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Chul Woo Ahn  (Ahn CW) 50 Articles
Protective Effects of Lithospermic Acid B on Diabetic Nephropathy in OLETF Rats Comparing with Amlodipine and Losartan.
Eun Seok Kang, Beom Seok Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Gi Ho Seo, Seung Jin Han, Sung Wan Chun, Kyu Yeon Hur, Chul Woo Ahn, Hunjoo Ha, Mankil Jung, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):10-20.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.10
  • 2,375 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Lithospermic acid B (LAB), an active component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhizae, has been reported to have renoprotective effects in type 1 and type 2 diabetic animal models. We examined the effects of LAB on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy compared with amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, and losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, in Otsuka Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: LAB (20 mg/kg), amlodipine (10 mg/kg), or losartan (10 mg/kg) was given orally once daily to 10-week-old male OLETF rats for 28 weeks. RESULTS: None of LAB, losartan, and amlodipine exhibited effects on blood glucose levels. Treatment with amlodipine or losartan resulted in similar reductions in blood pressure; however, LAB was less effective in lowering blood pressure. Albuminuria was markedly suppressed by losartan and LAB, but not by amlodipine. LAB treatment decreased levels of renal lipid peroxidation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that LAB has beneficial effects on the diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rats by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation as potent as losartan.

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  • An Overview on Naturally Occurring Phytoconstituent: Lithospermic Acid
    Bhupesh Chander Semwal, Amjad Hussain, Sonia Singh
    The Natural Products Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Current Status of Diabetes Management in Korea Using National Health Insurance Database.
Seok Won Park, Dae Jung Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi, Ie Byung Park, Jeong Hyun Park, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Jee Young Oh, Juneyoung Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Jaiyong Kim, Hwayoung Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(4):362-367.   Published online July 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.4.362
  • 2,820 View
  • 33 Download
  • 31 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily increasing in Korea. The increase in number of people with diabetes would ultimately result in premature death, poor quality of life, and increasing economic burden. However, in our country, researches regarding on the quality of diabetes management are lacking. This study was conducted in 2005 using National Health Insurance Database to know the current status of diabetes management in Korea. METHODS: We have randomly selected 3,902 subjects out of 2,503,754 subjects who had claims with diagnosis of diabetes between January 2003 to December 2003 by using two staged cluster sampling method. Field survey with review of medical records and telephone survey was conducted with standardized record forms developed by Korean Diabetes Association; Task Force Team For Basic Statistical Study of Korean Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: The age of diabetic subjects was 58.1 +/- 12.6 years and the duration of diabetes was 6.2 +/- 5.5 years. Hypertension was present in 54% of diabetic subjects. Among those with hypertension, 59% were controlled with blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, but only 19% were controlled with blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg. Hyperlipidemia was present in 29% of diabetic subjects. Only 38% of those with hyperlipidemia were controlled with LDL-cholesterol below 100 mg/dL. For glycemic control, only 40% of diabetic subjects achieved the goal of HbA1c less than 7%, which was suggested by ADA. CONCLUSION: We found that only 20~40% of diabetic subjects in Korea achieved the management goal for glucose, blood pressure, and lipids. It seems urgent to develop a quality management program for diabetes subjects in Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Developing a nomogram for predicting depression in diabetic patients after COVID-19 using machine learning
    Haewon Byeon
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing the Utilization of Diabetes Complication Tests Under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Machine Learning Approach
    Haewon Byeon
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Influences of Patient Activation on Diabetes Self-Care Activities and Diabetes-Specific Distress
    Sookyung Choi, Su Hyun Kim
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2020; 32(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to Self-care in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Seung-Yeon Kong, Mi-Kyoung Cho
    The Open Nursing Journal.2020; 14(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Current status of treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ningbo, China
    Tianmeng Yang, Rongjiong Zheng, Qingmei Chen, Yushan Mao
    Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Korea: a nationwide population-based study
    Hyungtae Kim, Siin Kim, Sola Han, Pratik P. Rane, Kathleen M. Fox, Yi Qian, Hae Sun Suh
    BMC Public Health.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Team-Based Education in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
    Jong Ho Kim, Yun Jeong Nam, Won Jin Kim, Kyung Ah Lee, A Ran Baek, Jung Nam Park, Jin Mi Kim, Seo Young Oh, Eun Heui Kim, Min Jin Lee, Yun Kyung Jeon, Bo Hyun Kim, In Joo Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Sang Soo Kim
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(2): 119.     CrossRef
  • Physician-Directed Diabetes Education without a Medication Change and Associated Patient Outcomes
    Hun-Sung Kim, Hyunah Kim, Hae-Kyung Yang, Eun Young Lee, Yoo Jin Jeong, Tong Min Kim, So Jung Yang, Seo Yeon Baik, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, In Young Choi, Hyeon Woo Yim, Bong-Yun Cha
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(3): 187.     CrossRef
  • Risks of borderline liver enzyme abnormalities to the incidence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus: a 7 year follow up study of workers
    Jin-Hyun Yu, Jin-Seok Kim, Mee-Ra Lee, Seong-Yong Yoon, Seong-Yong Cho, Seung-Hyun Yoo, Boo-Il Kim
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship Between Duration of Type 2 Diabetes and Self-Reported Participation in Diabetes Education in Korea
    Jongnam Hwang, Jeffrey A. Johnson
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2015; 27(2): NP311.     CrossRef
  • Current Status of Management in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at General Hospitals in South Korea
    Jin-Hee Jung, Jung-Hwa Lee, Jin-Won Noh, Jeong-Eun Park, Hee-Sook Kim, Joo-Wha Yoo, Bok-Rye Song, Jeong-rim Lee, Myeong-Hee Hong, Hyang-Mi Jang, Young Na, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jeong-Mi Lee, Yang-Gyo Kang, Sun-Young Kim, Kang-Hee Sim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(4): 307.     CrossRef
  • Trend Analysis in the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes According to Risk Factors among Korean Adults: Based on the 2001~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data
    Young-Ju Kim, Myoung-Nam Lim, Dong-Suk Lee
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2014; 44(6): 743.     CrossRef
  • Evaluating Chronic Care of Public Health Centers in a Metropolitan City
    Yong-Jun Choi, Dong-Soo Shin, Minah Kang, Sang-Soo Bae, Jaiyong Kim
    Health Policy and Management.2014; 24(4): 312.     CrossRef
  • Increasing risk of diabetes mellitus according to liver function alterations in electronic workers
    Kyoungho Lee, Joohee Han, Soo‐Geun Kim
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2014; 5(6): 671.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of the Experience of Diabetes Education on Knowledge, Self-Care Behavior and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Seung Hei Moon, Young Whee Lee, Ok-Kyung Ham, Soo-Hyun Kim
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2014; 20(1): 81.     CrossRef
  • Current Status of Prescription in Type 2 Diabetic Patients from General Hospitals in Busan
    Ji Hye Suk, Chang Won Lee, Sung Pyo Son, Min Cheol Kim, Jun Hyeob Ahn, Kwang Jae Lee, Ja Young Park, Sun Hye Shin, Min Jeong Kwon, Sang Soo Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Park, In Joo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(3): 230.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Based Diabetes Self-Management Education on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes
    Kang Hee Sim, Moon Sook Hwang
    The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education.2013; 19(2): 127.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Epidemics in Korea: Reappraise Nationwide Survey of Diabetes "Diabetes in Korea 2007"
    Ie Byung Park, Jaiyong Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Jee-Young Oh, Seok Won Park, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Kyung Wan Min, Jeong Hyun Park, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Hwayoung Kim, Sunhee Lee, Im Bong Lee, Injeoung Choi, Sei Hyun Baik
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(4): 233.     CrossRef
  • Total Energy Intake May Be More Associated with Glycemic Control Compared to Each Proportion of Macronutrients in the Korean Diabetic Population
    Hye Mi Kang, Dong-Jun Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(4): 300.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Soybeans, Chungkukjang, and Doenjang on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipid Profile in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
    Ah-Ra Kim, Jae-Joon Lee, Sun-Sook Cha, Hae-Choon Chang, Myung-Yul Lee
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2012; 41(5): 621.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study on Self-Care Behavior, Diabetes-related Stress, and Stress Coping among Good, Inadequate, and Poor Glycemic Control Groups
    Hye-Yeon Kang, Mee-Ock Gu
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2012; 19(2): 168.     CrossRef
  • Education as Prescription for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Compliance and Efficacy in Clinical Practice
    Mi Yeon Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Sang-Man Jin, Se Won Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Sung Hye Kim, Mi Yong Rha, Young Yun Cho, Myung-Shik Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwang-Won Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(6): 452.     CrossRef
  • Biological Effect of Vaccinium uliginosum L. on STZ-induced Diabetes and Lipid Metabolism in Rats
    Eun-Kyung Han, Hyuck-Se Kwon, Se-Gye Shin, Yoon-Hee Choi, Il-Jun Kang, Cha-Kwon Chung
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2012; 41(12): 1727.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study on HbA1C, Self-care Behavior, and Quality of Life by Depression Status in Type II Diabetic Patients
    Young-Min Jeong, Mi-Young Kim
    Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.2012; 19(3): 353.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Target Achievement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients after Hyperglycemia, Hypertension, Dyslipidemia Management
    Ah Young Kang, Su Kyung Park, So Young Park, Hye Jeong Lee, Ying Han, Sa Ra Lee, Sung Hwan Suh, Duk Kyu Kim, Mi Kyoung Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 264.     CrossRef
  • Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Dietary Intake Control in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Boo-Kyung Koo, Ji-Yeon Jung, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Ah Han, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(2): 155.     CrossRef
  • An Evaluation of Sampling Design for Estimating an Epidemiologic Volume of Diabetes and for Assessing Present Status of Its Control in Korea
    Ji-Sung Lee, Jaiyong Kim, Sei-Hyun Baik, Ie-Byung Park, Juneyoung Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(2): 135.     CrossRef
  • The Current Status of Type 2 Diabetes Management at a University Hospital
    Young Sil Lee
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(3): 241.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase on Impaired Fasting Glucose or Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Men
    Tae-Yeon Kim, Do-Hoon Kim, Chang-Hae Park, Kyung-Hwan Cho, Seung-Hwan Lee, Hyuk Ga, Hwan-cheol Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(3): 215.     CrossRef
  • Management of Diabetic Mellitus in Low-income Rural Patients
    Hye-Yeon Kim, Woo-Jun Yun, Min-Ho Shin, Sun-Seong Kweon, Hye-Ran Ahn, Seong-Woo Choi, Young-Hoon Lee, Dong-Hyeok Cho, Jung-Ae Rhee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2009; 42(5): 315.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Smoking Status upon Occurrence of Impaired Fasting Glucose or Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Men
    Chang-Hae Park, Hyuk Ga, Jong-Han Leem, Seung-Min Kwak, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Ji-Ho Choi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2008; 41(4): 249.     CrossRef
In vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy and Nerve Growth Factor in Diabetic Microvascular Complications.
Ji Sun Nam, Young Jae Cho, Tae Woong Noh, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Min ho Cho, Hai Jin Kim, Ji Eun Yoon, Han Young Jung, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Hyung Keun Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(4):351-361.   Published online July 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.4.351
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
In vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCCM) is being recognized as a non-invasive, early diagnostic tool for diabetic neuropathy, for it provides a clear image of corneal subbasal nerve plexus in detail. Nerve growth factors (NGF) are believed to regulate peripheral and central nervous system, neuronal differentiation, and regeneration of damaged nerves, and their role in diabetic neuropathy is being emphasized these days. Moreover, NGFs and receptors are also expressed in retina and renal mesangial cells, suggesting their possible role in the common pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. We plan to examine corneal structures of diabetic patients and compare IVCCM with conventional tools and analyze their serum and tear NGF levels. METHODS: IVCCM, nerve conduction velocity (NCV), and serum, urine, and tear samplings were done to 42 diabetic patients. From IVCCM, we measured corneal nerve density, branch, and tortuosity, total corneal/epithelial thickness, and the number of endothelial/keratocyte cells, and we checked patients' biochemical profiles and serum and tear NGF levels. RESULTS: Patients with more severe neuropathy had less corneal endothelial cells (3105 +/- 218 vs. 2537 +/- 142 vs. 2350 +/- 73/mm3 vs. 1914 +/- 465/mm3, P = 0.02), higher serum NGF (36 +/- 15 vs. 60 +/- 57.66 vs. 80 +/- 57.63 vs. 109 +/- 60.81 pg/mL, P = 0.39) and tear NGF levels (135.00 +/- 11.94 vs. 304.29 +/- 242.44 vs. 538.50 +/- 251.92 vs. 719.50 +/- 92.63 pg/mL, P = 0.01). There was a positive correlation between neuropathy and corneal nerve tortuosity (r2 = 0.479, P = 0.044) and negative correlation between neuropathy and endothelial cell count (r2 = -0.709, P = 0.002). Interestingly, similar changes were seen in other microvascular complications as well. CONCLUSION: Our results provide a possibility of using novel tools, IVCCM and NGF, as common diagnostic tools for diabetic microvascular complications, but it should be followed by a large population study.
Activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Isolated from Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.
Jisun Nam, Min Ho Cho, Jong Suk Park, Geun Taek Lee, Hai Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hun Joo Ha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(3):261-273.   Published online May 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.3.261
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We evaluated the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox-sensitive transcription factors in isolated peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). METHODS: From 66 diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy (Group III and II, respectively) and 49 normal control subjects (Group I), spontaneous and stimulated ROS levels, activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and specificity protein1 (Sp1) in PBMC, urinary and PBMC TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1), and 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were measured. RESULTS: Spontaneous ROS was significantly higher in group III and II than group I (60.7 +/- 3.3 vs. 60.0 +/- 3.0 vs. 41.1 +/- 2.4%, respectively), and stimulated ROS were significantly higher in Group III compared to Group II (Increment of H2O2-induced ROS production: 21.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 11.1 +/- 2.0%, respectively; increment of PMA-induced ROS production 23.5 +/- 4.5 vs. 21.6 +/- 2.2%, respectively). The activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1, but not of Sp1, were significantly higher in Group III than in Group II (2.53 vs. 2.0 vs. 1.43-fold, respectively). Both PBMC- and urinary TGF-beta1 levels were higher in Group III than Group II (3.23 +/- 0.39 vs. 1.99 +/- 0.68 ng/mg in PBMCs, 16.88 +/- 6.84 vs. 5.61 +/- 1.57 ng/mL in urine, both respectively), and they were significantly correlated with activities of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and 24-hour UAE. CONCLUSIONS: Increased intracellular ROS generation in PBMCs of diabetic patients is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy through activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, but not Sp1, and increased expression of TGF-beta1.
The Appropriate Distance and Duration of Walking for Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Tae Seo Sohn, Jung Min Lee, Sang Ah Chang, Kyung Ah Han, Hyun Shik Son, Hyo Jeong Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Yeon Ah Sung, Kyung Wan Min, Sei Hyun Baik, Jae Myeong Yu, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(2):157-162.   Published online March 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.2.157
  • 1,867 View
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
For decades, exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes managements, along with diet and medication. Many studies have shown that regular physical activity improves quality of life, reduces the risk of mortality from all causes, and is particularly advantageous in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, high-quality evidence and basic data on the importance of exercise and physical fitness in Korean diabetic patients were lacking until recent years. METHOD: This study included 240 diabetic patients (122 men, 118 women) recruited from 6 diabetic centers in Korea. To measure step length and walking velocity at normal walking speed, we made the patient walk 12 meter at normal speed. The patients wore the pedometer for 7 days and we got the equation between the walking steps per day and calorie expenditure for 7 days. From the equation, we calculated appropriate steps, distance and duration of walking in type 2 diabetic patients as exercise program RESULTS: In men, the walking velocity was 4.4 +/- 0.6 km/h and step length was 67.6 +/- 7.3 cm at normal walking speed. In women, the walking velocity was 4.0 +/- 0.6 km/h and step length was 58.4 +/- 5.5 cm at normal walking speed. The equation between kcal per week and steps per day was that kcal/week = (steps/day) x 0.268 + 64.074 (R2 = 0.854, P < 0.01) in men and kcal/week in women = (steps/day) x 0.256 - 39.005 (R2 = 0.890, P < 0.01). The steps/day, walking distance and walking duration which correspond to 700 kcal/week was 2,373 steps/day, 21.9 minutes and 1,604 meter in men, and 2,887 steps/day, 25.3 minutes and 1,690 meter in women at normal walking speed. CONCLUSION: To exert at least 700 kcal/week with exercise, it is recommended that type 2 diabetic patients walk at least 25 minutes/day or 1,700 meter/day or 2,500 steps/day in men and 30 minutes/day or 1,800 meter/day or 3,000 steps/day in women at normal walking speed.

Citations

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  • Effects of Tai Chi Exercise on Glucose Control, Neuropathy Scores, Balance, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy
    Sukhee Ahn, Rhayun Song
    The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.2012; 18(12): 1172.     CrossRef
  • Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study
    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • Group Classification on Management Behavior of Diabetic Mellitus
    Sung-Hong Kang, Soon-Ho Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2011; 12(2): 765.     CrossRef
  • Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Dietary Intake Control in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hee-Jung Ahn, Boo-Kyung Koo, Ji-Yeon Jung, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Ah Han, Kyung-Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(2): 155.     CrossRef
Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes in Korea.
Sang Ah Chang, Jung Min Lee, Tae Seo Sohn, Hyun Shik Son, Sung Woo Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Jae Myung Yu, Yeon Ah Sung, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Wan Min, Kyung Ah Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):83-88.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.83
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Walking is a popular, convenient and relatively safe form of exercise. However, there is few objective data for walking exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate pedometer-determined physical activity defined as steps/day in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it could be the basic data for programming walking exercise in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants with type 2 diabetes who visited in 6 university hospitals on February, 2006 in Seoul and Kyung-gi area were recruited. The participants were asked their ambulatory activity with the given pedometer and calorimeter for 1 week. Total 240 (Male 122, Female 118) subjects who walked above 1000 steps/day were analyzed. We also collected their biochemical data from the medical records. RESULTS: Participants took 8532 +/- 4130 steps for day (step/day) and energy expenditure were 320 +/- 161 Cal/day. Steps/day was not significantly different between male and female, but energy expenditure was higher in male than female ( P < 0.05). Steps/day was significantly lower in obese patients than non-obese patients (P < 0.001). BMI (r = -0.325, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = -0.287, P < 0.001), triglyceride (r = 0.164, P < 0.018) showed significant inverse correlation with steps/day, but BUN (r = 0.165, P = 0.019) and HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.164, P = 0.018) were positive correlated with steps/day significantly. BMI (r = -0.14, P < 0.032) and cholesterol (r = -0.139, P < 0.041) showed significantly inverse correlation with energy expenditure and BUN (r = 0.187, P = 0.008) and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.145, P < 0.037) positively correlated with energy expenditure. Pedometer-determined steps/day was positively associated with energy expenditure (r2 = 0.824, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed the objective quantification of physical activity measured by simple and inexpensive pedometers. It could be used to recommend walking exercise since the practitioners can estimate steps/day for required energy expenditure.
Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Glimepiride/Metformin Fixed Combination Versus Free Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Seung Hwan Lee, In Kyu Lee, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Ki Ho Song, Kwan Woo Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyoung Woo Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Moon Suk Nam, Hong Sun Baek, Yong Ki Kim, Hyo Young Rhim, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):466-475.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.466
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Failure to manage diabetes mellitus receiving monotherapy increases as the duration of the disease is protracted, and in many cases it becomes inevitable to introduce combined therapies. However, compliance of the patients tends to decrease. We conducted a clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of preconstituted and fixed combination therapy of glimepiride plus metformin to those of free combination therapy. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed at least six months ago were randomly assigned either to a fixed group or a free group. The initial dosage was chosen according to the previous treatment history and then adjusted every two weeks following a predefined titration algorithm to meet the target mean fasting glucose levels (140 mg/dL). The medications were given for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c level from baseline to week 16. Various parameters were checked as secondary outcome measures and safety criteria. RESULTS: HbA1c level of the fixed group and the free group decreased by 1.09% and 1.08%, respectively. The 95% CI of the changes' difference between the two groups (-0.21%, +0.19%) was within the predefined equivalence interval (-0.5%, +0.5%). Secondary outcome measures (the changes of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose level, response rate and compliance) and safety criteria (frequency of hypoglycemia and adverse reactions) were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Fixed combination of glimepiride/metformin is as effective and safe therapy as free combination in type 2 diabetes patients.

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  • Efficacy and safety of glimepiride/metformin sustained release once daily vs. glimepiride/metformin twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Y.-C. Hwang, M. Kang, C. W. Ahn, J. S. Park, S. H. Baik, D. J. Chung, H. C. Jang, K.-A. Kim, I.-K. Lee, K. W. Min, M. Nam, T. S. Park, S. M. Son, Y.-A. Sung, J.-T. Woo, K. S. Park, M.-K. Lee
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  • Pharmacokinetic comparison of a new glimepiride 1-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation and a glimepiride 2-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, two-way crossover study in
    Bo-Hyung Kim, Kwang-Hee Shin, JaeWoo Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyu-pyo Kim, Jung-Ryul Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Sang-Goo Shin, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu
    Clinical Therapeutics.2009; 31(11): 2755.     CrossRef
Current Status of the Continuity of Ambulatory Diabetes Care and its Impact on Health Outcomes and Medical Cost in Korea Using National Health Insurance Database.
Jaiyong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Hwayoung Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Seok Won Park, Ie Byung Park, Jeong Hyun Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Jee Young Oh, Sunhee Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Kyung Mook Choi, Injeoung Choi, Dae Jung Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):377-387.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.377
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  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The continuity of care in chronic diseases, especially in diabetes, was emphasized from many studies. But large scale studies with long-term observation which confirm the impact of continuity of care on health outcomes are rare. This study tried national level 3 year observation to find differences in hospitalization, mortality and medical costs among patient groups with different utilization pattern. METHODS: The 1,088,564 patients with diabetes diagnosis and diabetes drug prescription in 2002, from 20 to 79 years old, and survived until the end of 2004 were included. Annual drug prescription days, number of visited clinics and quarterly continuity of care were measured. Gender, age group, living area, health insurance premium level (as a proxy of the income level), years of first DM diagnosis, five co-morbidities (hypertension, heart disease, stroke, renal disease, admission with DM), hospitalization experience and the type of main attending clinic were adjusted. Hospitalization, mortality and high costs group (top quintile) in 2005 were predicted by multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: Patients who failed in continuity of care in 2003 and 2004 showed higher hospitalization (OR =1.29), higher mortality (OR =1.75) and they are more likely to be high costs group (OR =1.34) in 2005 than who fulfilled the continuity of care. Patients who have single attending clinic also showed lower hospitalization, lower mortality and lower cost. Completeness in diabetic drug prescription were correlated with lower hospitalization, lower mortality but with higher cost. Possible cost saving from continual care with single attending clinic was estimated at Won 417 billion (Dollar 1 = Won 943.7). Possible expenditure from complete drug prescription was Won 228 billion. So, net saving was Won 139 billion in our study population. CONCLUSION: Continual care and single attending clinic saves patient's life and national costs. Fragmented primary care system in Korea should be reformed for more effective care of chronic diseases. National Health Insurance Database in Korea enables nationwide long-term observation study which overcomes the many limitations found in hospital-based studies and cross-sectional surveys.

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    Ye-Jee Kim, Nam-Kyong Choi, Mi-Sook Kim, Joongyub Lee, Yoosoo Chang, Jong-Mi Seong, Sun-Young Jung, Ju-Young Shin, Ji-Eun Park, Byung-Joo Park
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Current Status of Diabetic Foot in Korean Patients Using National Health Insurance Database.
