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Hong Sun Baek  (Baek HS) 11 Articles
The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on the Protection of Epidermal Nerve Fibers and Microcapillaries in the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Ming Han Piao, Heung Yong Jin, Sun Kyung Song, Seun Mi Kang, So Young Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(6):488-497.   Published online November 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.6.488
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  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic neuropathy is associated with risk factors for macrovascular diseases and other microvascular complications. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration has been reported to improve metabolic abnormalities and ameliorate peripheral polyneuropathy in diabetic patients. In addition, ALA improves endoneurial nutritive neural blood flow and nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. But it is not clear whether ALA has a preservation effect on microvasculature in addition to the effect on intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs). We investigated the effect of ALA on intraepidermal nerve fiber density (numbers/mm) and cutaneous capillary length in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: diabetes without diet control, diabetes with diet control, and diabetes with ALA treatment. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg) and the effect of ALA treatment was assessed by IENF immunostained with protein gene product 9.5 and by quantification of total cutaneous capillary length with mouse anti-rat reca-1 immunostaining. RESULTS: The value of IENF density significantly increased in ALA treatment group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Quantification of microvascularity was also significantly increased in ALA treatment group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that ALA administration in diabetic rats may be beneficial in the prevention of peripheral neuropathy associated with improvement of microvascularity. And the symptomatic amelioration after ALA treatment may be attributed to this morphological improvement.
Erythropoietin Levels According to the Presence of Peripheral Neuropathy in Diabetic Patients with Anemia.
Heung Yong Jin, Su Jin Jeung, Chong Hwa Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(2):151-156.   Published online March 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.2.151
  • 2,027 View
  • 19 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, contributing the greatest morbidity and mortality and impairing the quality of life. Recently the receptor of erythropoietin (Epo) was proven to be expressed in neuronal cell and recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) has been shown to have neuroprotective and neurotrophic potential in peripheral neuropathy. But there is no report about baseline Epo level in blood before rhEpo treatment with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: From Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2006, diabetic patients were reviewed about Epo level in blood, anemia, and peripheral neuropathy in Chonbuk National University Hospital. And we compared the mean value of baseline Epo level in diabetic patients with anemia according to the peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS: The mean value of Epo of patients with peripheral neuropathy was lower than that of patients without peripheral neuropathy (16.3 +/- 7.1 vs 26.1 +/- 29.7 mU/mL, P < 0.05). There was no significance in the correlation between hemoglobin and Epo level in diabetic patients with anemia irrespective of presence of peripheral neuropathy (r = -0.02, P = 0.81). CONCLUSION: We suggest that decreased Epo level in blood is possible to be an additional cause in the development of peripheral neuropathy. However, simultaneously another possibility that neuropathy causes reduced Epo level should be considered, so further studies are warranted in this field.

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  • The Association between Serum GGT Concentration and Diabetic Peripheral Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Ho Chan Cho
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 111.     CrossRef
Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Glimepiride/Metformin Fixed Combination Versus Free Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Seung Hwan Lee, In Kyu Lee, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Ki Ho Song, Kwan Woo Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyoung Woo Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Moon Suk Nam, Hong Sun Baek, Yong Ki Kim, Hyo Young Rhim, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):466-475.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.466
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  • 44 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Failure to manage diabetes mellitus receiving monotherapy increases as the duration of the disease is protracted, and in many cases it becomes inevitable to introduce combined therapies. However, compliance of the patients tends to decrease. We conducted a clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of preconstituted and fixed combination therapy of glimepiride plus metformin to those of free combination therapy. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed at least six months ago were randomly assigned either to a fixed group or a free group. The initial dosage was chosen according to the previous treatment history and then adjusted every two weeks following a predefined titration algorithm to meet the target mean fasting glucose levels (140 mg/dL). The medications were given for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c level from baseline to week 16. Various parameters were checked as secondary outcome measures and safety criteria. RESULTS: HbA1c level of the fixed group and the free group decreased by 1.09% and 1.08%, respectively. The 95% CI of the changes' difference between the two groups (-0.21%, +0.19%) was within the predefined equivalence interval (-0.5%, +0.5%). Secondary outcome measures (the changes of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose level, response rate and compliance) and safety criteria (frequency of hypoglycemia and adverse reactions) were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Fixed combination of glimepiride/metformin is as effective and safe therapy as free combination in type 2 diabetes patients.

