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Sang A Jang  (Jang SA) 2 Articles
Incidence of Diabetic Foot and Associated Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Five-year Observational Study.
Shin Ae Park, Seung Hyun Ko, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Sung Dae Moon, Sang A Jang, Hyun Shik Son, Ki Ho Song, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yu Bae Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(4):315-323.   Published online August 1, 2009
  • 2,567 View
  • 42 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The frequency of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot has been increasing in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to observe the incidence, clinical aspects and associated risk factors for diabetic foot. METHODS: We evaluated the incidence of diabetic foot through a five-year observation of type 2 diabetic patients who presented to St. vincent's Hospital between January and December 2003. To identify the risk factors for diabetic foot, we evaluated mean glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) every six months and assessed renal function based on the existence of proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Patients were also evaluated for retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy using Ewing's method. RESULTS: From an initial pool of 613 patients, the observational study of 508 patients (82.9%) was completed. The mean age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c were 50.3 +/- 10.6 yrs, 7.2 +/- 6.5 yrs and 8.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively. Diabetic foot occurred in 32 patients (6.3%). The incidence of diabetic foot increased when diabetic retinopathy (OR = 6.707, 2.314~19.439), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 2.949, 1.075~8.090), and autonomic neuropathy (OR = 3.967, 1.476~10.660) were present and when the MDRD GFR (OR = 5.089, 1.712~15.130) decreased. Mean HbA1c (OR = 12.013, 1.470~98.179) was found to be an independent risk factor for diabetic foot. CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed the importance of intensive glycemic control and the role of autonomic dysfunction in the development of diabetic foot. In addition, diabetic retinopathy and impaired renal function proved to be factors associated with the occurrence of diabetic foot. Therefore, intensive glycemic control, as well as periodic examination of renal function, are essential for the prevention of diabetic foot.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Risk of the Aggravation of Diabetic Foot According to Air Quality Factors in the Republic of Korea: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Saintpee Kim, Sungho Won, Young Yi
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2024; 21(6): 775.     CrossRef
  • Microbiological, Clinical and Radiological Aspects of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Infected with Methicillin-Resistant and -Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
    Maria Stańkowska, Katarzyna Garbacz, Anna Korzon-Burakowska, Marek Bronk, Monika Skotarczak, Anna Szymańska-Dubowik
    Pathogens.2022; 11(6): 701.     CrossRef
  • Potential of Nanoencapsulated Quercetin Topical Formulations in the Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcer
    Shashank Chaturvedi, Shruti Agrawal, Anuj Garg, Vaibhav Rastogi
    Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia.2022; 33(3): 484.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Diabetic Foot Ulceration Prediction Model and Nomogram
    Eun Joo Lee, Ihn Sook Jeong, Seung Hun Woo, Hyuk Jae Jung, Eun Jin Han, Chang Wan Kang, Sookyung Hyun
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2021; 51(3): 280.     CrossRef
  • Regional Variation in the Incidence of Diabetes-Related Lower Limb Amputations and Its Relationship with the Regional Factors
    Sung Hun Won, Jahyung Kim, Dong-Il Chun, Young Yi, Suyeon Park, Kwang-Young Jung, Gun-Hyun Park, Jaeho Cho
    Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society.2019; 23(3): 121.     CrossRef
  • The Changes of Trends in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer over a 10-Year Period: Single Center Study
    Choong Hee Kim, Jun Sung Moon, Seung Min Chung, Eun Jung Kong, Chul Hyun Park, Woo Sung Yoon, Tae Gon Kim, Woong Kim, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(4): 308.     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Diabetic Foot Ulcer, Sensory, Blood Circulation of Foot on Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Yi Kyu Park, Jun Young Lee, Sung Jung, Kang Hyeon Ryu
    Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association.2018; 53(2): 136.     CrossRef
  • Factors Contributing to Diabetic Foot Ulcer among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Seo Jin Park, Taeyoung Yang, Jun Young Lee, Jinhee Kim
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2018; 30(1): 106.     CrossRef
  • A Report on Diabetic Foot and Amputation from the Korean Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service Data
    Jong-Kil Kim, Young-Ran Jung, Kyung-Tae Kim, Chung-Shik Shin, Kwang-Bok Lee
    Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society.2017; 21(2): 66.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Current Status of Treatment of Diabetic Foot in South Korea
    Jae-Ik Bae, Je Hwan Won, Jun Su Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Chang Jin Yoon, Yun Ku Cho
    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2016; 74(3): 169.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Foot Disease—Incidence and Risk Factors: A Clinical Study
    Rajesh Kapila, Rakesh Sharma, Ashwani K Sharma, Jagsir Mann
    Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery (Asia Pacific).2016; 3(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Bong-Yun Cha
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(1): 6.     CrossRef
  • Diabetics' Preference in the Design Factors and Performance Requirements of Diabetic Socks
    Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Ah Kwon
    Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles.2011; 35(5): 527.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Disease
    Kyu Jeung Ahn
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(2): 72.     CrossRef
Average Daily Risk Range-Index of Glycemic Variability-Related Factor in Type 2 Diabetic Inpatients.
Shin Ae Park, Seung Hyun Ko, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyung Cho, Sung Dae Moon, Sang A Jang, Ki Ho Song, Hyun Shik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yu Bae Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):31-39.   Published online February 1, 2009
  • 2,450 View
  • 26 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
It is known that chronic sustained hyperglycemia and its consequent oxidative stress causes diabetic complication in type 2 diabetes. It has been further proven that glycemic variability causes oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to measure the average daily risk range (ADDR)-index of glycemic variability, and to evaluate relevant variables. METHODS: We measured the blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients who were treated with multiple daily injections from January to July, 2008. The blood glucose levels were checked four times a day for 14 days and were conversed according to the ADRR formula. The degree of glycemic variability was categorized into non-fluctuation and fluctuation groups. We collected patient data on age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, HOMA(IR), HOMA(betacell) and HbA1c. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c and mean ADRR were 57.6 +/- 13.4, 11.5 +/- 8.5 years, 10.7 +/- 2.5%, and 26.6 +/- 9.8, respectively. We classified 18.5% of the patients to the non-fluctuation group, and 81.5% to the fluctuation group. ADRR was significantly correlated with duration of diabetes, fasting and postprandial glucose, fructosamine, HbA1c and BMI and HOMAbetacell. In addition, this study confirmed that BMI, HOMAbetacell and HbA1c were ADRR-related independent variables. CONCLUSION: ADRR can be used as an index for blood glucose fluctuation in type 2 diabetic patients. Measuring ADRR in patients with low BMI and a long duration of diabetes is helpful to improve the effectiveness of their care.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationships between Thigh and Waist Circumference, Hemoglobin Glycation Index, and Carotid Plaque in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Myung Ki Yoon, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm, Kap Bum Huh, Chul Sik Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(2): 319.     CrossRef
  • Reversal of Hypoglycemia Unawareness with a Single-donor, Marginal Dose Allogeneic Islet Transplantation in Korea: A Case Report
    Hae Kyung Yang, Dong-Sik Ham, Heon-Seok Park, Marie Rhee, Young Hye You, Min Jung Kim, Ji-Won Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Tae Ho Hong, Byung Gil Choi, Jae Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(7): 991.     CrossRef

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