Choon Hee Chung, Dae Jung Kim, Jaiyong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Hwayoung Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Seok Won Park, Jeong Hyun Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Jee Young Oh, Sunhee Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Injeoung Choi, Ie Byung Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):372-376.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.372
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Foot ulcer diseases are more prevalent in diabetic patients than that those of non-diabetic patients. Several reports showed the risk of amputation and the medical cost were increased when foot ulcer developed. Therefore, strict glycemic control from the initial period of diabetes is necessary. Since there is no enough epidemiologic data, large scaled studies for medical and economic consequences about diabetic foot ulcer are needed. METHODS: This study was based on health insurance claims submitted to the National Health Insurance Review Agency during the period from December 1994 through December 2002. We investigated the incidence and medical cost of foot disorders in Korean population using the disease-classification codes on the health insurance claim forms. RESULTS: The incidences of foot disorders (per 100,000 of population) were 49.7 for amputations, 99.7 for ulcers, and 1,051 for injuries in diabetic patients, and 4.2 for amputations, 10.3 for ulcers, and 943 for injuries in non-diabetic patients. Relative risk of the incidences of foot amputation, ulcer, and injury in diabetic patients comparing with non-diabetic patients were 11.7, 9.7, and 1.1, respectively. Total medical costs (per capita) of foot amputation, ulcer, and injury in diabetic patients were 2.0, 1.7, and 2.1 times higher, respectively, than those of non-diabetic patients. Mean hospital stay of foot amputation, ulcer, and injury in diabetic patients were 1.6, 1.3, and 1.7 times more, respectively, than those of non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: In diabetic patients, the incidences of foot amputation and ulcer are higher than those of non-diabetic patients. To reduce those incidences, we need to early strict glycemic control as well as government based management.

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    Chong Rye Song, Yong Soon Kim, Jin Hyun Kim
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    Ie Byung Park, Jaiyong Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Jee-Young Oh, Seok Won Park, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Kyung Wan Min, Jeong Hyun Park, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Hwayoung Kim, Sunhee Lee, Im Bong Lee, Injeoung Choi, Sei Hyun Baik
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Current Status of Aspirin User in Korean Diabetic Patients Using Korean Health Insurance Database.
Ie Byung Park, Dae Jung Kim, Jaiyong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Hwayoung Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Seok Won Park, Jeong Hyun Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Jee Young Oh, Sunhee Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Injeoung Choi, Kyung Mook Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):363-371.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.363
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AbstractAbstract PDF
AIMS: ADA guidelines recommend aspirin for all patients with diabetes who have had a prior CHD events as well as a primary prevention strategy among those with at least one other risk factor. We examined the current status of regular aspirin intake among Korean adults who diagnosed as diabetes. METHODS: This study examined the characteristics of aspirin user in new-onset diabetes over 40 years based on health insurance claims submitted to the Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) of Korea during the period from January 2001 through December 2003. New onset diabetes defined as the first health insurance claim of antidiabetic drugs submitted to HIRA for the three months (January to March 2001) that never submitted for previous 6 years. RESULTS: The number of total new-onset diabetic patients was 30,014 in 2001, 29,819 in 2002, and 32,061 in 2003. The incidence rate of diabetes over 40 years for 3 months in 2001, 2002 and 2003 were 0.172%, 0.167% and 0.18. Mean age of women who diagnosed diabetes were significant higher than that of men in 2001 (women 59.2+/-10.6 yrs, men 54.8+/-9.8 yrs), in 2002 (women 59.5+/-10.6 yrs, men 54.6+/-9.3 yrs) and in 2003 (women 59.6+/-10.7 yrs, men 54.7+/-9.9 yrs) (p < 0.001). The number of aspirin user increased from 2,065 (6.9%) in 2001, 2,638 (8.9%) in 2002 and 3,711 (11.6%) in 2003. 30.5% of new-onset diabetics in 2001 had hypertension, 12.4% of them had hypercholesterolemia, 11.8% of them had cerebral infarct, 2.6% of them had cerebral hemorrhage, 3.8% of them had coronary heart disease and, but, 55.6% of them had not any CVD. Logistic regression analysis using aspirin use as a dependent variable showed that the number of aspirin use in patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cerebral infarct and coronary heart disease was higher than in patients without those (hypertension [OR], 3.89 (95% CI, 3.52~4.31); hypercholesterolemia [OR], 2.16 (95% CI, 1.90~2.46; cerebral infarct [OR], 2.05 (95% CI, 1.82~2.30); coronary heart disease [OR], 9.41 (95% CI, 8.20~10.80), respectively). Coronary heart disease was the most important associated factor of aspirin use. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant underuse of aspirin therapy among our population compared with that of America. Major efforts are needed to increase aspirin use in diabetic patients.

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  • Evaluation of low-dose aspirin for primary prevention of ischemic stroke among patients with diabetes: a retrospective cohort study
    Ye-Jee Kim, Nam-Kyong Choi, Mi-Sook Kim, Joongyub Lee, Yoosoo Chang, Jong-Mi Seong, Sun-Young Jung, Ju-Young Shin, Ji-Eun Park, Byung-Joo Park
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Current Status of Diabetic End-Stage Renal Disease Using Korean Health Insurance Database.
Dae Jung Kim, Jaiyong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Seok Won Park, Ie Byung Park, Jeong Hyun Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Jee Young Oh, Sunhee Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Kyung Mook Choi, Injeoung Choi, Hwayoung Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):355-362.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.355
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetes is becoming one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. We studied the prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the Korean population based on health insurance claims submitted to the Health Insurance Review Agency. We also investigated the proportion of medications taken by the ESRD patients, and frequency of hospital admission or visits, and medical expenses between ESRD patients with and without diabetes. METHODS: This study was based on health insurance claims submitted to the Health Insurance Review Agency during the period from January 2001 through December 2003. Using the disease-classification codes on the health insurance claim forms, those who were diagnosed with chronic renal disease (N18 or N19) and received dialysis-related treatment (Z49), treatment with a kidney dialysis machine (Z99.2), or kidney transplantation (Z94.0) were defined as ESRD patients. Among the ESRD patients, those who were diagnosed with diabetes (E10-E14) and/or took anti-diabetic drugs were defined as ESRD patients with diabetes. RESULTS: The ESRD patients totaled 33,870 in 2001, 37,894 in 2002, and 41,167 (858.3 per million population) in 2003. ESRD patients with diabetes increased to 56.7% in 2003. The number of ESRD patients in whom renal replacement therapy was initiated was 8,134 in 2002 and 8,322 (173.5 per million population) in 2003. ESRD patients with diabetes used more anti-hypertensive drugs (1.2 times as many), lipid-lowering drugs (1.6 times), and anti-platelet agents (1.8 times) than did ESRD patients without diabetes. In 2003, 66.5% of the ESRD patients with diabetes were hospitalized, which was 1.6 times the hospital admissions of ESRD patients without diabetes. ESRD patients with diabetes also had hospital stays that were 1.6 times longer per patient and inpatient service expenses that were 1.6times greater per patient, compared with those reported for ESRD patients without diabetes. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ESRD accompanied by diabetes has risen rapidly. Given the burden of medical treatment costs placed on ESRD patients with diabetes, more aggressive interventions should be implemented to prevent diabetes and renal complications among patients with diabetes.

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    Sun Hee Beom, Moo Kyung Oh, Chul Woo Ahn
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  • Diabetes Epidemics in Korea: Reappraise Nationwide Survey of Diabetes "Diabetes in Korea 2007"
    Ie Byung Park, Jaiyong Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Jee-Young Oh, Seok Won Park, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Kyung Wan Min, Jeong Hyun Park, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Hwayoung Kim, Sunhee Lee, Im Bong Lee, Injeoung Choi, Sei Hyun Baik
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Relation between Cerebral Arterial Pulsatility and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Jong Suk Park, Chul Sik Kim, Hai Jin Kim, Ji Sun Nam, Tae Woong Noh, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Yul Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):347-354.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.347
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic patients have a 3-fold risk for cerebrovascular disease compared with nondiabetic controls. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of insulin resistance with pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral arteries in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We compared a group of 90 patients with stroke free, type 2 diabetes and an age- and sex-matched control group of 45 healthy subjects without diabetes. Diabetic patients were divided into 3 groups according to the ISI (insulin sensitivity index). We evaluated PI of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and insulin resistance determined by short insulin tolerance test. RESULTS: The PI was significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in healthy controls (P < 0.05), and also higher in patients with insulin resistance than that in insulin sensitive diabetic patients (P < 0.05). The PI of the MCA was significantly correlated with age (r= 0.465, P < 0.01), duration of diabetes (r = 0.264, P = 0.025), hypertension (r = 0.285, P = 0.015) and inversely correlated with insulin resistance (r = -0.359, P = 0.030).Multiple regression analysis was performed with PI as a dependent variable and insulin resistance as an independent variable along with known clinical risk factors. Age (beta = 0.393, P < 0.01) and duration of diabetes (beta = 0.274, P = 0.043) exhibited a significant independent contribution to PI. CONCLUSIONS: PI might be useful markers of the detection of diabetic cerebrovascular changes and insulin resistance, measured with short insulin tolerance test, showed correlations with PI, but age and duration of diabetes contributed independently to the variability in the PI.

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  • Factors Affecting Basilar Artery Pulsatility Index on Transcranial Doppler
    Ho Tae Jeong, Dae Sik Kim, Kun Woo Kang, Yun Teak Nam, Ji Eun Oh, Eun Kyung Cho
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Effects of PPAR-alpha and-gamma Agonists on Fatty Acid Metabolism of Muscle Cells in Hyperlipidemic and Hyperglycemic Conditions.
Yong jik Lee, Zheng Shan Zhao, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Wan Sub Shim, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):324-335.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.324
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Studies for the regulation of fatty acid metabolism are deficient relatively in skeletal muscle and heart. The investigations in pathological conditions for malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) and for the relation of MCD and PPAR-alpha.-gamma agonists are insufficient in particular. METHODS: In the current study, fully differentiated H9c2 muscle cells were exposed to pathological conditions such as hyperlipidemic (0.1 mM Palmitate) and hyperglycemic (16.5 mM Glucose) condition with 5 uM PPAR-gamma agonist (rosiglitazone) and 10 uM PPAR-alpha agonist (WY14,643) and then experiments such as MCD activity assay, MCD real-time RT-PCR, MCD reporter gene assay, MCD Western blotting, PPAR-alpha Western blotting, and palmitate oxidation test were carried out. RESULTS: Only PPAR-alpha agonist increased MCD activity. In the result of real-time RT-PCR, both PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma agonists elevated MCD mRNA expression in hyperlipidemic condition. MCD protein expression was decreased in hyperlipidemic condition, however, increased in rosiglitazone, or WY14,643 treated conditions. Rosiglitazone, and WY14,643 treated groups showed incresed MCD protein expression in hyperglycemic condition. Hyperlipidemic control group and PPAR-alpha.-gamma agonists treated groups presented about 3.8 times more increased palmitate oxidation level than normolipidemic control group in hyperlipidemic condition. PPAR-alpha agonist treated group showed 49% more increased palmitate oxidation rate than hyperlipidemic control group in primary cultured rat skeletal muscle cells. The amount of palmitate oxidation from differentiated H9c2 muscle cells that had overexpressed PPAR-alpha structural genes was more increased than control group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that PPAR-alpha agonist ameliorates the defects induced by hyperlipidemic condition through the regulation of MCD. In summary, a closely reciprocal relation among PPAR-alpha agonist, MCD, and fatty acid oxidation existed distinctly in hyperlipidemic condition, but not in hyperglycemic condition.