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  • Efficacy and safety of glimepiride/metformin sustained release once daily vs. glimepiride/metformin twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Y.-C. Hwang, M. Kang, C. W. Ahn, J. S. Park, S. H. Baik, D. J. Chung, H. C. Jang, K.-A. Kim, I.-K. Lee, K. W. Min, M. Nam, T. S. Park, S. M. Son, Y.-A. Sung, J.-T. Woo, K. S. Park, M.-K. Lee
    International Journal of Clinical Practice.2013; 67(3): 236.     CrossRef
  • Pharmacokinetic comparison of a new glimepiride 1-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation and a glimepiride 2-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, two-way crossover study in
    Bo-Hyung Kim, Kwang-Hee Shin, JaeWoo Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyu-pyo Kim, Jung-Ryul Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Sang-Goo Shin, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu
    Clinical Therapeutics.2009; 31(11): 2755.     CrossRef
The Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Epidermal Nerve Preservation in the Diabetic Neuropathy of OLETF Rats.
Ming Han Piao, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):170-176.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.170
  • 1,799 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) administration has been reported to ameliorate some of symptoms of peripheral polyneuropathy in diabetic patients and to improve endoneurial nutritive neural blood flow and nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. But it is not clear whether ALA has the preservation effect on epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs) density. METHODS: We tested the efficacy of ALA in preserving current perception thresholds (CPTs) and ENFs (numbers/mm) in OLETF (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, which were fed with sucrose until diabetes mellitus developed. Thereafter, one group of OLETF rats was fed with ALA and the other was not for 40 weeks. Diabetic rats were administered with ALA (80 mg/kg of body weight/day) by oral feeding for 40 weeks. The effect of ALA treatment on ENFs preservation was assessed by protein gene product 9.5 immunostaining. Quantification of neuropathic symptoms on the dorsum of hind paws of rat was measured by CPT test every 4 weeks. RESULTS: Numbers of ENF significantly decreased in OLETF rats fed without ALA compared with OLETF rats fed with ALA (P < 0.01). The thresholds at 2000, 250 and 5 Hz in OLETF rats fed with ALA did not increased and OLETF rats without ALA significantly increased at 80 weeks (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that administrations of ALA may be useful for preserving ENFs and CPTs in OLETF rats dorsum of hind paws skin.
Relationship between Carotid Atherosclerosis and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Seropositivity in Type 2 Diabetes.
Su Jin Jung, Ji Hye Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Tae Sun Park, Hong Sun Baek
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):352-357.   Published online July 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The major causes of death in diabetic patients are atherosclerosis-related diseases. Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae(C. pneumoniae) has been reported to play a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. However, data relating to C. pneumoniae exposure are rare in type 2 diabetes that are more susceptible to infection. The aim of this study was to see whether C. pneumoniae seropositivity was associated with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 135 type 2 diabetic patients. Serum samples from the subjects were assayed for risk factors, including lipid profiles, HbA1c, fibrinogen and CRP. Serum titers of antibodies to C. pneumoniae(IgG, IgM) were measured using microimmunofluorescence(MIF). tests Carotid ultrasound examination was used to measure the intima-media thickness(IMT), plaques and the presence of stenosis in each segment of both carotid arteries. RESULTS: C. pneumoniae seropositivity was detected in 17.8%(n=24), but without any difference between the sexes, in the 135 type 2 diabetic patients. The CRP level was increased in the seropositive group(P=0.041). The presence of carotid stenosis and IMT were significantly from a associated with C. pneumoniae seropositivity from a univariate analysis(IMTmean: IgG(+), 0.93mm vs. IgG(-), 0.85mm, P = 0.038, IMTmax: IgG(+), 1.29mm vs. IgG(-), 1.17mm, P = 0.025, stenosis: IgG (+), 25% vs. IgG(-) 7.2%, P = 0.020). No association was found for the plaque count or score. After controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, including age, sex, hypertension, cholesterol, and CRP, the association of C. pneumonia seropositivity with the IMTmean or carotid stenosis remained significant(IMTmean: P = 0.027, stenosis: P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of C. pneumoniae infection was detected in 17.8% randomly-assigned type 2 diabetic patients. C. pneumoniae seropositivity may be a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients.
