. The glucose level, indices of insulin resistance and metabolic parameters were measured. Serum leptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay before and after RSG treatment. Visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were measured by sonography. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of RSG treatment, FPG (12.6+/-28.1 mg/dL), HOMAIR (0.3+/-0.9), serum fasting insulin (1.9+/-4.7 microU/mL), SBP and DBP had all decreased significantly, whereas body weight, BMI, waist circumference, WHR, body fat mass, and subcutaneous fat had all increased. Serum leptin level also tended to increase after RSG treatment, but without significance. deltaFPG (delta=value after treatment- value before treatent) was inversely correlated with basal serum leptin level (r=-0.202), basal HOMAIR (r=-0.226) and basal FPG (r=-0.565). There was no correlation between deltaFPG and basal BMI or serum insulin level. RSG treatment showed significant inverse correlation between serum leptin level and deltaHOMAIR (r=-0.416), delta insulin (r=-0.365) and deltaHbA1c (r=-0.189). Serum leptin level was positively correlated with the subcutaneous fat amount (r=0.548), basal BMI (r=0.521), and basal HOMAIR (r=0.343). CONCLUSION: These results showed that RSG treatment can improve not only hyperglycemia but also insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. The serum leptin level at baseline can be used as an indicator to predict the clinical response of RSG treatment in type 2 diabetes patients.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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