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    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(9): 1257.     CrossRef
Efficacy Evaluation of Atorvastatin in Korean Hyperlipidemic Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Dong Seop Choi, Duk Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Seong Yeon Kim, Moon Suk Nam, Yong Soo Park, Ho Sang Shon, Chul Woo Ahn, Kwan Woo Lee, Ki Up Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Bong Yeon Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):292-302.   Published online July 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.4.292
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
NCEP ATP III Guideline recommends aggressive treatments of diabetic dyslipidemia, recognizing diabetes mellitus as CHD risk equivalents. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of atorvastatin in hyperlipidemic patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus through post-marketing drug use investigation of atorvastatin. METHODS: An open, multi-center, non-comparison, titrated dosage study was conducted in hyperlipidemic patients, who were treated with atorvastatin at first visiting hospitals from Mar. 2004 to Sep. 2004. 96 endocrinologists participated from 66 centers in this study. Total 2,182 hyperlipidemic patients were enrolled and 1,514 patients among them were accompanied by diabetes mellitus. Efficacy was evaluated at later than 4-week treatment by % change of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol from baseline. Percent of patients reaching LDL-cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL was also analyzed. The adverse events incidence and abnormalities of clinical laboratory values were evaluated for safety monitoring. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol level were reduced by 26.6%, 12.0%, and 34.8%, respectively, in diabetic hyperlipidemic patients after atorvastatin treatment. The patients with LDL-cholesterol level of less than 100 mg/dL were increased from 2.8% to 52.6%. Atorvastatin was considered to be safe because adverse drug reactions were reported in 32 patients (1.5%) of total 2,182 patients. CONCLUSION: Atorvastatin was effective and safe in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  • Response: A Retrospective Study on the Efficacy of a Ten-Milligram Dosage of Atorvastatin for Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:359-67)
    Dong Kyun Kim, Sa Rah Lee, Min Sik Kim, Suk Hyang Bae, Jin Yeon Hwang, Jung-Min Kim, Sung Hwan Suh, Hye-Jeong Lee, Mi Kyoung Park, Duk Kyu Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(1): 88.     CrossRef
  • A Retrospective Study on the Efficacy of a Ten-Milligram Dosage of Atorvastatin for Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Dong Kyun Kim, Sa Rah Lee, Min Sik Kim, Suk Hyang Bae, Jin Yeon Hwang, Jung-Min Kim, Sung Hwan Suh, Hye-Jeong Lee, Mi Kyoung Park, Duk Kyu Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 359.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Plasma HDL-Cholesterol Level with Cardiovascular Disease Related Factors in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hye Sook Hong, Jong Suk Park, Han Kyoung Ryu, Wha Young Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2008; 32(3): 215.     CrossRef
Long-term Effect of Pioglitazone Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Jae Hoon Moon, Hye Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Wan Sub Shim, Eun Seuk Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):264-276.   Published online July 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.4.264
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and/or insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones have been shown to ameliorate insulin resistance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long term serial effect of pioglitazone on anthropometrics and metabolic parameters in Korean type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: One hundred thirteen type 2 diabetes patients (male, 67; female, 46; mean age, 49.1+/-10.8 years) were evaluated before and after 3 months, 6 months and 12 months of treatment with pioglitazone (Actos(TM), 15 mg/day). Anthropometric parameters and metabolic variables were measured. RESULTS: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were increased in 3 months after pioglitazone treatment (body weight, 68.8+/-12.2 vs 69.8+/-11.9 kg, P < 0.01) without further increase. In women, body weight and BMI tended to increase more (body weight change after 3 months, 0.6+/-1.7 kg vs 1.6+/-1.7 kg, P < 0.01) and longer (3 months vs 6 months) than in men. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c were decreased in 3 months after pioglitazone treatment (FPG, 7.97+/-2.29 vs 6.94+/-2.01 mmol/L, P < 0.01; HbA1c, 7.7+/-1.5 vs 7.0+/-1.1%, P < 0.01). Hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone was prominent in women than in men (FPG change after 12 months, -1.80+/-2.54 vs -0.09+/-1.72 mmol/L, P < 0.001; HbA1c change after 12 months, -0.9+/-1.3 vs -0.4+/-1.1%, P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased after 3 months of pioglitazone treatment (1.16+/-0.24 vs 1.31+/-0.28 mmol/L, P < 0.01) without return until the end of this study. Serum triglycerides level decreased at 3 months (basal vs 3 months, 2.29+/-1.86 vs 1.88+/-1.21 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and 6 months (basal vs 6 months, 2.29+/-1.86 vs 1.97+/-1.40 mmol/L, P < 0.05) of pioglitazone treatment, but returned to basal level at 12 months. Liver enzyme, especially serum alanine transferase level decreased after 3 months of pioglitazone treatment (30.8+/-23.7 vs 24.5+/-18.5 IU/L, P < 0.01) without return until the end of this study. Hypoglycemic effect of pioglitazone was associated with basal BMI, fat contents and serum leptin level. CONCLUSION: Korean type 2 diabetes patients with pioglitazone use showed favorable metabolic effect for glycemic control, lipid metabolism and liverfunction, but pioglitazone induced body weight increase may be limited.

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  • Therapeutic Effect of Quadruple Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Who Have Insulin Limitations
    Won Sang Yoo, Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Hyun Kyung Chung
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(2): 117.     CrossRef
The Relationship between Visceral & Subcutaneous Fat and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):207-216.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.207
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BACKGROUND
Visceral obesity is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Small dense (sd) LDL is closely associated with CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentration. METHODS: 264 type 2 diabetic patients underwent ultrasonography to estimate visceral & subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentrations were measured. RESULTS: BMI, total cholesterol, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in male than those in lowest tertile. BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in female than those in lowest tertile. But sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were not different among three groups based on the tertile of subcutaneous fat length in male and female. Visceral fat length was correlated with sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, but negatively with percentage of large buoyant LDL-C and HDL-C after adjustment of age, sex and BMI. Subcutaneous fat length was not correlated with sd LDL-C and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C. CONCLUSION: The association between visceral fat length and sd LDL-C could be a factor that explains the association between visceral obesity and CVD.
Effects of Pioglitazone on Cerebral Hemodynamics in Patients of Type 2 Diabetes.
Jong Suk Park, You Jung Lee, Chul Sik Kim, Hai Jin Kim, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Yul Lee, Hyeong Jin Kim, Young Jun Won, Hun Ju Ha, Hae Sun Kwak, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(2):96-103.   Published online March 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.2.96
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BACKGROUND
Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and pioglitazone has been reported to have antiatherogenic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pioglitazone affects carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and pulsatility index (PI) in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A total of 40 type 2 diabetic patients were included and divided into two groups: the pioglitazone-treated group (pioglitazone 15 mg/day with gliclazide 80~320 mg/day for 12 weeks) (n = 20) and control group (gliclazide 80~320 mg/day for 12 weeks) (n = 20). The changes in lipid profile, insulin resistance, IMT, and PI were monitored to determine that pioglitazone improves cerebrovascular blood flow. RESULTS: The pioglitazone treatment significantly increased HDL-C, reduced triglyceride, insulin resistance and PI. IMT tended to decrease but the change was not significant. This study revealed that treatment with pioglitazone was associated with the improvement of cerebrovascular blood flow. CONCLUSIONS: Pioglitazone appears to be effective for the improvement of cerebrovascular blood flow in type 2 diabetic patients
The long term effects of rosiglitazone on serum lipid concentration and body weight.
Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(1):17-24.   Published online January 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.1.17
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BACKGROUND
Although rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, is known to have beneficial effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, it has adverse effects on the increment of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and body weight in some studies. Such adverse effects of rosiglitazone on the serum lipid profiles and body weight seem to be attributed to the fact that most studies with rosiglitazone are limited to a short period of follow up. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of rosiglitazone on the serum lipid levels and body weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated fasting serum glucose, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, HDL-C and body weight at baseline and every three months after rosiglitazone usage (4mg/d) in 202 type 2 diabetic patients. RESULTS: TC levels had increased maximally at 3 months and thereafter decreased, but were significantly higher at 18 months than those at baseline. LDL-C levels from the first 3 months to 12 months were significantly higher than those at baseline, but after 15 months, LDL-C concentration was not significantly different from the basal LDL-C concentration. HDL-C levels had increased after first 3 months and the increment of HDL-C concentration were maintained. The increment of HDL-C was more prominent in patients with low basal HDL-C concentration than in patients with high basal HDL-C concentration. Body weight from 3 months to 18 months were higher than that at baseline, but after 3 months, body weight did not increase furthermore significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse effects on lipid concentration and body weight of rosiglitazone may attenuate after long term usage of rosiglitazone.
Clinical Characteristics of Non-obese, Adult-onset Diabetes Requiring Insulin Treatment.
Se Eun Park, Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Eun Seok Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):557-565.   Published online November 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical characteristics of non-obese, adult-onset diabetes requiring insulin treatment and to compare the different characteristics of the three groups categorized according to diabetes classification. METHODS: Total 128 diabetic patients who were non-obese (BMI < 25kg/m2) and had been diagnosed with diabetes after 20 years old, requiring insulin treatment were enrolled in the study. We divided the patients into three groups : 56 patients with type 1, 37 with unclassifiable, and 35 with type 2 diabetes. The type of diabetes was assigned by comparing serum C-peptide concentration and clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: Type 2 and unclassifiable diabetes had no differences in BMI, the interval to use insulin, daily insulin dose, the level of HDL cholesterol and the positive rate for GAD Ab, but type 1 diabetes didn't. However, type 1 diabetes and unclassifiable group was lower prevalence of microvascular complications than type 2 diabetes (retinopathy 38.2, 52.8, 84.8 % ; nephropathy 37.7, 36.7, 74.2 % ; neuropathy 36.7, 36.7, 72.7 %, P<0.05). The prevalence of macrovascular complications was higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes (11.1, 29.4, 72.7 %, respectively, all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics were similar between unclassifiable and type 2 diabetes, but the prevalence of microvascular complication in unclassifiable group had no significant difference compared with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of macrovascular complications was significantly higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes.
The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):548-556.   Published online November 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and with characteristic dyslipidemia which is composed of high level of triglyceride, low level of HDL-C and increased small dense LDL (sd-LDL). Recently a simple method was established for the quantification of sd-LDL-C using heparin-magnesium precipitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the sd-LDL-C and the number of components of MS in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 287 type 2 diabetic patients, who did not use the medication which can affect the concentration of lipid such as statin, fibrate, thiazolidinediones and corticosteroid, were enrolled. The NCEP-ATP III criteria of MS were used except obesity. RESULTS: Although LDL-C concentrations were not changed according to the number of components of MS, absolute level and percentage of sd-LDL-C were increased. Although LDL-C concentrations were not different between presence and absence of MS, in the case of MS, absolute level and percentage of sd-LDL-C were higher than not in the case of MS. Sd-LDL-C concentration was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and percentage of sd-LDL-C, and negatively with HDL-C. The percentage of sd-LDL-C was positively correlated with total cholesterol, triglyceride and sd-LDL-C, and negatively with HDL-C. CONCLUSION: The sd-LDL-C may a factor that explains the higher risk of CVD in diabetic patients with the MS.
The Association of Family History of Diabetes and Obesity in the Development of Type 2 Diabetes.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Seung Jin Han, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):540-547.   Published online November 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. Type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic basis, and obesity is also known as a important risk factor for development of diabetes. The relative effects of obesity and family history of diabetes (FHx) to develop diabetes have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze the relative role of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in the newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients according to the presence of FHx and obesity. METHOD: We evaluated the presence of FHx, fasting and postprandial glucose, C-peptide and insulin in 219 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients without the history of drug therapy from Jan. 2003 to Oct. 2004. RESULT: The mean age of patients was 54.7+/-10.2(yr) and the mean BMI was 25.5+/-3.0 kg/m2. The patients with FHx develop diabetes earlier than them without FHx. BMI, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, fasting C-peptide and HOMAIR value were not different between groups. But postprandial C-peptide, fasting insulin, postprandial insulin and HOMAbeta-cell value were significantly lower in patient with FHx than in them without FHx. Interestingly, obese (BMI > or = 25kg/m2) patients with FHx developed diabetes earlier than nonobese (BMI <25kg/m2) patients with FHx. CONCLUSION: Obesity plays an important role in the determination of the earlier onset of diabetes in patients with FHx. Intentional prevention of obesity may be an important means to prevent, at least delay, the onset of diabetes in the subjects with FHx.
The Association Between White Blood Cell Count and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Wan Sub Shim, Hae Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Shin Ae Kang, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):460-468.   Published online September 1, 2005
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BACKGOUND: Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and inflammation is also closely associated with cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell count, which is a marker of systemic inflammation, has been found to correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the WBC count in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 606 patients (males 318, females 288, BMI 25.6+/-3.2 kg/m2 and duration of diabetes 4.8+/-5.9year) were enrolled. The WBC and differential counts, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS: According to the quartiles of the WBC count, the number of components of metabolic syndrome and percentage of patients with metabolic syndrome were increased in the highest WBC count quartile. The WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts increased with increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome, but not that of the basophil count. The WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were higher in patients with metabolic syndrome than in those without. The WBC count was found to be positively correlated with the waist circumference(gamma=0.090), systolic blood pressure(gamma=0.090), diastolic blood pressure(gamma=0.104), triglyceride(gamma=0.252), insulin(gamma=0.168) and HOMAIR(gamma=0.170), but negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(gamma= -0.167)(P<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Chronic inflammation, as indicated by a higher than normal WBC count, may increased with the increasing number of components of metabolic syndrome.