The Relation Between Serum and Intracellular Magnesium Level And Diabetic Microvascular Complications.
Kyung Hoon Min, Ji Hye Kim, Eun Kyung Choi, Ji Hyun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Tian Ze Ma, Bing Zhe Hong, Yong Geun Kwak, Hyung Sub Kang, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(4):284-292.   Published online August 1, 2004
  • 1,323 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Low serum magnesium levels are related to diabetes mellitus (DM), high blood pressure (HBP) and metabolic syndrome (MS). However, as far as is known, there have been no previous studies analyzing the relevance of the serum and intracellular magnesium concentrations in diabetic microvascular complication individuals compared with healthy individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A pilot study was performed to compare 35 individuals with DM with 22 disease-free control subjects. The serum and intracellular magnesium levels of each group were measured, and found to be elevated in the diabetic group with diabetic microvascular complications. RESULTS: The mean serum magnesium levels among the subjects with DM and the control subjects were 0.0503 +/- 0.0750 and 0.9166 0.1149 mmol/L (p<0.001), respectively. The mean intracellular magnesium levels among the subjects with DM and the control subjects were 3.3548+/-0.1863 and 3.6732 0.2428 mM/mg protein (p<0.001), respectively. In those diabetic subjects whose serum magnesium concentration was measured, 28 had diabetic retinopathy, 30 diabetic nephropathy and 20 diabetic neuropathy. The mean serum magnesium concentrations of each diabetic microvascular complication were 0.9320 0.2813, 0.9259 0.1188 and 0.9305 0.1293 mmol/L, respectively, which that were significantly lower than those of the healthy subjects (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01). Also, the diabetic subjects whose intracellular magnesium concentrations were measured, 13 had diabetic retinopathy, 15 diabetic nephropathy and 9 diabetic neuropathy. The mean intracellular magnesium concentrations of each diabetic microvascular complication were 3.3484 0.1607, 3.3289 0.1832 and 3.3768 0.2096 mM/mg protein, respectively, and were also significantly lower than those of the healthy subjects (p<0.001and p<0.01). Each diabetic microvascular complication was also negatively correlated with the serum magnesium and intracellular magnesium levels. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that a significant relation ship exists between low serum and intracellular magnesium levels and diabetic microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy and nephropathy. A large scale study on these subjects will be required to generalize our results.
New Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Evaluation of Diabetic Neuropathy.
Park Tae Sun, Hong Sun Baek
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(5):328-331.   Published online October 1, 2001
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
The Relation of Carotid Arterial Plaque to Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Seung Hyun Lee, Chi Young Moon, Jeong Ki Choi, Kyoung Deok Shin, Hyun Kag Kim, Wan Hee Yoo, Tae Sun Park, Hong Sun Baek, Dal Sik Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):678-685.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Apolipoproiein (Apo E) is one of the major proteins involved in catabolism of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Apo E poly-morphism contributes to the variation in plasma cholesterol levels and may influence the risk of atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to know whether apo E polymorphism is associated with carotid artery intima, media thickness and plaque formation in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We determined the apo E genotypes of 130 type 2 diabetic patients by modified Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and classified all patients into E2, E3, E4 subgroups. The carotid artery IMT and plaque formation were determined with B-mode ultrasonography. RESULT: The apo E allele frequency of patients were E2 11.5%, E3 76.2%, FA 12.3% (p=0.0001). LDL-cholesterol levels were higher in patients with E4 allele, and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower in patients with FA allele than in patients with E2, E3 subgroups. The patients with carotid artery plaque have more E4 alleles in comparison to the patients without it(p=0.0001). FA allele group has higher carotid IMT than E2 and E3 allele groups (p=0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Apo E polymorphism is associated with carotid artery IMT and plaque formation in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with E4 isoform is more likely to develop the atherosclerosis, carotid and coronary artery diseases than other apo E isoforms.