Association of Haplotype Combinations of Calpain-10 Gene Polymorphisms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes.
Eun Seok Kang, Hye Joo Kim, Sung Min Myoung, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Moonsuk Nam
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):451-459.   Published online September 1, 2005
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OBJECTIVE: Patients with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The combinations of the haplotype created by the alleles of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): SNP-43, SNP-19, and SNP-63 of the Calpain 10 gene (CAPN10), have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in many populations. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the CAPN10 polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome in Korean patients with T2DM. METHODS: Overall, 382 T2DM patients were enrolled in this study. All the subjects were genotyped according to CAPN10 SNP-43, SNP-19 and SNP-63. The restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used for the three SNPs. The baseline presence of the components of metabolic syndrome was determined. RESULTS: 265 (69.4 %) patients were found to have metabolic syndrome. Patients with the 111/121 haplotype combination showed a higher risk of hypertension than the other haplotype combinations (OR=2.334, P=0.010) and also had a significantly higher risk of having metabolic syndrome (OR=1.927, P=0.042). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest a role of the novel 111/121 haplotype combination created by the CAPN10 SNPs -43, -19 and -63 in the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of T2DM patients.
Clinical Meaning of Postprandial Insulin Secretory Function in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Se Eun Park, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):367-377.   Published online July 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Impaired pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postprandial insulin deficiency is closely related with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and insulin responses to meals, but most studies examining postprandial beta-cell responsiveness have been limited by the small number of type 2 diabetic patients examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting and postprandial insulin secretions in relation to the duration of diabetes, BMI and glycemic control in a large number of patients with variable disease durations. METHODS: We evaluated the fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HbA1c, BMI, postprandial 2 hour glucose, insulin and C-peptide in 1,170(male 662, female 508, age 54.6+/-1.6 years, duration of diabetes 5.2+/-6.3 years, BMI 25.4+/-3.3kg/m(2)) type 2 diabetic patients. The delta C-peptide, delta insulin, fasting(M0) and postprandial(M1) pancreatic beta-cell responsiveness were also calculated. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their duration of diabetes, BMI, and fasting and postprandial C-peptide levels. After adjusting for age, sex and BMI, the correlation of diabetes and HbA1c were correlated parameters. RESULTS: In the group of patients whose duration of diabetes was longer than 10 years, the BMI, fasting, postprandial and delta C-peptide, and M0 and M1 were significantly lower, but age, fasting and postprandial glucose, as well as HbA1c were significantly higher than those in the other groups. There were no significant differences in the fasting and postprandial glucose and HbA1c according to their fasting C-peptide tertiles. However, in the group of patients with the highest postprandial C-peptide tertile, the fasting and postprandial glucose and HbA1c were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The duration of diabetes, after adjustment of age, sex and BMI, was negatively correlated with the fasting, postprandial and delta C-peptide, M0 and M1, but was positively correlated with the fasting and postprandial 2 hour glucose and HbA1c. The HbA1c after adjustment of age, sex and BMI, was positively correlated with duration of diabetes, and fasting and postprandial glucose, but was negatively correlated with fasting postprandial and delta C-peptide, M0 and M1. CONCLUSION: Although the fasting and postprandial insulin secretions were decreased with duration of diabetes, the decrease in the postprandial insulin secretion was more prominent. The postprandial pancreatic responsiveness may be a more important factor in predicting glycemic control in Korean type 2 diabetic patients than the fasting pancreatic responsiveness.
Relationship of LDL Particle Size to IMT and Insulin Resistance in Non-Diabetic Adult.
Jina Park, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Dol Mi Kim, Min Ho Cho, Jee Hyun Kong, Hai Jin Kim, Jeong Ho Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):333-343.   Published online July 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
The aims of this study were to investigate the predictor of the low density lipoprotein(LDL) particle size and the relationship of the LDL particle size to the levels of insulin resistance and the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy Koreans. METHODS: The subjects were 47 and 89 clinically healthy males and females, aged between 32 and 70years, without medications that could potentially alter glucose and lipid metabolisms. The mean LDL particle size was determined by polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis(Lipoprint(r) LDL, Quantimetrix), the insulin resistance using a short insulin tolerance test kit, and the subclinical atherosclerosis from the carotid intima-media thickness. RESULTS: The LDL particle size was found to be significantly correlated with insulin resistance using a simple Pearson's correlation(r=0.233, P<0.01), but the independent predictors of the LDL particle size, as determined by a multiple stepwise regression analysis, were serum triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol level and age(beta=-0.403, P=< 0.001; beta=0.309, P=0.003; beta=-0.219, P=0.016, respectively). Significant relationships were found between an increasing IMT and the traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis: age, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure(r=0.490, P<0.001; r=-0.251, P<0.01; r=0.211, P<0.05; r=0.298, P<0.01; r=0.263, P<0.01, respectively). However, no significant correlation was found between an increasing IMT and the LDL particle size (r=-0.172, P=0.075). CONCLUSION: The best predictors for the LDL particle size were the serum TG level, HDL cholesterol level and age. Insulin resistance was not found to be an independent predictor of the LDL particle size. Small dense LDL was not found to be a predictor of the IMT in healthy Koreans.
Protective Effects of Lithospermate B on Diabetic Nephropathy in OLETF Rat.
Hyun Joo Lee, Geun Taek Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Kyu Yeon Hur, Zheng Shan Zhao, Chul Woo Ahn, Hun Joo Ha, Man Kil Jung, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):322-332.   Published online July 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Magnesium lithospermate B(LAB), an active component isolated from Salvia milltiorrhizae, has been reported to have renoprotective effects in type 1 diabetic animal model. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of LAB on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty(OLETF) rat which is regarded as an animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ten microgram of LAB/kg or Vehicle(PBS) was given orally once daily to 10-week-old male OLETF rats and LETO rats for 40 weeks. Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test was performed at 50 weeks. 24 hr urinary protein excretion amounts were measured. Lipid peroxidation, TGF-beta1 and ED-1 of renal cortex were measured. RESULTS: The mean body weight of LAB+OLETF was not significantly different from that of OLETF rats. LAB treatment decreased proteinuria, lipid peroxidation, and free fatty acid in OLETF rats without decrease in the plasma glucose concentration. Also, LAB inhibited the progression of glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial expansion. LAB effectively decreased ED-1 positive cells, ECM expansion, and TGF-beta1 level in the renal cortex of OLETF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the beneficial effects of LAB on the diabetic renal damage in the OLETF rats may depend on a mechanism of decreasing oxidative stress. LAB might be a new therapeutic agent for the prevention of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes as well as type 1 diabetes.
Resurvey of Alternative Medicine in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after 10Years.
Kyung Wook Lee, Seong Bin Hong, Kee Young Min, Seung Yong Lee, Moonsuk Nam, Yong Seong Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kwan Woo Lee, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):231-238.   Published online May 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Despite tremendous advances in modern medicine, the interest in alternative medicine, including those medicines used for the treatment of diabetes has intensified throughout the industrialized world. We conducted a clinical resurvey of the dlternative medicines used for diabetic treatment, and we compared the results with those from the previous survey. METHODS: From July through October 2004, a total of 1,233 type 2 diabetics attending diabetes clinics in five university hospitals were interviewed and asked 14 questions that were identical to those questions asked 10 years ago during the earlied study. RESULTS: On the average, the respondents, having an average age of 58.9+/-11.4years, suffered diabetes for 8.7+/-7.3years with 7.7+/-1.4% HbA1c. The percentage of patients who experienced using alternative medicine for diabetic treatment plummeted from 73.9% to 33.2% over the last 10 years. Herbal medicine maintained its high popularity with increase an being seen in supplementary food use. The average per-capita spending on alternative medicine changed from 520,000 Korea Won on five types of medicine in 1994 to 730,000 on two types of medicine in 2004. Regarding the information sources, the family and relatives topped the list again(70.3%). Information sources such as mass media almost doubled to 20.2%, and the internet accounted for 1.2% in 2004. The majority of the users said again in 2004 that the medicine was `inefficacious'(63.5%) but those who answered positively inched up by 3.1% from 14.5% in 1994. To the question if they would try a new alternative medicine, the majority answered negatively in 2004(43% of the experienced group, 52.3% of the inexperienced group), and this was unlike the results in 1994 when the positive responses prevailed(78.6% and 72.7% respectively). CONCLUSION: Alternative medicine use among the type 2 diabetic patients has declined in the last 10 years. The patients overall attitude toward alternative medicine has turned negative, and this is primarily attributable the to continuous, proper education by mass media and social groups
Analysis of the Relative Importance of Insulin Resistance and Insulin Secretion Defect by Homeostasis Model Assessment in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Eun Seok Kang, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):206-214.   Published online May 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by defects in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, the relative importance of insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has not been well characterized in any study that has included a large number of subjects. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of insulin sensitivity and the function of the beta cell in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We applied the HOMA model to 1,162 type 2 diabetic patients (654 males and, 508 females) who did not use insulin and we assessed HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell & its relation to the other parameters. RESULTS: The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 2.29(range: 0.31~37.17) and the HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic patients was 32.17(range: 1.04~1310.79). The HOMAIR of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 2.15(range: 0.31~16.6) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 2.47(range: 0.36~37.17). The HOMAbetacell of Korean type 2 diabetic male patients was 30.1(range: 1.04~462.34) and that of Korean type 2 diabetic female patients was 35.42(range: 2.60~1310.79). The HOMAIR and HOMAbetacell were significantly higher in females than males. There was no significant correlation between HOMAIR and age, and the duration of diabetes, but there was significant correlation between HOMAIR and BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. There was no significant correlation between age and HOMAbetacell. However, there was significant correlation between HOMAbetacell and BMI, the duration of diabetes, the fasting glucose, HbA1c and the fasting insulin. The longer the duration of diabetes, the more the HOMAbetacell was decreased but there was no change of HOMAIR with respect to the duration of diabetes. As expected, the subjects with a lower HOMAIR and a higher HOMAbetacell had the best glycemic control. Those with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell had the worst glycemic control although they had taken larger amount of oral hypoglycemic agents. Interestingly, the patients with a lower HOMAIR and higher HOMAbetacell had better glycemic control than those patients with a higher HOMAIR and lower HOMAbetacell. CONCLUSION: Both insulin secretion and insulin resistance are important in glycemic control but it seems that insulin secretion is a more important factor in glycemic control than insulin resistance in the Korean type 2 diabetic patients
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus(Fasting Plasma Glucose by the ADA Criteria) and Impaired Fasting Glucose according to Anthropometric Characteristics and Dietary Habits: 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey.
Chul Sik Kim, Eun Kyong Jeong, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Ji Sun Nam, Hai Jin Kim, Jee Hyun Kong, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Chung Mo Nam
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(2):151-166.   Published online March 1, 2005
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BACKGROUND
The study is based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Korea(1998). With these data, we want to predict the prevalence of diabetes mellitus(DM) and impaired fasting glucose(IFG), By investigating anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake habits, we also wanted to analyze any significant correlation between those factors and the prevalences of DM and IFG. METHODS: The study group was comprised of 8,166 people, a representative group of Koreans, who had undergone a health check-up and food intake survey among the total 39,331 members of 12,189 families who were surveyed. RESULTS: The final results are as the follows. 1) The peak prevalence of DM was 15.92% among women in their sixties and 18.21% among men in their fifties, and that of IFG was found to be 16.27% of women in their seventies and 14.09% of men in their sixties. 2) When analyzing the eating habits and the prevalences of DM and IFG, we found that women with more glucose intake had a lesser risk of DM, but this was of no statistical significance. 3) In men, age, total cholesterol, triglyceride(TG), and hypertension(HTN) were revealed as meaningful factors and in women, age, TG, and HTN were revealed as meaningful factors. As to the IFG, in females, age and TG were meaningful factors, and in males, age, TG, the waist/hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) were meaningful factors. CONCLUSION: Although this study could not demonstrate meaningful correlation between diet habits and DM, the prevalence of IFG and the recent increase in the prevalence of DM in Koreans, owing to alterations in their diet habits, demands further organized group study for a better understanding of their relationship
A Case of Severe Prolonged Hypoglycemia Caused by Combined Ramipril and Amiloride Treatment in a Nondiabetic Woman.
Min Ho Cho, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Joug Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Jin Hyuck Chang, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):554-557.   Published online December 1, 2004
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The relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and hypoglycemia remains controversial. An 82-year-old, nondiabetic woman who had taken ramipril 5 mg with amiloride 5 mg for two months was admitted to the hospital because of her altered mentality. Her plasma glucose was 1.5 mmol/L and she regained her consciousness after normalization of the plasma glucose. The recurrent attacks of hypoglycemia ended when she stopped taking ramipril. Her hypoglycemia was thought to result from the combined deficiency of catecholamines and cortisol that was induced by a deficiency of angiotensin II. The glucagoninsensitivity was thought to result from a chronic elevation of bradykinin due to the ACE inhibitor, and the relative hyperinsulinemia was though to be cased by the amiloride.
Apolipoprotein E Genetic Polymorphism and Diabetic Microangiopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Chul Sik Kim, Dol Mi Kim, Min Ho Cho, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):511-520.   Published online December 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
The pathophysiological causes for the development and progression of diabetic microangiopathy are not well known, but the apo E genetic polymorphism has been proposed to be involved in the disease's development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the apo E genetic polymorphism and diabetic microangiopathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: One hundred eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had a duration of diabetes longer than 8 years were divided into the three apo E groups (the E2, E3 and E4 groups). The plasma levels of lipids were measured. The frequency of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy were compared among the three apo E genotype groups. RESULTS: The frequency of overt nephropathy was significantly greater for the apo E2 patients with diabetes (46.7%) than for the apo E3 (16.7%) or apo E4 patients (10.5%). Logistical regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of the apo E2 and apo E4 genotypes for the presence of overt nephropathy were 4.779 (P < 0.01) and 0.643 (P = 0.583), respectively. Plasma TG levels were significantly greater for the apo E2 patients. This study did not find any association between diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and apo E polymorphism. CONCLUSION: Apo E2 is a positive risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. TG may have an important role in diabetic nephropathy.
The Effects of Lifestyle Modification on the Metabolic Parameters of Type 2 Diabetes.
So Hun Kim, Eun Seok Kang, So Young Park, Suk Jeong Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Ji Soo Yoo, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):441-451.   Published online October 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Lifestyle modification is known to have positive effects on glycemic control and improving the cardiovascular risk factors. Although lifestyle modification is considered to be important in treating diabetic patients, there are few studies concerning the direct effect of lifestyle modification on the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of lifestyle modification on glycemic control, lipid profiles, body indices, serum adiponectin and the hsCRP levels for patients with T2DM in Korea. METHODS: Twenty two patients with T2DM who had no medication changes for the recent 3 months and who also had a HbA1c> or =7.0% were enrolled in a lifestyle modification program. These patients visited Severance Hospital Diabetes Center once every week for 12 weeks, and they were educated about exercise and diet control. Their metabolic and anthropometric parameters were compared with 22 control T2DM patients who were not in the program. RESULTS:Lifestyle modification group patients showed significant decrements in HbA1c (-0.62 +/- 1.29 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.91%, p=0.044), total cholesterol (-0.57 +/- 0.54 vs. -0.06 +/- 0.61 mmol/l, p=0.007), LDL cholesterol (-0.57 +/- 0.62 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.59 mmol/l, p=0.003), body weight (-1.5 +/- 19 vs. 0.2 +/- 1.5 kg, p=0.005) and BMI (-0.6 +/- 0.7 vs 0.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2, p=0.003) compared with the control subjects. HOMAIR, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and hsCRP levels showed no significant difference compared to the control subjects. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification in Korean T2DM patients had positive effects on weight loss, glycemic control, and lipid profiles. These changes imply that lifestyle modification will be helpful for managing DM and its complications.
The Degree of Atherosclerosis and the Metabolic Characteristics according to the Abdominal Obesity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Ji Sun Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Soo Jee Yoon, Jae Hyun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):377-391.   Published online October 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Many of the maturity-onset type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia in Korea are not associated with obesity. However, these patients are at risk for developing macrovascular complications such as atherosclerosis due to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to compare the clinical and biochemical differences between the type 2 diabetic patients that are with and without abdominal obesity, and we also wished to investigate the degree of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in these patients. METHODS: Among 530 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, the percentages of under-weight (UW), normal-weight (NW), over-weight (OW) and obese (OB) (BMI <20, 20-25, 25-29.9 and > or =30, respectively) subjects were 8.9%, 62.1%, 25.1% and 3.9%, respectively. To evaluate the severity of their atherosclerosis, the coronary artery calcification (CAC) score was measured by electron beam computed tomography, and the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) were also measured. The Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured by the plasma glucose disappearance rate (kitt: %/min). RESULTS: 1. There were no differences in age, duration of DM and the HbA1c levels according to BMI for both the men and women, but the waist-hip ratio (WHR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly different among each group. Serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acid (FFA), fibrinogen, and fasting c-peptide levels, {excluding total cholesterol (TC)}, were also significantly different. The ISI, which is a marker for insulin resistance, as well correlated with the patients' BMI. Subjects having an with ISI above 2.5%/min were considered as having insulin resistance, and 28%, 60%, 68% and 75% of patients in the UW, NW, OW and OB groups, respectively, demonstrated insulin resistance. The visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area ratio and visceral fat area/thigh muscle area ratio also increased with BMI. 2. The median values of the WHR were 0.95 for the men and 0.91 for the women. There were no significant differences for age, BMI, duration of DM and HbA1c between patients with and without abdominal obesity, but the SBP, TG, HDL-C, FFA, fibrinogen and ISI were significantly different between those two groups. 3. For the OW group as well as the NW group, the carotid IMT, ABPI and CAC scores were significantly different between the patients with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were no differences between the NW group and the OW group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, those patients with abdominal obesity, regardless of their BMIs, have a higher prevalence for atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, compared to those patients without abdominal obesity. Therefore, it is important to screen for atherosclerosis and to manage it accordingly, for the patients with insulin resistance or abdominal obesity in order to decrease their risk of developing atherosclerotic events.
Role of Activation of NF- B and AP-1 by Oxidative Stress in Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients.
Chul Sik Kim, Geun Taek Lee, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(4):255-264.   Published online August 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of NF- B activation and AP-1 by oxidative stress in atherosclerosis in diabetic patients by measuring the carotid intima-media thickness, intracellular ROS generation and activation of transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). METHODS: Sixty-six patients (28 males, 38 females; age 56.1 13.4 years; duration of diabetes 115.7 83.4 months) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were selected for this study. The DM patients included in this study were divided into those with a normal carotid intima-media thickness (Group II) and those with an increased intima-media thickness (Group III). 57 healthy controls matched for age and sex with the DM patients (Group I) were randomly selected. Dichlorodifluorescein (DCF)-sensitive intracellular ROS was measured by fluorescent spectrometry. The activities of NF- B and AP-1 in PBMCs were measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: No differences were evident between the groups in terms of gender, age, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Spontaneous and H2O2 (or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, PMA) stimulated ROS were significantly higher in the PBMCs from the DM patients with an increased intima-media thickness (Group III) than in those without (Group II), and were also higher in the control group (Group I). Moreover, the activities of NF- B and AP-1 were significantly higher in Group III than in Groups I or II. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intracellular ROS generation, and NF- B and AP-1 activation in PBMCs strongly correlates with the carotid artery IMT. These clinical results suggest that increased oxidative stress in PBMCs may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in DM patients .
Frequency of Anti-GAD Antibody in Non-obese, Adult-onset Type 2 Diabetes in Korea and Clinical and Biological Characteristics According to Anti-GAD Antibody.
Chul Sik Kim, Jina Park, Min Ho Cho, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(2):66-74.   Published online April 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Some of the characteristic features of diabetes mellitus in Korea are that 70-80% of patients are non-obese or adult-onset type, and type 1 diabetes is very rare. Occasionally, autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD) are found in typical, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients(T2DM). The role of the autoantibody to GAD in T2DM is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics between GAD-positive and GAD-negative non-obese, adult-onset diabetics in Korea. METHODS: A cohort of 428 type 2 diabetes patients was included. The measured autoantibodies to GAD were measured, and the C-peptide and HbA1c levels, anthropometric data(weight, height, body mass index and waist circumference), blood pressure and lipid profiles compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared to the antibody-negative group(n=374; 87.4%), patients with the anti-GAD antibody(n=54; 12.6%) had significantly lower C-peptide levels and were significantly younger. The anti GAD-positive group had a lower BMI, more frequently needed insulin supplements, and a lower prevalence of hypertension. There were no significant differences in gender and family history of diabetes between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of the autoantibody to GAD allowed the group with more deteriorated beta-cell function and more frequent need for insulin supplements, but a lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension to be determined.
A Case of Primary Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a Patient Suspected of Having an Insulinoma.
Sung Ju Lee, Jee Hyun Kong, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Chul Sik Kim, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(1):45-50.   Published online February 1, 2004
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Insulin autoimmune syndrome consists of fasting hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and detectable insulin-binding antibodies in patients never been exposed to exogenous insulin. Most affected patients present with other autoimmune disorders, most often Graves' disease. A significant increase in the insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations and the presence of other anti organ antibodies are also observed. Awareness of insulin autoimmune syndrome hypoglycemia is important as this may produce severe neuroglycopenic symptoms, which may be confused with the presence of an insulinoma. The correct diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention in patients who are best treated with conservative support, watchful waiting, or in some cases, immunosuppressive therapy. Herein, a case of autoimmune insulin syndrome, suspected as being an insulinoma is reported.
Efficacy of Serum Leptin Level as an Indicator to Predict the Clinical Response of Rosiglitazone in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jae Hyuk Lee, Soo Kyung Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Han Seok Choi, Ji Young Jung, Wan Sub Shim, Hyun Joo Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(5):420-432.   Published online October 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Leptin is a protein secreted by adipocytes that regulates food intake by acting on the hypothalamus and is correlated with body fat mass. Insulin resistance is also correlated with body fat mass and obesity. Rosiglitazone (RSG) is known as a highly selective and potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). It improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue. This study was performed to evaluate the antidiabetic and insulin sensitizing effects of RSG combination therapy and the efficacy of serum leptin level as an indicator to predict the clinical response of RSG in type 2 diabetic patients with oral agents such as metformin and/or sulfonylurea. METHODS: The study subjects were 140 type 2 diabetic patients (90 male, 50 female) who received a 12-week course of daily 4 mg RSG, in addition to the previous medications. The glucose level, indices of insulin resistance and metabolic parameters were measured. Serum leptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay before and after RSG treatment. Visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were measured by sonography. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of RSG treatment, FPG (12.6+/-28.1 mg/dL), HOMAIR (0.3+/-0.9), serum fasting insulin (1.9+/-4.7 microU/mL), SBP and DBP had all decreased significantly, whereas body weight, BMI, waist circumference, WHR, body fat mass, and subcutaneous fat had all increased. Serum leptin level also tended to increase after RSG treatment, but without significance. deltaFPG (delta=value after treatment- value before treatent) was inversely correlated with basal serum leptin level (r=-0.202), basal HOMAIR (r=-0.226) and basal FPG (r=-0.565). There was no correlation between deltaFPG and basal BMI or serum insulin level. RSG treatment showed significant inverse correlation between serum leptin level and deltaHOMAIR (r=-0.416), delta insulin (r=-0.365) and deltaHbA1c (r=-0.189). Serum leptin level was positively correlated with the subcutaneous fat amount (r=0.548), basal BMI (r=0.521), and basal HOMAIR (r=0.343). CONCLUSION: These results showed that RSG treatment can improve not only hyperglycemia but also insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. The serum leptin level at baseline can be used as an indicator to predict the clinical response of RSG treatment in type 2 diabetes patients.
A Case of Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient with Diabetes Presenting as Foot Ulcer.