A Comparative Study on the side Effects of Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Unfractionated Heparin Therapy in non-insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Patients.
Tae Sun Park, Sung Kwang Park, Hong Sun Baek, Sung Kyew Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):344-352.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We compared the known side effects of low dose low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin(UH) therapy for prevention of the thrombosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Changes in plasma aldosterone, renin activity, potassium concentration, platelet counts and bleeding tendency were investigated in 68 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 7days after LMWH and UH therapy. LMWH and UH was administered by subcutaneous route at dases of 5000 and 7500 units/day respectively. RESULTS: Although plasma aldosterone concentration was decreased from 323.8+219.2pmol/1 to 142.7+111.lpmo.l/l(p<0.05) in LMWH therapy and from 200.3+177.0pmol/l to 99.6+68.6pmol/l(p<0.05) in UH therapy, decrease rate is significantly greater in UH therapy(p<0.05). Plasma renin activity was decreased from 0.76+0.73ng/L/s to 0.29+ 0.21ng/L/s(p<0.05) in LMWH therapy and from 0.51+0.23ng/L/s to 0.22+0.11ng/L/s(p<0.05) in UH therapy, but decrease rate is not significantly different in both group(p>0.05). Plasma potassium was increased from 4.22+0.82mmol/L to 4.40+ 0.81mmol/L(p>0.05) in LMWH therapy and from 3.98+0.55mmol/L to 4.34+0.82mmol/L(p>0.05) in UH therapy and platelet counts were decreased from 217,875+56,783 to 206,375+67,855/mm(p>0.05) during LMWH and from 273,958+93,519 to 236,708+62,414/mm(p<0.01) in UH therapy. Other complications of heparin therapy were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose LMWH and UH treated patients are not significantly different in clinical and laboratory characteristics, except that heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was less common in type 2 DM patients treated with LMWH than in those treated with UH.
Relationship between Carotid Artery Plaque Measured by Ultrasound and Cerebral infarction in Patients with Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes.
Kil Hong Rhee, Sang In Choi, Seung Ok Lee, Cheol Su Lim, Tae Sun Park, Hong Sun Baek
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(4):469-475.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The frequency of cerebral infarction is significantly increased in diabetic patients. Early detection of artherosclerotic lesions will be a useful to predict and delay the occurence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between extracranial carotid artery plaque and cerebral infarction in NIDDM patients, who have cerebral infarction or not, using non-invasive B-mode ultrasonography. METHODS: Ultrasound high resolution B-mode imaging of carotid arteries was conducted on cerebral infaretion patients with NIDDM and non cerebral infaretion patients with NIDDM to determine the presence of the carotid artery plaque. RESULTS: The incidence rate of cerebral infarction was increased in relation to extracranial carotid artery plaquie existence. The exeistence of carotid artery plaque was higher in NIDDM patients with cerebral infarction than without cerebral infarction(p<01050). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that development of cerebral infarction in NIDDM patients, who had carotid plaque, was 2.8 fold higher than NIDDM patients who had not carotid plaque(p<0.05), Conclusions: Existence of carotid plaque was closely related to cerebral infarction. Therefore, early detection of extraeranial carotid plaque by B-mode ultrasonography is very useful in predicting cerebral mfarction in NIDDM patients.
Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus andbeta3-Adrenergic Receptor Gene Polymorphism.
Hong Sun Baek
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(2):127-129.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

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