Chul Sik Kim, Dae Hoon Song, Jina Park, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Young Kim, Hee Jung Yoon, Dol Mi Kim, Soo Jee Yoon, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(2):165-171.   Published online April 1, 2003
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Antiphospholipid syndrome is a disorder characterized by recurrent vascular thrombosis, pregnancy loss and thrombocytopenia, and the presence of the lupus anticoagulant or a positive anticardiolipin test. A link of antiphospholipid syndrome to diabetes mellitus has not been established. There have been no reports of large artery thrombosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome or diabetes mellitus. We present a case of an adult with large artery thrombosis, elevated anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant associated with diabetes. The patient was managed by successful primary percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent implantation, with accompanying anticoagulation therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case where the occluded large artery was treated with primary stent implantation in primary antiphospholipid syndrome with diabetes mellitus
The Effect of Growth Hormone on Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerotic Risk Factors in Obese Patients with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jae Hyun Nam, Soo Jee Yoon, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Joo Young Nam, Jong Suk Park, Jina Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Suk Won Park, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(2):141-152.   Published online April 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance in visceral obesity constitutes a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients can be improved by a decrease in the visceral fat and an increase in the skeletal muscle, which may influence the insulin sensitivity. Growth hormone (GH) accelerates lipolysis and promotes protein conservation. The effects of GH therapy, with diet restriction, on lipolysis and protein anabolism, were evaluated, which may change body composition, insulin resistance and atherosclerotic risk factors in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Sixteen obese type 2 diabetic patients (31~56yrs), who had high glucose levels (glucose 12.8+/-1.7 mmol/L, HbA1c 10.2+/-2.1%), were treated with recombinant human GH (GH; 1 unit/d, 5 times/week), diet restriction (25 kcal/kg ideal body weight/day) and exercise (250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks. They underwent anthropometric measurement, bioelectrical impedance for total body fat and lean body mass, as well as computed tomography, for visceral and subcutaneous fat, at the umbilicus and muscle area at the mid-thigh levels. All subjects underwent the test for GH response to hypoglycemia. The insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured using insulin tolerance tests (ITT). RESULTS: 1. The visceral fat area (VFA)/thigh muscle area (TMA) ratio was more decreased in the GH-treated group than in the control group, but there was no change of body weight. 2. The ISI was significantly increased in only the GH-treated group, which was negatively correlated with the VFA/TMA ratio. The serum free fatty acid, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly decreased after the GH treatment. The serum glucose level and HbA1c remained unchanged during the GH therapy, but were significantly decreased after 3 months. 3. The total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased in the GH treated group. 4. The insulin-like growth factor-I, fasting c-peptide and insulin level were all significantly increased after the GH treatment. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that in type 2 diabetic patients, with insulin resistance and uncontrolled blood sugar, GH treatment caused a decrease in the visceral fat and an increase in the muscle mass, which could result in the improvement of the ISI, atherosclerotic risk factors and dyslipidemia.
High Sensitive C-reactive Protein and Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Korean Population.
Dae Jung Kim, Seung Hee Choi, Se Hwa Kim, Sang Su Chung, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(1):49-62.   Published online February 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
A chronic inflammatory response is an important component in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Since the development of the high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) assay, the association between subtle increases in the hs-CRP concentration and the development of atherosclerosis, has recently been reported. In this study, the relationship between hs-CRP, conventional cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima media thickness (IMT), were investigated, and whether hs-CRP concentrations analyzed to see if it could be used as an independent risk factor, of early subclinical atherosclerosis in apparently healthy subjects. METHODS: This report was conducted as part of the Korean Metabolic Syndrome Study. Of 1,230 individuals having undergone a routine check-up, 849 were selected, based on their medical history of cardiovascular diseases. The hs-CRP was measured by an ELISA method, using human anti-CRP (CRP II Latex X2, Denka Seiken, Japan). RESULTS: The distribution of the hs-CRP concentration was positively skewed, and the hs-CRP levels ranged from 0.10 to 43.7 mg/L (mean 2.06, median 0.77 mg/L). There were significant positive correlations between the hs-CRP and age, BMI, waist, BP, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the TC/HDL-C ratio. From a multiple regression analysis, independent relationships between the hs-CRP and obesity, hypertension, age ( 60 years), current smoking, male and insulin resistance were found. There were positive correlations between the carotid IMT and age, BMI, waist circumference, SBP, DBP, TC, TG, LDL-C, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP, and a negative correlation between the carotid IMT and the HDL-C. From the multiple regression analysis, independent relationships between the carotid IMT and age, SBP, TC/HDLc, HOMA-IR, waist circumference, and DBP also persisted. After adjusting for the conventional risk factors in the multiple regression, there was no longer a significant relationship between the hs-CRP and the carotid IMT. CONCLUSION: There were strong correlations between the hs-CRP and the conventional cardiovascular risk factors, especially with that of obesity. Also, a highly significant association was also found between the hs-CRP and the carotid IMT. However, the hs-CRP, per se, is not a major independent risk factor of early subclinical atherosclerosis in Koreans.
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome according to the New Criteria for Obesity.
Hae Won Chung, Dae Jung Kim, He Dong Jin, Seung Hee Choi, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):431-442.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
The prevalence of obesity is known to be lower in Asian population than that in Europe. But, the health risks associated with obesity occur at a lower body mass index (BMI) in Asian. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean adult population according to the new criteria for obesity proposed in Asia-Pacific Perspective. METHODS: From individuls, who participated in medical check-up of Korean Association of Health (KAH), 1,230 individuals were included in the analysis. In patients with type 2 diabetes (n=131), subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (n=84), or individuals who have insulin-resistance but show normal fasting glucose (NFG) (n=1015), the metabolic syndrome was defined as presence of at least two of the following components; hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was present in 19% of men and 16% of women. In detail, about 10% in NFG, 50% in IFG, and 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes fulfilled the criteria of metabolic syndrome. In comparison with the lowest tertile of waist circumference and BMI, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased about 13 fold in subjects with the highest tertile. Using a multiple regression analysis, HOMA-IR was associated with an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome (RR=2.23, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The metabolic syndrome, according to the new criteria for obesity in Asian-Pacific Perspective in Korean adult population, is seen as much as Western countries. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia can be suggested as the main causes of the metabolic syndrome.
Polymorphism of the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1alpha Gene in the Early-onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with a Strong Family History in Korea.
Eun Seok Kang, Si Hoon Lee, Zheng Shan Zhao, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kab Bum Huh, Young Soo Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):328-335.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically heterogenous subtype of type 2 diabetes characterized by an early onset, usually before 25 years of age, autosomal dominant inheritance and a primary defect in insulin secretion. Mutation of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha) gene is known to be a cause of MODY3. This study was carried out to reveal whether HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism is a common cause of early-onset type 2 diabetes and MODY in the Korean population. METHODS: Members of 12 pedigrees families with MODY and early-onset of type 2 diabetes were selected for the mutation detection. All of the families involved had at least two members with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before the age of 40 years, where the diabetes was inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with at least 3 generations of diabetic subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole- blood samples. The 10 exons and the promotor of the HNF-1alpha gene were sequenced. RESULTS: In codon 17 of exon 1, 2 of the 10 control subjects and 5 of the 12 patients had nucleotide replacement where the CTC nucleotide was replaced by the CTG (p=0.381). This is a silent mutation where both the CTC and CTG code have the same amino acid leucine. In codon 27 of exon 1, 5 patients had a silent mutation, where the codon ATC is replaced by CTC and the amino acid changes from isoleucine to leucine, but no mutation was found in the control group (p=0.040). In codon 459 of exon 7, 2 of the controls and 3 of the patient group had a silent mutation (CTG -> TTG) that were both codon code leucine (p=1.000). Another missense mutation was observed in codon 487 of exon 7. Nucleotide AGC (serine) was replaced by AAC (asparagines). This mutation was observed in 5 control subjects and 10 patients (p=0.172). CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal a new HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism. We conclude that the HNF-1alpha gene polymorphism does not play a major role in the early-onset of type 2 diabetes with a strong family history in Korea.
Insulin Resistance and severity of coronary artery diseases in Patients with Coronary Artery Diseases.
Dae Jung Kim, Jae Hyun Nam, Dong Hoon Choi, Hyeung Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Se Hwa Kim, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyeong Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(3):189-198.   Published online June 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance (IR) has been identified as a risk factor of atherosclerosis, which may be induced through a mechanism brought about by hypertension, obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and insulin resistance. METHODS: Of 92 subjects having undergone coronary angiography 70 with significantly stenotic coronary artery were designated as the CAD group, with the other 22, without stenosis, as the control group. The CAD group was subdivided into 3 smaller groups according to the severity of their CAD; these being 1-vessel disease (group 1, n=31), 2-vessel disease (group 2, n=25), and 3-vessel disease (group 3, n=14). RESULTS: Kitt for patients with CAD was significantly lower than in the control group, and also for those in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3, 2.72+/-1.29, 2.25+/-0.68 and 2.21+/-0.78%/min, with that of the controls being 3.01+/-1.22%/min p<0.05). There were significant differences between the IR group and the non-IR group in the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (1.09mm vs. 0.87mm, p<0.05), the waist-hip ratio (1.09 vs. 0.93, p<0.05) and the body fat contents (32% vs. 27%, p<0.05).Insulin resistance was assessed by the short insulin tolerance test, and the insulin resistance (IR) group was defined as having a Kitt less than 2.5%/min. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that insulin resistance is an important risk factor for CAD, and is related to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.
Therapeutic Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin on Anemia with Erythropoietin Deficiency in Early Diabetic Nephropathy.
Dae Jung Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hyeung Jin Kim, Yoo Mee Kim, Yong Seok Yun, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyeong Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(5):364-373.   Published online October 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
We have previously reported that reduced erythropoietin (Epo) responsiveness to anemia could explain the anemia in diabetic patients before advanced diabetic nephropathy. Thus, the aim of this randomized prospective study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) on anemia with Epo deficiency in early diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Twenty-nine diabetic patients with the normocytic normochromic anemia of Epo deficiency were randomized into Epo-treatment group (n=20, M:F= 8:12, mean age=52.9+/-9.2) and control group (n=9, M:F=4:5, mean age=53.6+/-12.4). Twenty patients of Epo-treatment group were treated with rHuEpo (Epokine (CheilJedang Co.) 4,000unit/day SC., 3 times/week) for 8 weeks. The Epo- treatment group were divided into the responder or non-responder. Patients with increments in Hemoglobin (Hb) during the follow-up duration was above 2 g/dL, or with the final Hb was above 14 g/dL in men or 13g/dL in women were decided the responder. In order to analyze factors affecting the therapeutic effects of rHuEpo, the clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared between the responder and non-responder group. RESULTS: There was no difference in the clinical and biochemical characteristics between the Epo-treatment and the control group at randomization. The responder group (n=14) had significant increments in Hb, compared to the non-responder group (n=6) or the control group (13.6+/-1.0 vs. 10.1+/-1.5 vs 11.2+/-1.2 g/dL, p < 0.001, respectively). The treatment duration of rHuEpo in the responder group was 4.9+/-2.3 weeks. Among the Epo-treatment group, there was no differences between the responder and the non-responder group in sex, age, duration of diabetes, serum creatinine level, 24 hour urinary albumin excretion rates, HbA1C, frequency or severity of microangiopathy, and serum Epo level. However, the responder group had higher serum ferritin (240.3+/-108.4 vs 25.8+/-3.0 g/L, p<0.05) and transferin saturation level (32.7+/-7.9 vs 21.2+/-5.3 %, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These results concluded that the administration of rHuEpo could be useful in treating anemia with Epo deficiency in early diabetic nephropathy and that the degree of iron storage and functional iron deficiency might affect the therapeutic effects of rHuEpo on this type of anemia.
Significance of Plasma Thrombin-Antithrombin III and Pasmin- 2-Plasmin Inhibitor Complexes in Diabetic Patients.
Kyung Wook Kim, Un Suk Kim, Sang Su Chung, Soo Jee Yoon, Wook Il Park, Jun Hee Lee, Su Youn Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Byung Soo Moon, Kyung Rae Kim, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Soung, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Gap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(5):354-363.   Published online October 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolytic system is known as a predisposing factor of vascular complication in diabetes. Although the pathogenesis is not well known, non-enzymatic glycation reaction and the increase in production of free radicals due to an increased oxidative stress may be linked to the hypercoagulibility and hypofibrinolytic activity. As indices of abnormality in coagulation and firinolysis in peripheral blood, plasma thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) and plasmin- 2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) were measured. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether hypercoagulability exists in diabetic patients with or without vascular complication. METHODS: In our study, we measured plasma thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) and plasmin- 2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) in 101 diabetic subjects and 20 controls. Comparing TAT and PIC levels in diabetic microvascular complication group, diabetic macrovascular complication group and controls, we examined correlation between risk factors associated with diabetic vascular complication. RESULTS: 1. The group with diabetic vascular complication was older than group without complication. There was no significant difference in BMI, blood pressure, HbA1c, blood sugar level, insulin, C-peptide, serum creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, Lp (a) between two groups. The group with diabetic microvascular complication had longer duration of diabetes. 2. Concentration of TAT and PIC were 2.8 1.2 ng/mL, 240.4+/-69.7 ng/mL in controls and 9.5+/-22.6 ng/mL, 472.2+/-258.7 ng/mL in diabetic patients, respectively. TAT and PIC were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control (p<0.001). But TAT/PIC ratio was no significant difference between two groups. 3. In diabetic patients, concentration of TAT and PIC and fibrinogen were respectively 4.1+/-2.4 ng/mL, 362.2+/-272.0 ng/mL, 322.7+/-102.4 mg/dL in group without vascular complication and 5.3+/-4.1 ng/mL, 529.5+/-258.7 ng/mL, 374.9+/-106.2 mg/dL in group with microvascular complication, which group had increase in PIC and Fibrinogen but no significance after correction of age. Concentration of TAT and PIC and Fibrinogen were 6.0+/-4.9 ng/mL, 507.4+/-321.6 ng/mL, 427.1+/-194.7 mg/dL in macrovascular complication, and 10.4+/-6.7 ng/mL, 484.8+/-269.7 ng/mL, 388.4+/-132.4 mg/dL in combined vascular complication which group showed increase of TAT but also had no significant increase after correction of age. 4. In diabetic microvascular complication patients, group of high HbA1c (>8%) (p=0.049) had significant high PIC concentration. In diabetic macrovascular complication patients, group of high HbA1c (>8%) (p=0.042) had significant high total cholesterol concentration. 5. In all diabetic patients, PIC was positively correlated with fibrinogen and HbA1c and negatively correlated BMI (r=0.47, 0.31, -0.25). Only in daibetic patients without angiopathy, TAT was positively correlated with HbA1c (r=0.67). CONCLUSION: In this study, plasma TAT and PIC concentration significantly increased in diabetic patients compared with controls, and PIC was increased in group with microvascular complication, TAT were increased in group with combined micro- macrovascular complication. However, there was no significance relationship existed when correctinf for age. PIC was correlated with HbA1c. TAT was correlated with HbA1c only in the group without angiopathy. Abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis were combined in diabetes, plasma TAT and PIC can be used as an index of vascular complication. Also we found the correlation with the degree of the blood glucose control. Therefore we need follow up study for the possibility of prevention of vascular complication after controlling the blood glucose to age-matched patients.
Atherosclerotic Severity and Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Visceral (Metabolic) Obesity in Korea.
Jae Hyun Nam, Suk Won Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):20-34.   Published online February 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes with hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequently associated with metabolic obesity. It is proposed that such individuals might be characterized by increased insulin resistance and visceral fat, and that macrovascular complications might be more common in these individuals. Thereofer, the aim of this study was to investigate the atherosclerotic severity and risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients with metabolic obesity (MO) in Korea. METHODS: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) score, intima-media thickness (IMT) of common carotid artery, and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) were measured. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was also measured by the plasma glucose disappearance rate (kitt: %/min). RESULTS: 1. Among 530 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, the percent of under-weight (UW), normal-weight (NW), over-weight (OW) and obese (OB) (BMI< 20, 20-25, 25-29.9 and >30, respectively) were 8.9%, 62.1%, 25.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Waist-hip ratio and systolic blood pressure (sBP) were significantly different among the groups according to BMI. Serum triglyceride (TG), HDL-C, free fatty acid (fFA), fibrinogen and fasting c-peptide were significantly different among the groups. The percents of patients with insulin resistance in UW, NW, OW and OB groups were 28%, 60%, 68% and 75%, respectively. The visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area ratio and visceral fat area/thigh muscle area ratio were significantly increased according to ISI. 2. The patients with MO have above the median values of WHR (0.95 in men and 0.91 in women). sBP, TG, HDL-C, fFA,fibrinogen and ISI were significantly different between the patients with MO and the patients without MO. 3. In OW group as well as NW group, carotid IMT, ABPI and CAC score were significantly different between the patients with MO and the patients without MO. However, these were not different between NW group and OW group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study suggest that patients with MO have more advanced atherosclerosis and aggravated risk profiles for atherosclerosis than those without MO, regardless of BMI.
Limitation of Validity of Homeostasis Model Assessment as a Index of Insulin Resistance.
Yong Seok Yun, Seok Won Park, Young Duk Song, Hyo Kyung Park, Oh Yoen Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae Hyun Nam, Su Youn Nam, Bong Soo Cha, Chong Ho Lee, Sumg Gil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(5):541-551.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract
BACKGROUND
Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) had been proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to other complex procedures measuring insulin resistance. We evaluated the validity of HOMAIR, comparing to total glucose disposal rate measured by euglycemic clamp test in 63 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, 21 with impaired glucose tolerance and 47 with type 2 DM. METHODS: HOMAIR and HOMA cell function (Homeostasis model assessment of cell function) were calculated with formula described by Matthews [HOMAIR: fasting insulin ( U/mL) X fasting glucose (mmol/L) / 22.5, HOMA cell function: 20 X fasting insulin ( U/mL) / (fasting glucose (mmol/L) - 3.5)]. 2-hour euglycemic (5 mmol/L) hyper insulinemic (717 pmol/L) clamp test were carried out. RESULTS: The strong inverse correlation (r=-0.658, <0.001) was shown between log transformed HOMAIR and total glucose disposal rates. The agreement of two methodes in the categorization according to insulin resistance was moderate (weighed kappa=0.45). The magnitude of correlation coefficients were smaller in subjects with lower BMI (BMI < 23.7 kg/m2, r = -0.441 vs BMI > or = 23.7 kg/m2, r = -0.693, p = 0.0183), lower HOMA cell function (HOMA cell function < 57.2, r = -0.514 vs HOMA cell function > or = 57.2, r = -0.773, p = 0.0091) and higher fasting glucose levels (fasting glucose < 102 mg/dL, r = -0.697 vs fasting glucose > or = 102 mg/dL, r = -0.59, p = 0.0735). The results of correlation analysis was not significant in diabetics with lower BMI. CONCLUSION: Limitation of validity of HOMAIR should be carefully considered in subjects with lower BMI and lower fasting insulin to glucose levels, such as lean type 2 diabetes with insulin secretory defects.
A Case of Bartter's Syndrome occurring in Diabetes Mellitus.
Jang Yel Shin, Jeung Rae Cho, Do Young Kim, Joon Kye Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae Hyun Nam, Soo Yon Nam, Young Duk Song, Kyu Hun Choi, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Jai Ho Han, Heun Ju Jung
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):90-96.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Bartter's syndrome is characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism without hypertension and edema, Histologically, existing hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cell occurs mostly in childhood or adolescence, and initial presentation in patients over 40 years old of age is very rare. It has been recorded that Bartter's syndrome is associated with glucose intolerance, but not with overt diabetes mellitus. Whether this association is coincidental or causal is uncertain, although hypokalemia can cause glucose intolerance. We experienced a case of Bartters syndrome in 44 years old non-insulin dependent diabetic woman. She improved with potassium supplements along with combination of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor and aldosterona antagonist. We report present case with the review of literature.
The Combined Effects of Protein Malnutrition and Chronic Alcohol lntake on lnsulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Growing Rats.
Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Hae II Lee, Yong Seok Yoon, Jae Kyeung Sung, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):19-36.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
This investigation was performed to examine the combined effects of protein malnutrition and chronic moderate amount of alcohol intake on insulin secretory capacity and sensitivity in growing rats. METHODS: Weanling 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low protein [5%, (wt/wt)] or control (C, 20%) diet from 4 to 12 weeks and alcohol (5g/kg/d) or saline gavage from 8 to 12 weeks. All rats were divided into the 4 groups according to different diet protocols: group 1 (protein-deficient alcohol rats), group II (protein-deficient saline rats), group III (protein-sufficient alcohol rats), and group IV (protein-sufficient saline or control rats), At the age of 12 weeks, we determined the insulin secretory capacity and sensitivity in the 4 different diet groups. RESULTS: The results are summarized as following: 1. Normal weight gain was nearly completely arrested in protein-deficient rats compared to control rats. In protein-sufficient rats, chronic alcohol intake decreased body weight gain. Pancreatic weight adjusted with body weight was not different among the 4 groups, but epididymal fat weight adjusted with body weight was decreased in group II compared to group IV. 2. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance was improved in group I compared to the other groups. Insulin responses to glucose challenge were markedly decreased in group II compared to group IV, but not in group l. 3. Glucose disposal rate during euglycemic clamp test was diminished in group II compared to qroup IV, but there were no differences between group I and group I 3. Glycogen synthase activities of skeletal muscle after 2 hour hyperinsulinemic state were not different among the 4 groups. 4. There were no differences of reserved insulin content of whole pancreas adjusted with pancreas weight among the 4 groups. 5. In light microscopic findings of pancreatic islets, sizes of islets, islet cells and nuclei were decreased in protein-deficlent rats compared to control rats. However, the sizes of islet cells and nuclei were further decreased in group II compared to group l. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that impaired insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity due to protein malnutrition can be restored by chronic, moderate amount of alcohol intake, but these beneficial effects may not be appeared in protein-sufficient state. Therefore, the chronic alcohol intake differently influences glucose metabolism according to individual nutritional status, and further studies for the effects of alcohol intake in lean diabetic patients are required to extrapolate these resuits in human.
Floow-up Study of Clinical and Immunogenetic Chracteristics and Basal C-peptidein Korea Young Age Onset Diabetic Patients.
Hyun Chul Lee, Duk Hi Kim, Jae Hyun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Seong Kil Lim, Kap Bum Huh, Soo Yeon Nam, Seok Won Park, Young Deuk Song, Hyun Soo Kim, Jin Wook Kweon, Kyung Hee Chang, Kyung Rae Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(3):288-298.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
This study was undertaken to observe the changes of basal C-peptide level and to compare the clinical and immunogenetic characteristics in newly dignosed young age-onset diabetics in Korea. We studied predictors effecting the change of insulin secretory capacity in these patients. METHODS: 82 newly diagnosed young diabetic patients (mean age; 23.0+7.1, M:F=46:36) were divided into 3 groups according to the initial fasting serum C-peptide level (Classification I, group 1; C-peptide < 0.6 ng/mL, group 2; 0.6 ng/mL C-peptide <1.2 ng/mL, and group 3; 1.2 ng/mL C-peptide) and reclassified by the follow-up (mean follow-up; 3.7 year) fasting serum C-peptide level. RESULTS: According to the initial fasting serum C-peptide level, 17.1% (14/82) of the patients were classified as group 1, 35.4% (29/82) as group 2, and 47.5%(39/82) as group 3. In group 3, body mass index (BMI, p<0.01) and maximal BMI (p<0.01) at onset, family history of diabetes (p=0.01) and stimulated C-peptide increment were significantly higher than those in group 1 and 2. Presence of urine ketone (p<0.01), history of diabetic keto- acidosis (p<0.01), and frequency of insulin therapy at diagnosis (p<0.01) were significantly lower than those in group 1 and 2. No significant differences in onset age, sex, weight loss at onset, HbA1c, anti GAD antibody and HLA-DR were found among the 3 groups. After certain follow-up periods, 37.8% (31/82) of the patients were reclassified as group 1, 24.4% (20/82) as group 2, and 37.8% (31/82) as group 3 according to the follow-up fasting serum C-peptide level(classification II). All of the patients in group 1 in classification I were reclassified as group 1 in classification II. In group 2, 44.8% were reclassified as group 1 and 17.3% were reclassified in group 3. In group 3, 15.4% (6/39) of patients showed a significant decrease in insulin secretory capacity and were reclassified as type I diabetes, and their predictors for decreased insulin secretory capacity were low BMI at onset, low slimulated C-peptide increment, and antiGAD antibody. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that classification of newly diagnosed young diabetics by fasting C-peptide level is not always easy. Therefore follow-up measurement of C-peptide and consideration of clinical characteristics are needed in discriminating the type of diabetes in these groups of diabetics in Korea.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal